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The name Ptolemy or Ptolemaeus may refer to:
- Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) (c. 100 AD – c. 170), a Greek-Egyptian polymath, astronomer, geographer, historian, mathematician, and astrologer
- Ptolemy I Soter (c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great who founded and ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt
Ptolemy, or Ptolemaeus, or Tolomeo (Italian spelling) may also refer to:
- 1 Etymology
- 2 People
- 3 Places
- 4 Science
- 5 Arts and Music
- 6 Fiction
- 7 References
According to Georg Autenrieth, the English name Ptolemy comes from the Ancient Greek name Πτολεμαῖος (Ptolemaios), "warlike" or "son of war". Autienrieth renders the meaning of the name to be an adjective from πτόλεμος (ptólemos), explained as a Homeric Greek form of πόλεμος (pólemos), "war". A nephew of Antigonus I Monophthalmus was called Polemaeus, the normal form of the adjective. Ptolemaios is first attested in Homer's Iliad and is the name of an Achaean warrior, son of Piraeus, father of Eurymedon.
The name Ptolemaios varied over the years from its roots in ancient Greece, appearing in different languages in various forms and spellings. The original form, and some of the variants, are listed here in the languages relevant to the history of the name.
|Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ptolemaîos|
- Latin: Ptolemaeus
- German: Ptolemäus, Ptolemaios
- Italian: Tolomeo
- English: Ptolemy
- Ancient Egyptian: ptwȝlmys
- Coptic: ⲡⲧⲟⲗ
- Hebrew and Aramaic Talmai
- Arabic: بَطُلِيمُوس Baṭulīmūs
Ptolemais is formed from this name by the Greek feminine adjectival ending -i(d)s.
Early Greek rulers and generals named Ptolemy
- Ptolemy (King of Thebes) (12th century BC) – mythical ruler of the ancient Greek city of Thebes
- Ptolemy of Aloros (ruled 368 to 365 BC) – Regent of Macedon
- Ptolemy (somatophylax) (died 334 BC) – Macedonian bodyguard and general of Alexander the Great
- Ptolemy (son of Seleucus) (died 333 BC) – Macedonian bodyguard and general of Alexander the Great
- Ptolemy (son of Philip) (4th century BC) – Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great
- Ptolemy (general) (died 309 BC) – Macedonian general and nephew of Antigonus I Monophthalmus
- Ptolemy (son of Pyrrhus) (295–272 BC) – A son of king Pyrrhus of Epirus
- Ptolemy of Epirus (died 235 BC) – King of the Greek frontier kingdom of Epirus
Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty (rulers)
The Ptolemaic dynasty, of Macedonian origin, ruled Hellenistic Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. The kings of this dynasty were all named Ptolemy. See Ptolemaic dynasty for details of their reigns and other ruling members of the dynasty. See also: Legacy of Ptolemy I Soter.
- Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) – Macedonian general of Alexander the Great
- Ptolemy II Philadelphus (308 BC–246 BC) – Son and successor to Ptolemy I
- Ptolemy III Euergetes
- Ptolemy IV Philopator
- Ptolemy V Epiphanes
- Ptolemy VI Philometor
- Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
- Ptolemy VIII Physcon
- Ptolemy IX Lathyros
- Ptolemy X Alexander I
- Ptolemy XI Alexander II
- Ptolemy XII Auletes
- Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
- Ptolemy XIV
- Ptolemy XV Caesarion (47 BC–30 BC) – last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt
Legacy of Ptolemy I Soter
- Ptolemaic dynasty – Egyptian ruling dynasty founded by Ptolemy I Soter
- Ptolemaic Kingdom – the kingdom founded by Ptolemy I Soter.
- Ptolemais (disambiguation) – various places and people named after members of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty (descendants)
There were several members of the Ptolemaic dynasty that did not become senior rulers of Egypt. Some of them became rulers of other kingdoms. Many of the dates and other details about these Ptolemies are uncertain.
- Ptolemy Keraunos (died 279 BC) – eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter. Eventually became king of Macedon.
- Ptolemy Andromachou (3rd century BC) – probable illegitimate son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
- Ptolemy Epigonos (299/298 BC-240 BC) co-ruler with Ptolemy Philadelphus as he was his nephew and adopted son, later deposed.
- Ptolemy Eupator – co-ruler with Ptolemy VI Philometor; probably his son. Probably died within months.
- Ptolemy II of Telmessos (flourished 3rd century BC & 2nd century BC) – grandson of Ptolemy I Epigone.
- Ptolemy Apion (died 96 BC) – son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon. Made king of Cyrenaica. Bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome.
- Ptolemy of Cyprus (died 58 BC) – son of Ptolemy IX Lathyros. Probable king of Cyprus.
- Ptolemy Philadelphus (son of Cleopatra) (born 36 BC) – son of the Roman general Mark Antony and the Egyptian Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII.
- Ptolemy of Mauretania (reigned 21-40 AD) – grandson of Cleopatra VII. King of Mauretania and an ally of Rome.
Other people named Ptolemy or Tolomeo
- Ptolemy (ca. 90 AD–ca. 168 AD), known in antiquity as Claudius Ptolemaeus; a writer, geographer, mathematician, astronomer and astrologer who lived in the Alexandrine Greek culture of Roman Egypt. See also: Legacy of Claudius Ptolemaeus
(and, in approx. chronological order)
- Ptolemy Macron (ca. 170 BC), governor of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia.
- Ptolemy (son of Dorymenes) (ca. 166 BC), a soldier in the Seleucid Empire under Lysias.
- Ptolemaeus of Commagene (d. ca. 130 BC), satrap and then first King of Commagene
- Ptolemy (son of Abubus), governor of Jericho (ca. 130 BC) in the First Book of the Maccabees; instigated the death of Simon Maccabees; and for whom Dante named the section of Hell reserved for traitors to guests ('Ptolemaea')
- Ptolemy (son of Mennaeus) (rule ended ca. 40 BC), governor of biblical Abilene, a district of the disputed region of Coele-Syria
- Ptolemy (Acts of Peter), a character in the Acts of Peter, who was a rich man trying to marry the daughter of Saint Peter (d. ca. 68 AD)
- Ptolemaeus Chennus (2nd century AD), a grammarian who lived in the Alexandrine Greek culture of Roman Egypt
- Ptolemaeus and Lucius (d. ca. 165 AD), Christian martyrs
- Ptolemy (gnostic) (ca. 180 AD), a religious philosopher who was active in Roman Italy and Gaul.
- Ptolemy-el-Garib (ca. 300 AD), a Peripatetic pinacographer whose 'Life of Aristotle survives in Arabic translation
- Ptolemaeus Secundus, a Latin nickname for the Arab polymath Ibn al-Haytham (ca. 965–ca. 1040)
- Ptolemy I of Tusculum (d.1126), a count of Tusculum who asserted his family's descent from the Roman Julii.
- Ptolemy II of Tusculum (d.1153), a count of Tusculum who married Bertha, daughter of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
- Tolomeo da Lucca (Italian spelling of Ptolemy) (ca. 1227 – ca. 1327), also known as Bartholomew of Lucca, a historian and Dominican
- Bernard Tolomeo (Italian spelling of Ptolemy) (1272–1348), founder of the Olivetan Roman
- Franciscus Ptolemaeus or Francesco Tolomei, 17th. century Italian erudite, author of Vetustalia seu Vetustatis admiranda, (1664). Rome: Ignatius de Lazaris (Catholic religious order)
- Francesco Tolomei (Italian variant of Ptolemy) (1762 – 1831), Italian writer, author of a Guide to Pistoia (1821)
- John Baptist Tolomei (Italian variant of Ptolemy) (1653–1726), Jesuit theologian and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
- Ptolemy Tompkins (born 1962) – American author
- Ptolemy Dean (born 1968) – British architect, author, and television consultant
- Barry Ptolemy (born 1969) – American film director and producer
Legacy of Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy)
- 4001 Ptolemaeus – an asteroid named for Claudius Ptolemaeus
- Geocentric model#Ptolemaic system – astronomical worldview as described by Ptolemy
- Ptolemaeus (lunar crater) - a crater on the Moon named for Claudius Ptolemaeus
- Ptolemaeus (Martian crater) - a crater on Mars named for Claudius Ptolemaeus
- Ptolemy Cluster – the star cluster now called Messier 7 described by Ptolemy
- Ptolemy Project (computing) – a computing project named for Ptolemy, started in the 1980s and based at the University of California, Berkeley, USA
- Ptolemy's theorem – mathematical theorem described by Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus)
- Ptolemy's world map – map of the ancient world as described by Ptolemy
- Ptolemy Project – a project started in 2001 to allow surgeons in Africa to access medical texts in the online library of the University of Toronto, Canada; inspired by the medical library of Alexandria, founded by Ptolemy I Soter
- Ptolemy Project - a project started in the early 1990's at the University of California, Berkeley that is an ongoing project aimed at modeling, simulating, and designing concurrent, real-time, embedded systems.
Arts and Music
- The Ptolemy (1934) – a large reed organ built by the American composer Harry Partch. This may have been named in tribute to Claudius Ptolemaeus, who summarized the musical work of philosophers like Pythagoras
- Tolomeo (the Italian spelling of Ptolemy) – an opera by Handel, composed in 1728, set in Egypt C108 BC, when Ptolemy IX Lathyros deposed his mother and joint ruler of Egypt, Cleopatra III, for his younger brother who reigned as Ptolemy X Alexander I
- Tolomeo desk lamp (the Italian spelling of Ptolemy) – an iconic desk lamp design produced for the Italian company Artemide in 1986
- Alderman Ptolemy Tortoise, a character in The Tale of Mr. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter
- CBS-70 Ptolemaios (aka Ptolemy) - A unique space-based mobile suit carrier used by the privately owned paramilitary organization Celestial Being in the 2007 anime television series "Mobile Suit Gundam 00". Destroyed at the end of Season One, it is replaced by the newer CBS-74 Ptolemaios 2 by the beginning of Season Two (2008). The Ptolemaios 2 is later upgraded into the Ptolemaios 2 Kai for the concluding movie "Mobile Suit Gundam 00 the Movie: A Wakening of the Trailblazer" (2009)
- Claudius Ptolemaeus is featured as a wizard called Ptolemy, on a magical collectible card in the fictional Harry Potter universe
- Ptolemy's Gate (published 2005) – the third book in The Bartimaeus Trilogy, a fantasy series by the English author Jonathan Stroud. The series includes a character called Ptolemy, from 2nd century BC Ptolemaic Egypt, who is nephew to Ptolemy VIII and cousin to Ptolemy IX
- Ptolemaic Terrascope – magazine (founded 1989). The name was inspired by "Ptolemy the turtle, who lives at Terrascope Towers". Various artworks and logos feature an astronomer peering through a 'terrascope', so Ptolemaic may here refer to Claudius Ptolemaeus
- Πτολεμαῖος. The meaning of the name Ptolemy seem to be a matter of strife; in accordance with Georg Autenrieth, A Homeric Dictionary, on Perseus
- πόλεμος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- The change from polemos to ptolemos is an example of a type of linguistic compounding called terpsimbrotos. The pt- in ptolemos (vs. earlier polemos) "war" is thought to arise from a re-analysis of the compound word *phere-t-polemos, metathesised to phere-ptolemos. George Dunkel, "Two old problems in Greek: ptolemos and terpsimbrotos", Glotta 70 (1992).
- Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great  by Waldemar Heckel
- Homer, Iliad, 4.228, on Perseus
- Bartholomew the Apostle is thus thought to have been the son of a Ptolemy.
- Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern invention; the Greeks distinguished them by nickname. The number given here is the present consensus; but there has been some disagreement about which Ptolemies should be counted as reigning. Older sources may give a number one higher or lower, but the same epithet.
- Billows, Kings and colonists: aspects of Macedonian imperialism, p.110
- Bengtson, Griechische Geschichte von den Anfängen bis in die römische Kaiserzeit, p.569
- Ptolemaic Genealogy: Ptolemy ‘the Son’
- He is also identified as Ptolemy ‘the Son’ or Ptolemy Nios, Ptolemy son of Lysimachus, Ptolemy of Telmessos and Ptolemy ‘the Brother’