Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, using methods of gathering information and utilizing literary techniques. Various forms of journalistic mediums include: print, television, radio, Internet and in the past: newsreels.
Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media is controlled by government intervention, and is not a fully independent body. In others, the news media is independent of the government but instead operates as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases.
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a daily morning newspaper that serves the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. The newspaper was founded by John R. Walker and John Norvell in June 1829 as The Pennsylvania Inquirer and is the third oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States. Owned by the local group Philadelphia Media Holdings L.L.C., The Inquirer has the tenth largest weekly U.S. newspaper circulation, and has won eighteen Pulitzer Prizes. Throughout The Inquirer's history, the paper has risen and fallen in prominence. The Inquirer first became a major newspaper during the American Civil War when The Inquirer's war coverage was popular on both sides. After the war the paper's circulation dramatically dropped, but was reinvigorated by the end of the 19th century. While founded with support towards the Democratic PartyThe Inquirer's political affiliation eventually shifted towards the Whig Party and then the Republican Party before officially becoming politically independent in the middle of the 20th century. By the end of the 1960s The Inquirer trailed behind its chief competitor and lacked modern facilities and experienced staff. New owners and editors in the 1970s turned The Inquirer into one of the most prominent newspapers in the country, winning seventeen Pulitzers in fifteen years. The prestige The Inquirer found in the 1980s has mostly disappeared because of cost-cutting and a shift of focus to more local coverage.
William Monahan is an American novelist, screenwriter and former journalist. Monahan went to work in Hollywood in 1998, when Warner Bros. bought the film rights to Light House: A Trifle, which had not yet been published, and contracted him to adapt it to the screen for director Gore Verbinski. In 2001, 20th Century Fox bought Monahan's spec script about the Barbary Wars called Tripoli, with Ridley Scott, who was to become Monahan's primary collaborator, attached to direct. Monahan, immediately successful as a screenwriter, has since worked with Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg, among other filmmakers. His first produced screenplay, Kingdom of Heaven was made into a film by Ridley Scott and released in theaters in 2005. His second produced screenplay was The Departed, a film which earned him a WGA award and an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. Monahan prefers that screenplays be written by one writer rather than a collaboration of multiple screenwriters writing competing drafts. Thus far he has followed his scripts through production, and is one of very few sole credit writers in the film business.