The Paleozoic was a time of dramatic geological, climatic, and evolutionary change. The Cambrian witnessed the most rapid and widespread diversification of life in Earth's history, known as the Cambrian explosion, in which most modern phyla first appeared. Arthropods, molluscs, fish, amphibians, synapsids and diapsids all evolved during the Paleozoic. Life began in the ocean but eventually transitioned onto land, and by the late Paleozoic, it was dominated by various forms of organisms. Great forests of primitive plants covered the continents, many of which formed the coal beds of Europe and eastern North America. Towards the end of the era, large, sophisticated diapsids and synapsids were dominant and the first modern plants (conifers) appeared.
Selected article on the Paleozoic world and its legacies
Ctenophora is a phylum of marine animals characterized by "combs" consisting of cilia they use for swimming. Adults range from a few millimeters to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) in size. Their bodies consist of a mass of jelly, with one layer two cells thick on the outside and another lining the internal cavity. Almost all ctenophores consume tiny animal prey. The phylum has a wide range of body forms, including the egg-shaped cydippids with retractable tentacles that capture prey, the flat generally combless platyctenids, and the large-mouthed beroids, which prey on other ctenophores.
Despite their soft, gelatinous bodies, fossils thought to represent ctenophores have been found in lagerstätten as far back as the early Cambrian, about 525 million years ago. The position of the ctenophores in the tree of life has long been debated, and the majority view at present, based on molecular phylogenetics, is that ctenophores are more primitive than the sponges, which are more primitive than the cnidarians and bilaterians. A recent molecular phylogenetics analysis concluded that the common ancestor of all modern ctenophores was cydippid-like, and that all the modern groups appeared relatively recently, probably after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event66 million years ago. Evidence accumulating since the 1980s indicates that the "cydippids" are not monophyletic, in other words do not include all and only the descendants of a single common ancestor, because all the other traditional ctenophore groups are descendants of various cydippids. (see more...)
Selected article on the Paleozoic in human science, culture and economics
Oil shale, also known as kerogen shale, is an organic-rich fine-grainedsedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil can be produced. Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. Deposits of oil shale occur around the world. Estimates of global deposits range from 2.8 to 3.3 trillion barrels (450×10^9 to 520×10^9 m3) of recoverable oil.