he House of Plantagenet (1154–1485) was the royal house of all the English kings from Henry II to Richard III, including the Angevin kings and the houses of Lancaster and York. In addition to the traditional judicial, feudal and military roles of the king, the Plantagenets had duties to the realm that were underpinned by a sophisticated justice system. They were often forced to agree to constraints on royal power, such as Magna Carta, in return for financial and military support. During their reigns, a distinct national identity was shaped by conflict with the French, Scots, Welsh and Irish, and by the establishment of English as the primary language. In the 15th century, the Plantagenets were defeated in France in the Hundred Years' War and beset with social, political and economic problems. Revolts were triggered by politics and by the denial of freedoms. English nobles raised private armies, engaged in private feuds and openly defied Henry VI. Rivalry between the Yorkists and Lancastrians erupted into the Wars of the Roses. After Richard III's death ended the reign of the Plantagenets, Henry VII founded the Tudor dynasty.
All in the world I have is yours; Next to God, you are the one I love best, and if I did not know that your love for me is the same, I could not be so happy as I am: May God give us both the grace to live always in this affection without any guile.