|Toronto PCC streetcars|
Class A15 PCC 4549 rebuilt from class A8
|Manufacturer||Canadian Car and Foundry (classes A1–A8)|
|Family name||Presidents' Conference Committee|
|Constructed||1938–1951 (classes A1–A8)|
|Capacity||46; crush load: 134 max.|
|Operator(s)||Toronto Transit Commission|
|Line(s) served||Toronto streetcar system|
|Weight||37,400 lb (17,000 kg) (empty)|
|Traction system||4 × 48 hp or 36 kW continuous,|
4 × 55 hp or 41 kW one hour (rating)
|Acceleration||4.3 mph/s (6.9 km/(h⋅s))|
|Deceleration||3.6 mph/s (5.8 km/(h⋅s)); emergency 9.0 mph/s (14.5 km/(h⋅s))|
|Electric system(s)||600 V DC Overhead trolley wire|
|Minimum turning radius||36 ft (10.973 m)|
|Track gauge||4 ft 10 7⁄8 in (1,495 mm) Toronto gauge|
Capacity, weight, traction system, acceleration, deceleration, etc. are specific to the A8 class and may be different for other cars.
The Presidents' Conference Committee Car was a streetcar used by the Toronto Transportation Commission and the Toronto Transit Commission. The PCC streetcar was designed by the Presidents' Conference Committee, a group of transit operators in the United States and Canada.
The TTC purchased 745 PCC streetcars in all, making it the largest PCC fleet in North America. Of that, 317 were air-electric (with air-compressor) and 428 all-electric (no air-compressor); 540 ordered new and 205 used (from several U.S. operators abandoning streetcar service). 175 PCCs had couplers for multiple-unit operation, and the TTC used them to assemble 2-car PCC trains. (The TTC had only a maximum of 744 PCCs in service because car 4063 was scrapped after it derailed and crashed into a carhouse wall in 1947.) Today, only two PCCs remain in Toronto, bearing the original 1951 fleet numbers of 4500 and 4549, for charters and special events.
Most of the PCCs were scrapped, with some becoming stationary structures such as restaurants, shops or farm sheds. Other retired TTC PCC cars were purchased for preservation by other organizations, such as rail museums, a few of which continue to operate Toronto PCCs on their own museum rail lines. Five ex-Toronto cars continue to operate on the Kenosha Electric Railway, a new heritage streetcar line, in Kenosha, Wisconsin.
The TTC had two broad types of PCCs: Air-electric and all-electric. Air-electric PCCs were built until 1945; all-electrics after 1945. Air-electrics used an air system to operate doors and brakes while the all-electrics had no air functions as all its components were electrically operated. The all-electrics had a different styling that usually made them easily distinguishable from air-electrics. A major visual difference was that the all-electrics (except the ex-Kansas City PCCs, A14-class) had standee windows, which none of the air-electrics had.
The TTC ordered 100 air-electrics (A7-class) with couplers for two-car multiple-unit operation. Later it installed couplers on 75 PCCs purchased second-hand from Cleveland (classes A11 and A12). MU-trains operated during the rush hours on the Bloor streetcar line between 1950 and 1966, and on the Queen streetcar line, today's 501 Queen, between the Neville and Humber loops, from 1967 to early 1977. The theory was that a two-car train could load/unload at a stop and pass through an intersection as fast as a single car. In 1960, there were 55 PCC-trains operating on the Bloor line operating on frequencies as little as 129 seconds. Two-car trains could only be run on lines specially prepared for such operation. Trains had two trolley poles contacting the overhead; thus, necessary-action contacts on the overhead wire had to be relocated. (NA-contacts relay an operator command to change a track switch setting.) Neville Park Loop on the Queen streetcar line (today 501 Queen) had to be rebuilt to broader radius to handle two-car trains.
The first PCC acquisitions, classes A1 to A8, were for new PCCs, with each class representing a separate order to the manufacturer. PCCs ordered new by the TTC were built in Montreal, Quebec by Canadian Car and Foundry under license from the St. Louis Car Company of St. Louis, Missouri. The car body shells and trucks were fabricated by St. Louis Car Company, and shipped to Canadian Car and Foundry, who then installed the components and completed the cars.
Initially, the first 3 PCC classes were numbered PC1, PC2 and PC3. However, by 1944, they would be renamed to A1, A2 and A3.
The first order for PCCs (class PC1, later renamed as A1) was placed in March 1938 for 140 air-electric cars. At this time, this was the largest PCC order placed to date in North America, although it would be surpassed by a later order from Chicago. They replaced 27 wooden ex-TRC cars and 30 3-door class Q "Harvey" trailers. The new PCCs first went into service on 23 September 1938 along the St. Clair streetcar line (today's 512 St. Clair.
In the fall of 1940, the TTC ordered 50 class PC2 (later A2) cars. The PC2 cars went into service on 24 September 1940 along the King streetcar line (today 504 King). The TTC retired 30 more ex-TRC cars and another 30 Harvey trailers.
By March 1942, the TTC received its third PCC order (class PC3, later A3) of 60 cars. This class had technological improvements over the first two classes such as super-resilient wheels.
In March 1942, the TTC wanted to order 60 more PCCs. However, due to war-time rationing, it received only 15, arriving in January and February of 1944. These class A4 cars were assigned to the St. Clair Carhouse, and boosted service on existing lines. The final 25 air-electric PCCs that the TTC ordered (class A5) arrived in 1945. Because of war-time shortages, both class A4 and A5 cars had lower quality components for passenger fixtures, that were replaced after the war. The A5 cars permitted the replacement of Peter Witt streetcars on the Dupont streetcar line.
The next three PCC orders came after the war, and were for all-electric PCCs. The TTC wanted to retire its 195 remaining wooden ex-TRC cars built between 1911 and 1917.
The TTC ordered its first 100 all-electric PCC cars in May 1946. These A6 cars arrived from December 1947 to the spring of 1948. The new cars were assigned to the Bloor and Carlton (today 506 Carlton) routes displacing their air-electric cars to other routes.
The next order (to become the A7 class) were for 100 multiple-unit PCCs to be assigned to the busy Bloor streetcar line. These cars would later be supplemented by second-hand cars from Cleveland (classes A11 and A12) fitted with couplers.
The final order the TTC made for new PCC cars was delivered in 1951. There were only 50 cars purchased for class A8 because by this time new PCCs were much more expensive to buy. The A8 class was the third last order for new PCCs in North America, with only orders from Boston and San Francisco remaining to be completed. The arrival of the A8 class provided enough streetcars to retire the last of the wooden, class BB streetcars that the TTC inherited from the Toronto Railway Company in 1921.
In 1951, the TTC still had 348 Peter Witt cars and 105 trailers. Since the Yonge streetcar line used only 70 Peter Witt trailer trains, the opening of the Yonge subway (part of today's Line 1 Yonge–University) in 1954 would in itself not allow the retirement of the remaining Peter Witt fleet. The TTC wished to avoid the high cost of buying new PCCs; thus, it had started to search for second-hand PCCs from U.S. transit operators closing out streetcar operations.
In 1950, the TTC acquired 50 all-electric PCCs (class A9) and 27 older air-electrics (class A10) from the Cincinnati Street Railway. Both sets of ex-Cincinnati cars were built by the St. Louis Car Company. In Cincinnati, these cars all had two trolley poles like for a trolley bus. The TTC removed one of the two poles.
In 1952, the TTC purchased 75 all-electric PCCs from the Cleveland Transit System. Fifty were built by Pullman-Standard becoming class A11 (dubbed "Cleveland"), and twenty-five by the St. Louis Car Company becoming class A12 ("Louisville"). Each class had roof housing for fan equipment, a feature which the TTC chose to disable. The housing gave the cars a distinctive appearance, with each class having a distinctively different style of housing. The A12 ex-Louisville cars were built for the Louisville Railway Company but were never put into service there. The cars were sold to the Cleveland Transit System as deliveries to Louisville were being made, the last 10 of the 25 "Louisville" cars being shipped directly to Cleveland.
Also in 1952, the TTC purchased 48 all-electric PCCs from the Birmingham Electric Company. These class A13 ("Birmingham") cars were built by Pullman-Standard. In Birmingham, Alabama, these PCCs had the notoriety of having racially-segregated seating, a practice that ceased with their shipment to Toronto.
In 1957, the TTC purchased 30 all-electric PCCs from the Kansas City Public Service Company, and became class A14 ("Kansas City"). These are the only all-electric PCCs not to have standee windows as the president of Kansas City Public Service wanted "none of those little apertures". The A14 cars supported only one-piece front rollsigns. Because of this, the A14 cars would show only destinations for the St. Clair and Earlscourt routes (today 512 St. Clair) effectively confining the A14 cars to the St. Clair streetcar line.
The "Kansas City" PCCs became the TTC's final purchase of second-hand PCC streetcars. At this time, only Mexico City had more second-hand PCCs.
The TTC had to modify all its second-hand PCCs to its standards. The work included:
- Regauging to TTC gauge.
- Adding Necessary Action circuits (an exclusively Toronto feature) to activate track switches.
- Removing or sealing (A14) backup controls.
- Removing one of the two poles from the ex-Cincinnati cars (A9 & A10).
- Adding treadle-operation to A9, A11, A12 and A13 cars.
- Modifying doors to fold outward, if not so configured.
- Adding the green advance light on the roof above the front rollsigns.
- Removing ventilation fans from A11 and A12 cars.
- Adding two couplers each to A11 and A12 cars.
By 1958, there were still 132 Peter Witt streetcars in service despite the presence of 744 PCC streetcars. The opening of the University subway extension (part of today's Line 1 Yonge–University) in 1963, and the closure of the Oakwood and Dupont streetcar lines ended Peter Witt operation, making the Toronto streetcar fleet 100% PCC.
In the late 1980s, as CLRVs (Canadian Light Rail Vehicle) were replacing the aging PCC fleet, the TTC started to create a new class of PCC cars, the A15 class, by rebuilding A8-class cars. By 1992, it had rebuilt 19 PCCs for use on the new Harbourfront streetcar line (part of today's 509 Harbourfront route). However, in 1995, the A15 class PCCs were retired because the new CLRV fleet could handle the ridership, which had declined by that time.
The class A15 cars were numbered 4600–4618; however, two cars (4604 and 4605) were painted with their original A8-class numbers for historical accuracy. Thus, officially they were 4604 and 4605, but publicly they were known as 4500 and 4549, respectively. These two cars were classified as A15H ("H" for "historical") and were restored as closely as possible to their original condition. These are the only two PCCs remaining in Toronto, and they are used for charters and special events.
Rail grinder trains
The TTC constructed two rail grinder trains from two pairs of PCC cars retired from passenger service. One train was adapted for the subway system and the other was for the streetcar system.
In 1970, the TTC converted two class A7 PCCs (4446 and 4410) into a subway rail grinder train (renumbering the cars as RT-14 and RT-15). The cars were modified for the third-rail based subway system. The two cars were operated coupled back-to-back, and operators could access either car from within the train. The front two doors were modified so that one door opened at platform level while the other opened closer to the ground. A centre platform-level door was added on the left side of each car. The original centre doors and many of the windows of the former streetcars were blocked off. This train was retired in 1989.
About 1974, the TTC converted two class A11 PCCs (4631 and 4668) into a streetcar system rail grinder train (renumbering the cars as W-30 and W-31). W-31 had its brake shoes replaced by rail grinding blocks. W-30 pulled the train and provided braking power. The train's last rail grinding job was in 1999; in 2002, the two cars were donated to the Halton County Radial Railway.
|Class||Builder||Description||Fleet numbers||Class size||Year built||Year retired||Notes|
|A8||CC&F||All-electric||4500–4549||50||1950–1951||1992||19 cars rebuilt to become Class A15|
|A9||St. Louis||All-electric||4550–4574||25||1947||1982||Ex-Cincinnati Street Railway 1150–1174); purchased 1950|
|A10||St. Louis||Air-electric||4575–4601||27||1939–1940||1975||Ex-Cincinnati Street Railway 1100–1126; purchased 1950.|
|4625–4674||50||1946||1982||ex–Cleveland Transit System 4200���4249; purchased 1952|
|4675–4699||25||1946||1982||ex-Cleveland Transit System 4250–4274,|
ex-Louisville Railway Company 501–525; purchased 1952
|A13||Pullman||All-electric||4700–4747||48||1946–1947||1983||ex-Birmingham Electric Company 800–847; purchased 1952|
|A14||St. Louis||All-electric||4750–4779||30||1946–1947||1977||Ex-Kansas City Public Service Company 526 535 551 727 740 747 749 754 756 757 760 762 765 767 769 771 773 775 776 778 779 780 782 784 785 789 790 792 793 794;|
|A15||TTC||All-electric||4600–4618||19||1986–1991||1995||Rebuilt from A8-class cars: 4505 4512 4537 4548 4500 4549 4528 4536 4544 4526 4541 4540 4543 4503 4509 4518 4515 4539 4501;|
4601 rebuilt by Can Car Rail; 4604 & 4605 retain original numbers 4500 & 4549
|RT-14 & RT-15||2||1970||1989||Subway rail grinding train; rebuilt from A7-class 4446 and 4410.|
|2||1976||2002||Surface rail grinding train; rebuilt from A11-class 4631 and 4668.|
|CC&F||Canadian Car and Foundry|
|St. Louis||St. Louis Car Company|
|TTC||Toronto Transit Commission|
|20 August 1938||The first PCC delivery, class PC1 (later renamed to A1) cars 4001 and 4002, arrived at the Hillcrest Complex.|
|24 September 1938||The St. Clair route (today's 512 St. Clair became the first route in Toronto to have PCC service.|
|18 July 1939||The Carton route (today's 506 Carlton) was converted to all-PCC operation.|
|1 December 1939||PCCs replaced all Peter Witt streetcars on the Bloor and Dundas (today 505 Dundas) routes.|
|24 December 1939||As 50 Class PC2/A2 PCC's were being delivered, PCCs went into base service on the King route (today's 504 King).|
|1 May 1941||Base PCC service begins on the Queen route 501 Queen.504 King).|
|3 February 1942||As 60 Class PC3/A3 PCC's were being delivered, PCCs went into base service on the Bathurst route (today's 511 Bathurst).|
|13 January 1944||Fifteen class A4 PCCs started to arrive. Due to war-time rationing, this was the smallest PCC order.|
|19 March 1945||The final class A5 PCCs arrive. Due to war-time rationing, the class had only 25 cars.|
|1 February 1948||As 100 all-electric Class A6 PCC's were being delivered, they began service on the Bloor streetcar line displacing air-electric PCCs and class P Peter Witt cars.|
|24 April 1949||As 100 Class A7 PCC's were being delivered, they went into service on the Bloor streetcar line ultimately displacing all A6-class PCCs. Although the A7-class PCCs had couplers, they were initially operated singlely.|
|13 March 1950||The first two-car trains went into service on the Bloor route during peak periods using A7-class PCCs.|
|15 October 1950||The first of ex-Cincinnati cars, Class A10 air-electric 4597, entered service with its first trip being a rail-fan charter.|
|23 October 1950||The first three class A9 (ex-Cincinnati) PCCs (4550, 4551 and 4556) went into service.|
|31 January 1951||The class A8 PCCs start to arrive at the Hillcrest Complex. In 1950, the TTC wanted to purchase 100 more cars from CC&F, but balked at the increased price and cut the order to 50 cars. The A8 deliveries would allow the TTC to retire the last wooden streetcars it had inherited from the Toronto Railway Company in 1921.|
|28 November 1952||The class A12 ex-Louisville PCCs purchased from Cleveland went into service lead by PCC 4693.|
|15 February 1953||PCC 4657, class A11 ex-Cleveland, became the first PCC built by Pullman-Standard to go into service in Toronto. At this time, the TTC installed couplers on only two of these: 4627 and 4656 because of a shortage of parts.|
|28 April 1953||The class A13 ex-Birmingham PCCs went into service lead by PCC 4729.|
|29 April 1954||Ex-Cleveland A11 and A12 PCCs retrofitted with couplers for multiple-unit operation were moved from the Hillcrest Complex to Danforth Carhouse.|
|6 June 1958||The final A14 ex-Kansas City streetcar goes into service. On this date, the TTC PCC fleet size was at its maximum size of 744 cars.|
|28 February 1963||The University subway (part of today's Line 1 Yonge���University) opens, resulting in the closure of the Dupont streetcar route along Bay Street which in turn allowed the retirement of the remaining Peter Witt streetcars. At this point, the TTC streetcar fleet was 100% PCC.|
|26 February 1966||The Bloor–Danforth subway line (today Line 2 Bloor–Danforth) replaced the busy Bloor streetcar line as well as 4 other streetcar routes. All-electric PCCs that formerly served the Bloor route displaced air-electric streetcars on surviving routes. The TTC retired 225 of its 310 air-electric PCCs.|
|17 July 1968||The final batch of retired air-electric PCCs were transferred to Toronto harbour for shipment to Alexandria, Egypt. The Alexandria Region General Transport Administraion paid $1,500 for each of the 140 cars it received since 1966.|
|9 June 1969||Class A1 PCC 4000 (the first Toronto PCC built but the eleventh delivered) was shipped to the Halton County Radial Railway for preservation. This occurred in the midst of a mass PCC scrapping program.|
|20 February 1972||A6-class PCC 4362, the first of 173 rebuilt PCCs, made its first run on a railfan trip after being outshopped. The rebuild program, to extend car-life by 5–10 years, would cost $3.1 million and involve 79 A6, 45 A7 and 49 A8-class PCCs.|
|25 October 1976||The last A14 (ex-Kansas City) car in service, PCC 4779, made its last run. Class A14 was the first group of second-hand PCCs to be fully retired, as these PCCs had been poorly maintained in Kansas City and were a maintenance problem in Toronto.|
|30 September 1979||The first Canadian Light Rail Vehicle goes into service, starting the replacement of PCCs.|
|17 March 1982||The PCC fleet consisted of 172 rebuilt and 24 unrebuilt cars for a total of 196 cars.|
|30 April 1982||The TTC retired A13-class, ex-Birmingham PCC 4703. It was the last unrebuilt PCC, and also the last second-hand PCC, in service.|
|6 March 1986||A8-class PCC 4512 was sent to the UTDC's facilities in Kingston for conversion into the first A15-class PCC (4600).|
|27 February 1989||The TTC decided to repaint all their A15-class PCCs in their original colours, a project completed on 22 June 1992.|
|22 May 1990||Nine A15-class PCCs inaugurate service on the 604 Harbourfront route (later 510 Spadina)|
|31 May 1991||Class A7 PCCs 4460 and 4494, the last PCCs outside of the A15 class, made their last run.|
|7 December 1995||PCCs made their last run in regular service. The TTC continue to retain PCCs 4500 and 4549 for special occasions. All other A15-class PCCs were sold off to outside parties for preservation.|
After their retirement, several of the TTC's PCCs were sold for different purposes.
|Operator||TTC Class||Car numbers|
|Alexandria, Egypt||A1||4002 4005 4006 4007 4011 4022 4023 4026 4027 4034 4036 4037 4043 4049 4056 4068 4069 4070 4082 4087 4090 4093 4094 4095 4099 4101 4103 4108 4111 4113 4114 4115 4116 4118 4121 4126 4127 4131 4134|
|A2||4151 4155 4156 4157 4160 4162 4164 4167 4169 4170 4172 4174 4178 4181 4183 4184 4185 4188 4190 4192 4193 4195 4195 4196|
|A3||4200 4201 4202 4205 4209 4210 4211 4212 4213 4217 4218 4221 4222 4223 4224 4225 4229 4231 4232 4233 4235 4236 4238 4239 4240 4242 4244 4248 4249 4250 4251 4254 4255 4256 4258|
|A4||4260 4262 4263 4264 4265 4266 4267 4268 4270 4272 4273 4274|
|A5||4276 4277 4278 4279 4280 4281 4282 4283 4287 4288 4293 4295 4297 4298 4299|
|A10||4575 4576 4577 4579 4580 4581 4582 4583 4584 4585 4587 4588 4590 4591 4592 4598|
|Purchased 1968. Originally numbered 901 to 1027, in random order. (13 of the 140 cars never entered service.) 28 cars converted to two-car trains in 1975–1975 and renumbered 600–627. 57 cars converted to double-ended three-car trains in 1972–1978 and renumbered 301–357. All withdrawn by 1984.|
|Transportes Eléctricos de Tampico, Tampico, Mexico||A3||4226 4228 4247 4253|
|A10||4578 4586 4589 4593 4597 4599|
|Purchased 1971–1972. System abandoned on 13 December 1974.|
|SEPTA, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||A13||4706 4707 4709 4710 4711 4718 4724 4726 4727 4728 4729 4731 4732 4734 4740 4741 4744 4746|
|A14||4750 4751 4756 4759 4761 4762 4765 4767 4772 4773 4779|
|Purchased 1976 for $12,500 each. Renumbered 2300–2318 and 2200–2210, in order. All retired 1981–1983.|
|San Francisco Municipal Railway||A14||4752 4754 4757 4758 4763 4764 4769 4770 4771 4775 4777|
|Purchased 1973. Renumbered SFMR 1190, 1180–1189, in order. Retired 1980.|
|Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (Shaker Heights Rapid Transit)||A11||4630, 4648, 4651, 4652, 4655, 4656, 4662, 4663, 4665|
|Purchased 1978. Retained TTC numbers and couplers. Backup controls added. Retired after arrival of Breda LRVs in 1981.|
|Kenosha Electric Railway||A15||4606 4609 4610 4615 4616 4617|
|Used one at a time on a two-mile (3 km) downtown loop.|
Some museums, such as the Halton County Radial Railway, the Edmonton Radial Railway Society and the National Capital Trolley Museum have preserved Toronto PCCs in working order so that museum visitors can ride them.
|4000||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Operational|||
|4349||Edmonton Radial Railway Society||Edmonton, AB||Stored||Operable, awaiting regauging|
|4367||Edmonton Radial Railway Society||Edmonton, AB||Stored||Operable, awaiting regauging|
|4386||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Unrestored|||
|4426||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Unrestored|||
|4600||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Operational||Unrestored|
|4601||Michigan Transit Museum||Mount Clemens, MI||Static display|||
|4602||National Capital Trolley Museum||Silver Spring, MD||Operational||purchased from Trolleyville USA (Olmsted Falls, OH) in 2009|
|4603||National Capital Trolley Museum||Silver Spring, MD||Operational|||
|4607||Arizona Railway Museum||Chandler, AZ||Static display|||
|4608||Old Pueblo Trolley||Tucson, AZ||Static display|||
|4611||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Operational||Unrestored|
|4612||Edmonton Radial Railway Society||Edmonton, AB||Operational|||
|4613||McKinney Avenue Transit Authority||Dallas, TX||Pending||preparing for PCC service|
|4614||McKinney Avenue Transit Authority||Dallas, TX||Pending||preparing for PCC service|
|4618||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Unrestored||used as the museum ice cream shop|
|4655||Northern Ohio Railway Museum||Chippewa Lake, OH||Unrestored||Renumbered as Cleveland Transit System 4230|
|4656||Northern Ohio Railway Museum||Chippewa Lake, OH||Stored||not regauged|
|4684||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Unrestored|||
|4752||Epoch Developments||River Market, Kansas City, MO||Static display||restored as KCPS 551|
|W-30||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Operational||unrestored|
|W-31||Halton County Radial Railway||Rockwood, ON||Operational||unrestored|
The San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) painted its PCC 1074 in TTC livery "to honor Toronto"; it runs on the Market Street Railway. However, this car never operated in Toronto: it was originally built for Minneapolis' Twin City Rapid Transit and ultimately bought by MUNI.
- Canadian Light Rail Vehicle (replacement for the PCCs)
- PCC streetcar
- Toronto streetcar system
- Toronto Transit Commission
- Schneider, Fred W., III; Carlson, Stephen P. (1981). PCC The Streetcar That Fought Back. Glendale, California: Interurbans Press. ISBN 0-916374-57-2.
- Schneider, Fred W., III; Carlson, Stephen P. (1983). PCC from Coast to Coast. Glendale, California: Interurbans Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-916374-57-2.
- Bromley, John F.; May, Jack (1978) . Fifty Years of Progressive Transit: A History of the Toronto Transit Commission (2 ed.). New York: Electric Railroaders' Association. LCCN 73-84892.
- Partridge, Larry (1983). Mind the Doors, Please! The Story of Toronto and Its Streetcars. Erin, Ontario: The Boston Mills Press. ISBN 0-919822-62-2.
- Bow, James (25 June 2015). "A History Of Toronto's Presidents' Conference Committee Cars (The PCCs)". Transit Toronto. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Schneider & Carlson 1983, p. 235.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 161.
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- Kohler, Peter C. (22 March 2017). "Red Rocket Renaissance: The A15 Class PCC Cars". Transit Toronto. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- Partridge 1983, p. 47.
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- Schneider & Carlson 1983, p. 240.
- Bromley & May 1978, pp. 76,77.
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- Bromley & May 1978, p. 79.
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- Schneider & Carlson 1981, p. 22.
- Schneider & Carlson 1983, p. 108.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 92.
- Bow, James (23 November 2017). "A Rogue's Gallery: The TTC's Subway Work Car Fleet". Transit Toronto. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Schneider & Carlson 1983, p. 247.
- Bow, James (25 June 2015). "W30-W31 - The TTC's Streetcar Railgrinders". Transit Toronto. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Schneider & Carlson 1983, p. supplement #2.
- Kohler, Peter C. (11 September 2017). "The Post-War Used PCC Cars (Classes A9 To A14)". Transit Toronto. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- "Kansas City Public Service 551". Branford Electric Railway Association. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 59.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 60.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 65.
- Bromley & May 1978, pp. 66–67.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 67.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 72.
- Bromley & May 1978, pp. 76–77.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 77.
- Bromley & May 1978, pp. 97–101.
- Bromley & May 1978, pp. 107,112.
- Bromley & May 1978, pp. 114,115,119.
- Bromley & May 1978, p. 120.
- Kohler, Peter C. (25 June 2015). "The Post-War All-Electric PCC Cars (Classes A6-A8)". Transit Toronto. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Bromley, John F (23 October 2009). "Streetcars on the Waterfront (1968)". Steve Munro. Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- Morrison, Allen (2003). "The Tramways of Tampico". Electric Transport in Latin America: Past & Present. Allen Morrison. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Casey, Rev. E. (24 July 1999). "SEPTA buys used PCCs from Toronto: Thirty PCCs Bought to Relieve Car Shortage". Philadelphia Trolley Tracks. Mike Szilagyi. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Schneider & Carlson 1983, pp. 212,216.
- "Streetcar". Halton County Radial Railway. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Future Projects". Edmonton Radial Railway Society. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) 4602 & 4603". National Capital Trolley Museum. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Streetcar Fleet". Edmonton Radial Railway Society. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "FAQS". McKinney Avenue Transit Authority. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- "Presidents Conference Committee Cars #78, #92, #1644 & #4230". Northern Ohio Railway Museum. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Cleveland Transit System". Branford Electric Railway Association. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- Smith, Joyce (30 October 2018). "The River Market's vintage streetcar — Trolley Tom — to house local retail shop, cafe". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- "Electric Work Equipment". Halton County Radial Railway. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "No.1074 Toronto, Canada". Market Street Railway. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to PCC trams in Toronto.|
- A History Of Toronto's Presidents' Conference Committee Cars (The PCCs), a series of articles published by Transit Toronto
- Toronto Transit Commission PCC Cars (rosters)
- Preserved Toronto PCCs as per Branford Electric Railway Association database