Psilocybe mairei is a species of mushroom in the family Hymenogastraceae. It is found in Algeria and Morocco and contains the medicinal compound psilocybin. The oldest example of rock art suggesting use of psychedelic mushrooms might depict P. mairei. In 1992, the Italian ethnobotanist Giorgio Samorini reported finding a painted mural from Tassili n'Ajjer, in the Sahara desert in southeast Algeria dated 7000 to 9000 BCE portraying mushrooms, later tentatively identified as P. mairei.
- Gastón Guzmán , John W. Allen , Jochen Gartz (1998). "A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion" (pdf). Annali del Museo civico di Rovereto (14): 189–280.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (on Fondazione Museo Civico di Rovereto)
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- Akers BP, Ruiz JF, Piper A, Ruck CA (2011). "A prehistoric mural in Spain depicting neurotropic Psilocybe mushrooms?". Economic Botany. 65 (2): 121–8. doi:10.1007/s12231-011-9152-5.