The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities. The term is often applied to anti-Jewish violence in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It has been extended to include any attacks against Jews and physical destruction of Jewish property, as well as looting of Jewish homes and businesses, throughout history. The characteristics of a pogrom vary widely, depending on the specific incidents, at times leading to, or culminating in, massacres. All outbreaks of antisemitic violence have become retrospectively known as pogroms.
The Russian-language term was adopted in the English language in order to describe the mass violence of 1881 and 1882 that was directed against Jews within the Pale of Settlement which was first created by Catherine the Great in what would become most of present-day Ukraine and Belarus, as well as parts of Lithuania, Moldova and Poland. The term pogrom is sometimes used, as well, to describe publicly sanctioned purgative attacks against non-Jewish ethnic or religious groups.
First recorded in 1882, the Russian word pogrom (погро́м, pronounced [pɐˈgrom]) is derived from the common prefix po- and the verb gromit' (громи́ть, pronounced [grɐˈmʲitʲ]) meaning "to destroy, to wreak havoc, to demolish violently". Its literal translation is "to harm". The noun "pogrom", which has a relatively short history, is used in English and many other languages as a loanword, possibly borrowed from Yiddish (where the word takes the form פאָגראָם). Its widespread circulation in today's world began with the antisemitic excesses in the Russian Empire in 1881–1883.
Anti-Jewish riots had already taken place in Europe during the Middle Ages. Jewish communities were targeted in the Black Death Jewish persecutions of 1348–1350, in Toulon in 1348, in Barcelona as well as in other Catalan cities, during the Erfurt massacre (1349), the Basel massacre, massacres in Aragon and in Flanders, as well as the "Valentine's Day" Strasbourg pogrom of 1349. Some 510 Jewish communities were destroyed during this period, extending further to the Brussels massacre of 1370. On Holy Saturday of 1389, a pogrom began in Prague that led to the burning of the Jewish quarter, the killing of many Jews, and the suicide of many Jews trapped in the main synagogue; the number of dead was estimated at 400–500 men, women and children.
The first atrocities against Jewish civilians, on a genocidal scale of destruction, were committed during the Khmelnytsky Pogroms of 1648–1657 in present-day Ukraine. Modern historians give estimates of the scale of the murders by Khmelnytsky's Cossacks ranging between 40,000 and 100,000 men, women and children, or perhaps many more.
The Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations during the military Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, 1793 and 1795 conducted jointly with the Austrian and Prussian armies, and resulting in Poland's elimination from the geopolitical map of Europe for the next 123 years. In conquered territories, a new political entity called the Pale of Settlement was formed in 1791 by Catherine the Great. Most Jewish people from the former Commonwealth were allowed to reside only within the Pale, including families expelled by royal decree from St. Petersburg, Moscow and other large Russian cities. The 1821 Odessa pogroms marked the beginning of the 19th century pogroms in Tsarist Russia; there were four more such pogroms in Odessa before the end of the century. Following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 by Narodnaya Volya – blamed on the Jews by the Russian government, anti-Jewish events turned into a wave of over 200 pogroms by their modern definition, which lasted for several years. Jewish self-governing Kehillah were abolished by Tsar Nicholas I in 1844.
The first in 20th-century Russia was the Kishinev pogrom of 1903 in which 47 Jews were killed, hundreds wounded, 700 homes destroyed and 600 businesses pillaged. In the same year, pogroms took place in Gomel (Belarus), Smela, Feodosiya and Melitopol (Ukraine). Extreme savagery was typified by mutilations of the wounded. They were followed by the Zhitomir pogrom (with 29 killed), and the Kiev pogrom of October 1905 resulting in a massacre of approximately 100 Jews. In three years between 1903 and 1906, about 660 pogroms were recorded in Ukraine and Bessarabia; half a dozen more in Belorussia, carried out with the Russian government's complicity, but no anti-Jewish pogroms were recorded in Poland. At about that time, the Jewish Labor Bund began organizing armed self-defense units ready to shoot back, and the pogroms subsided for a number of years. According to professor Colin Tatz, between 1881 and 1920 there were 1,326 pogroms in Ukraine (see: Southwestern Krai parts of the Pale) which took the lives of 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews, leaving half a million homeless.
Russian Civil War period
Large-scale pogroms, which began in the Russian Empire several decades earlier, intensified during the period of the Russian Civil War and the Revolution of 1917. Professor Zvi Gitelman (A Century of Ambivalence) estimated that only in 1918–1919 over 1,200 pogroms took place in Ukraine, thus amounting to the greatest slaughter of Jews in Eastern Europe since 1648. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his book Two Hundred Years Together provided additional statistics from research conducted by Nahum Gergel (1887–1931). Gergel counted 1,236 incidents of anti-Jewish violence and estimated that 887 mass pogroms occurred, the remainder being classified as "excesses" not assuming mass proportions. The Kiev pogroms of 1919, according to Gitelman, were the first of a subsequent wave of pogroms in which between 30,000 and 70,000 Jews were massacred across Ukraine. Of all the pogroms accounted for in Gergel's research, about 40 percent were perpetrated by the Ukrainian People's Republic forces led by Symon Petliura, 25 percent by the Ukrainian Green Army and various Ukrainian nationalist gangs, and 17 percent by the White Army, especially the forces of Anton Denikin. A further 8.5 percent of Gergel's total was attributed to pogroms carried out by men of the Red Army although these pogroms were not sanctioned by the Bolshevik leadership; the high command disarmed the regiments which had perpetrated pogroms. The Ukrainian People's Republic of Symon Petliura also issued orders condemning pogroms, but lacked authority to intervene. After May 1919 the Directory lost its role as a credible governing body; almost 75 percent of pogroms occurred between May and September of that year. Thousands of Jews were killed only for being Jewish, without any political affiliations.
The instructions issued from above had only a limited impact on soldiers' attitudes toward violence against Jews, as related by author and future Nobel laureate Ivan Bunin. On May 15, 1919, Bunin wrote in his diary about yet another massacre:
Members of the Red Army in Odessa led a pogrom against the Jewish population in the town of Big Fountain. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky and the writer Kipen happened to be there and told me the details. Fourteen commissars and thirty Jews from among the common people were killed. Many stores were destroyed. The soldiers tore through the night, dragged the victims from their beds, and killed whomever they met. People ran into the steppe or rushed into the sea. They were chased after and fired upon – a genuine hunt, as it were. Kipen saved himself by accident – fortunately he had spent the night not in his home, but at the White Flower sanitorium. At dawn, a detachment of Red Army soldiers appeared. 'Are there any Jews here?' they asked the watchman. 'No, no Jews here.' 'Swear what you're saying is true!' The watchman swore, and they went on farther. Moisei Gutman, a cab [driver], was killed. He was a dear man who moved us from our dacha last fall.
Gergel's overall figures, which are generally considered conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-Yidish Historiche Arkhiv which was first based in Kiev, then Berlin and later New York. The English version of Gergel's article was published in 1951 in the YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science titled "The Pogroms in the Ukraine in 1918–1921."
In June 1919, during the Polish–Soviet War, the Jewish First Guard Battalion from Minsk – at the insistence of its own members – was deployed by the Bolsheviks against the Polish Army which included the First and the Second Lithuanian–Belarusian Divisions. The Jews had won the first skirmish, forcing them to retreat several kilometers. On 8 August 1919, Polish troops took over the city in Operation Minsk, killed 31 Jews merely suspected of supporting the Bolshevist movement, beat and attacked many more, looted 377 Jewish-owned shops (aided by the local civilians) and ransacked many private homes. The aftermath of the pogrom in Minsk was described on an emotional level by Rabbi Yechezkel Abramsky in July 1920. The "Morgenthau's report of October 1919 stated that there is no question that some of the Jewish leaders exaggerated these evils." According to Elissa Bemporad, the "violence endured by the Jewish population under the Poles encouraged popular support for the Red Army, as Jewish public opinion welcomed the establishment of the Belorussian SSR." Irrespective of war-zone violence, the Jewish political groups, communal institutions and cultural organizations of all stripes were active in the Second Polish Republic.
In the early 20th century, pogroms broke out elsewhere in the world as well. In 1904 in Ireland, the Limerick boycott caused several Jewish families to leave the town. During the 1911 Tredegar riot in Wales, Jewish homes and businesses were looted and burned over the period of a week, before the British Army was called in by then-Home Secretary Winston Churchill, who described the riot as a "pogrom". In 1919 there was a pogrom in Argentina, during the Tragic Week.
After the First World War, during the localized armed conflicts of independence, 72 Jews were killed and 443 injured in the 1918 Lwów pogrom. The following year, pogroms were reported by the New York Tribune in several cities in the newly reborn Poland. However, the reports were not only exaggerated but also manufactured by the German legation in Warsaw, quietly opposed to the rebirth of Poland after a century of imperial partitions. The German reports were delivered to Zionist headquarters and the foreign press elsewhere by the official services of the Wilhelmstrasse. Meanwhile, in the Mandatory Palestine under British administration, the Jews were targeted in the 1929 Hebron massacre and the 1929 Safed pogrom.
The first pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht, often called Pogromnacht, in which at least 91 Jews were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in Nazi concentration camps, over 1,000 synagogues burned, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged.
During World War II, Nazi German death squads encouraged local populations in German-occupied Europe to commit pogroms against Jews. Brand new battalions of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz (trained by SD agents) were mobilized from among the German minorities. During Operation Barbarossa which lasted from June 22 to December 5, 1941, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler established the Schutzmannschaft collaborationist auxiliary battalions and tasked them with carrying out pogroms behind the front lines.
A large number of pogroms occurred during the Holocaust at the hands of non-Germans. Perhaps the deadliest of these Holocaust-era pogroms was the Iași pogrom in Romania, in which as many as 13,266 Jews were killed by Romanian citizens, police and military officials.
On 1–2 June 1941, in the two-day Farhud pogrom in Iraq, "rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews, injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined number of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and homes".
In June–July 1941, encouraged by the Einsatzgruppen in the city of Lviv – location of the Lwów ghetto – the Ukrainian People's Militia soon reorganized as the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police perpetrated two citywide pogroms in which around 6,000 Polish Jews were murdered, in retribution for alleged collaboration with the Soviet NKVD; the controversy surrounding the Lviv pogroms of 1941 is still debated today. On 12 October 1941 in Stanisławów, some 10,000–12,000 Jewish men, women and children were shot in the Jewish cemetery by the Germans and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during so-called "Bloody Sunday" (de). The shooters began firing at 12 noon, and continued without stopping by taking turns. It was the single largest massacre of Jews in the General Government prior to mass gassings of Aktion Reinhard.
In Lithuania, some local police led by Algirdas Klimaitis and Lithuanian partisans – consisting of LAF units reinforced by 3,600 deserters from the 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army promulgated anti-Jewish pogroms in Kaunas along with occupying Nazis. On 25–26 June 1941, about 3,800 Jews were killed and synagogues and Jewish settlements burned.
During the Jedwabne pogrom of July 1941, ethnic Poles burned at least 340 Jews in a barn (Institute of National Remembrance) in the presence of Nazi German Ordnungspolizei. The role of the German Einsatzgruppe B remains the subject of debate.
After World War II
After the end of World War II, a series of violent antisemitic incidents occurred against returning Jews throughout Europe, particularly in the Soviet-occupied East where Nazi propagandists had extensively promoted the notion of a Jewish-Communist conspiracy (see Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946 and Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 1944–1946). Anti-Jewish riots also took place in Britain in 1947.
In the Arab world, anti-Jewish rioters killed over 140 Jews in the 1945 Anti-Jewish Riots in Tripolitania. Following the start of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, a number of anti-Jewish events occurred throughout the Arab world, some of which have been described as pogroms. In 1947, half of Aleppo's 10,000 Jews left the city in the wake of the Aleppo riots, while other anti-Jewish riots took place in British Aden and the French Moroccan cities of Oujda and Jerada.
According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, [and] the first extensive pogroms followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881", and the Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789 states that pogroms "were antisemitic disturbances that periodically occurred within the tsarist empire." However, the term is widely used to refer to many events which occurred prior to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. Historian of Russian Jewry John Klier writes in Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882 that "By the twentieth century, the word 'pogrom' had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews." Abramson wrote that "in mainstream usage the word has come to imply an act of antisemitism", since while "Jews have not been the only group to suffer under this phenomenon ... historically Jews have been frequent victims of such violence".
The term is also used in reference to attacks on non-Jewish ethnic minorities, and accordingly some scholars do not include antisemitism as the defining characteristic of pogroms. Reviewing its uses in scholarly literature, historian Werner Bergmann proposes that pogroms should be "defined as a unilateral, nongovernmental form of collective violence initiated by the majority population against a largely defenseless ethnic group, and he states that pogroms occur when the majority expects the state to provide them with no assistance in overcoming a (perceived) threat from the minority," but he adds that in Western usage, the word's "anti-Semitic overtones" have been retained. Historian David Engel supports this, writing that "there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label [pogrom]," but states that the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms took place in societies significantly divided by ethnicity and/or religion where the violence was committed by the higher-ranking group against a stereotyped lower-ranking group against whom they expressed some complaint, and with the belief that the law of the land would not be used to stop them.
There is no universally accepted set of characteristics which define the term pogrom. Klier writes that "when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that 'pogroms' were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features." Use of the term pogrom to refer to events in 1918–19 in Polish cities including Kielce, Pinsk and Lwów, was specifically avoided in the 1919 Morgenthau Report and the word "excesses" was used instead because the authors argued that the use of the term "pogrom" required a situation to be antisemitic rather than political in nature, which meant that it was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone, and media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public controversy. In 2008, two separate attacks in the West Bank by Israeli Jewish settlers on Palestinian Arabs were characterized as pogroms by then Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Olmert.
Werner Bergmann suggests a particularly unifying characteristic of all such incidents: "[b]y the collective attribution of a threat, the pogrom differs from other forms of violence, such as lynchings, which are directed at individual members of a minority group, while the imbalance of power in favor of the rioters distinguishes pogroms from other forms of riot (food riots, race riots or 'communal riots' between evenly matched groups); and again, the low level of organization separates them from vigilantism, terrorism, massacre and genocide".
Selected list of events named pogroms
This is a partial list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "pogrom".
|Date||Pogrom name||Alternative name(s)||Deaths||Description|
|38||Alexandrian pogrom (name disputed)[a]||Alexandrian riots||Aulus Avilius Flaccus, the Egyptian prefect of Alexandria appointed by Tiberius in 32 CE, may have encouraged the outbreak of violence; Philo wrote that Flaccus was later arrested and eventually executed for his part in this event. Scholarly research around the subject has been divided on certain points, including whether the Alexandrian Jews fought to keep their citizenship or to acquire it, whether they evaded the payment of the poll-tax or prevented any attempts to impose it on them, and whether they were safeguarding their identity against the Greeks or against the Egyptians.|
|1066||Granada pogrom||1066 Granada massacre||4,000 Jews||A mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, which was at that time in Muslim-ruled al-Andalus, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred much of the Jewish population of the city.|
|1096||1096 pogroms||Rhineland massacres||2,000 Jews||Peasant crusaders from France and Germany during the People's Crusade, led by Peter the Hermit (and not sanctioned by the hierarchy of the Catholic Church), attacked Jewish communities in the three towns of Speyer, Worms and Mainz. They were the first Christian pogroms to be officially recorded.|
|1113||Kiev pogrom (name disputed)[b]||Kiev revolt||Rebellion sparked by the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev, in which Jews connected to the prince's economic affairs were among the victims|
|1349||Strasbourg pogrom||Strasbourg massacre|
|1506||Lisbon pogrom||Lisbon massacre||500 New Christians||After an episode of famine and bad harvests, a pogrom happened in Lisbon, Portugal, in which more than 500 "New Christian" (forcibly converted Jews) people were slaughtered and/or burnt by an angry Christian mob, in the first night of what became known as the "Lisbon Massacre". The killing occurred from 19 to 21 April, almost eliminating the entire Jewish or Jewish-descendant community residing in that city. Even the Portuguese military and the king himself had difficulty stopping it. The event is today remembered with a monument in S. Domingos' church.|
|1563||Polotsk pogrom (name disputed)[c]||Polotsk drownings||Following the fall of Polotsk to the army of Ivan IV, all those who refused to convert to Orthodox Christianity were ordered drowned in the Western Dvina river|
|1821–1871||First Odessa pogroms||The Greeks of Odessa attacked the local Jewish community, in what began as economic disputes|
|1881–1884||First Russian Tsarist pogroms||A large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia (present-day Ukraine and Poland) from 1881 to 1884 (in that period over 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably the Kiev, Warsaw and Odessa pogroms)|
|1881||Warsaw pogrom||2 Jews killed, 24 injured||Three days of rioting against Jews, Jewish stores, businesses, and residences in the streets adjoining the Holy Cross Church.|
|1902||Częstochowa pogrom (name disputed)||14 Jews||A mob attacked the Jewish shops, killing fourteen Jews and one gendarme. The Russian military brought to restore order were stoned by mob.|
|1903–1906||Second Russian Tsarist pogroms||2,000+ Jews||A much bloodier wave of pogroms broke out from 1903 to 1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews dead and many more wounded, as many Jewish residents took arms to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against the Jewish population in Odessa was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jewish people killed.|
|1903||First Kishinev pogrom||47 Jews (Included above)||Three days of anti-Jewish rioting sparked by anti-semitic articles in local newspapers|
|1904||Limerick pogrom (name disputed)[d]||Limerick boycott||None||An economic boycott waged against the small Jewish community in Limerick, Ireland, for over two years|
|1905||Second Kishinev pogrom||19 Jews (Included above)||Two days of anti-Jewish rioting beginning as political protests against the Tsar|
|1905||Kiev Pogrom (1905)||100 Jews (Included above)||Following a city hall meeting, a mob was drawn into the streets, proclaiming that "all Russia's troubles stemmed from the machinations of the Jews and socialists."|
|1906||Siedlce pogrom||26 Jews (Included above)||An attack organized by the Russian secret police (Okhrana). Anti-semitic pamphlets had been distributed for over a week and before any unrest begun, a curfew was declared.|
|1909||Adana pogrom||Adana massacre||30,000 Armenians||A massacre of Armenians in the city of Adana amidst the Countercoup (1909) resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district.|
|1911||Tredegar pogrom (name disputed)
|Tredegar riots||None||Jewish shops were ransacked and the army had to be brought in|
|1914||Anti-Serb pogrom in Sarajevo||Sarajevo frenzy of hate||2 Serbs||Occurred shortly after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.|
|1918||Lwów pogrom (name disputed)[f]||Lemberg massacre||52–150 Jews, 270 Ukrainians||During the Polish-Ukrainian War over three days of unrest in the city, an estimated 52–150 Jewish residents were killed and hundreds more were injured, with widespread looting carried out by Polish soldiers, as well as by lawless civilians, and local criminals. Two hundred and seventy Ukrainians were also killed during this incident. The Poles did not stop the pogrom until two days after it began. The independent investigations by the British and American missions in Poland stated that there were no clear conclusions and that foreign press reports were exaggerated.|
|1918-1919||Guba City Pogrom||3,000-10,000||Massacre of Mountain Jews in Azerbaijan by Armenian nationalist groups|
|1919||Kiev Pogroms (1919)||60+||A series of Jewish pogroms in various places around Kiev carried out by White Volunteer Army troops|
|1919||Pinsk pogrom (name disputed)[g]||Pinsk massacre||36 Jews||Mass execution of thirty-five Jewish residents of Pinsk in April 1919 by the Polish Army, during the opening stages of the Polish-Soviet War|
|1919–20||Vilna pogrom (name disputed)[h]||Vilna offensive||65+ Jews and non-Jews||As Polish troops entered the city, dozens of people connected with the Lit-Bel were arrested, and some were executed|
|1921||Tulsa pogrom||Tulsa race riot, Little Africa on Fire||Up to 300 Blacks||Destruction of the Greenwood community of Tulsa, the wealthiest black community in the United States, by a white mob with the support of authorities, following an unfounded accusation of sexual assault by a black man against a white woman.|
|1929||Hebron pogrom||Hebron massacre||67 Jews||During the 1929 Palestine riots, sixty-seven Jews were killed as the violence spread to Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were massacring Arabs in Jerusalem and seizing control of Muslim holy places.|
|1936||Przytyk pogrom (name disputed)[i]||Przytyk riot||2 Jews and 1 Polish||Some of the Jewish residents gathered in the town square in anticipation of the attack by the peasants, but nothing happened on that day. Two days later, however, on a market day, as Jewish historians Martin Gilbert and David Vital claim, peasants attacked their Jewish neighbors.|
|1938||November pogrom||Kristallnacht||91 Jews||Coordinated attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. Accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world.|
|1940||Dorohoi pogrom||53 Jews||Romanian military units carried out a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured|
|1941||Iași pogrom||13,266 Jews||One of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history, launched by governmental forces in the Romanian city of Iaşi (Jassy) against its Jewish population.|
|1941||Antwerp Pogrom||0||One of the few pogroms of Belgian history. Flemish collaborators attacked and burned synagogues and attacked a rabbi in the city of Antwerp|
|1941||Bucharest pogrom||Legionnaires' rebellion||125 Jews and 30 soldiers||As the privileges of the paramilitary organisation Iron Guard were being cut off by Conducător Ion Antonescu, members of the Iron Guard, also known as the Legionnaires, revolted. During the rebellion and pogrom, the Iron Guard killed 125 Jews and 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels.|
|1941||Tykocin pogrom||1,400–1,700 Jews||Mass murder of Jewish residents of Tykocin in occupied Poland during World War II, soon after Nazi German attack on the Soviet Union.|
|1941||Jedwabne pogrom||340 Jews||The local rabbi was forced to lead a procession of about 40 people to a pre-emptied barn, killed and buried along with fragments of a destroyed monument of Lenin. A further 250-300 Jews were led to the same barn later that day, locked inside and burned alive using kerosene|
|1941||Pogrom in Krnjeuša||240 Croats||An organized attack in the territory of the Catholic parish of Krnjeuša in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, carried out by Serb Chetniks against the local Catholic Croat population|
|1941||Farhud||180 Jewish Iraqis|
|1941||Lviv pogroms||4,000–8,000 civilian prisoners and 5,000 Jews||Massacres of civilian prisoners by Soviet forces prior to evacuation, followed by massacre of Jews by German and other forces. Subject of a protracted controversy|
|1946||Kunmadaras pogrom||4 Jews||A frenzy instigated by the crowd's libelous belief that some Jewish people had made sausage out of Christian children|
|1946||Miskolc pogrom||2 Jews||Riots started as demonstrations against economic hardships and later became anti-Semitic|
|1946||Kielce pogrom||38–42 Jews||Violence against the Jewish community centre, initiated by Polish Communist armed forces (LWP, KBW, GZI WP) and continued by a mob of local townsfolk.|
|1955||Istanbul pogrom||Istanbul riots||13–30 Greeks||Organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority. Accelerated the emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey (Jews were also targeted in this event).|
|1956||1956 Ceylonese riots||1956 anti-Tamil pogrom||150 Primarily Tamils||1956 anti-Tamil pogrom or Gal Oya massacre/riots were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Tamils in independent Sri Lanka.|
|1958||1958 anti-Tamil pogrom||1958 anti-Tamil pogrom||300 Primarily Tamils||1958 anti-Tamil pogrom also known as 58 riots, refer to the first island wide ethnic riots and pogrom in Sri Lanka.|
|1964||Zanzibar Revolution||1964 anti-Arab pogrom||At least 80 killed and 200 injured during revolution (the majority were Arabs), up to 20,000 civilians killed in the aftermath.||The Zanzibar Revolution occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries. The revolution ended 200 years of Arab dominance in Zanzibar, and resulted in the merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form the new nation of Tanzania. Commemorated on the island each year as independence day with anniversary celebrations and a public holiday.|
|1966||1966 anti-Igbo pogrom||A series of massacres directed at Igbo and other southern Nigerian residents throughout Nigeria before and after the overthrow (and assassination) of the Aguiyi-Ironsi junta by Murtala Mohammed.|
|1977||1977 anti-Tamil pogrom||300-1500 Primarily Tamils||The 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom followed the 1977 general elections in Sri Lanka where the Sri Lankan Tamil nationalistic Tamil United Liberation Front won a plurality of minority Sri Lankan Tamil votes in which it stood for secession.|
|since 1977||Marma Genocide||anti-Buddhist Pogrom||Marma Buddhists||Local tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts (mostly Buddists) were targeted by Bengali Muslim settlers, supported by Bangladesh government. Murders, destruction of temples and villages, rapes and forced convertion.|
|1983||Black July||1983 anti-Tamil pogrom||400–3,000 Tamils||Over seven days mobs of mainly Sinhalese attacked Tamil targets, burning, looting and killing|
|1984||1984 anti-Sikh riots||1984 anti-Sikh pogrom||8,000 Sikhs||In October 1984 anti-Sikh pogrom in Delhi, and other parts of India, Sikhs in India were targeted|
|1988||Sumgait pogrom||26+ (or about 100-300) Armenians and 6+ Azeris (possibly rioters)||Mobs made up largely of ethnic Azeris formed into groups that went on to attack and kill Armenians both on the streets and in their apartments; widespread looting and a general lack of concern from police officers allowed the situation to worsen|
|1988||Kirovabad pogrom||3+ Soviet soldiers, 3+ Azeris and 1+ Armenian||Ethnic Azeris attacked Armenians throughout the city|
|1989||1989 Bangladesh pogroms||Attacks against Bengali Hindus, apparently as a reaction to the laying of the foundation of Ram temple adjacent to the disputed structure in Ayodhya|
|1990||Baku pogrom||90 Armenians, 20 Russian soldiers||Seven-day attack during which Armenians were beaten, tortured, murdered and expelled from the city. There were also many raids on apartments, robberies and arsons|
|1991||Crown Heights pogrom (disputed)[j]||Crown Heights riot||1 Jew and 1 non-Jew||A three-day riot that occurred in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. The riots incited by the death of the seven-year-old Gavin Cato, unleashed simmering tensions within Crown Heights' black community against the Orthodox Jewish community. In its wake, several Jews were seriously injured; one Orthodox Jewish man, Yankel Rosenbaum, was killed; and a non-Jewish man, allegedly mistaken by rioters for a Jew, was killed by a group of African-American men.|
|1991||Mława pogrom||Five days of rioting in which a mob attacked Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława causing hundreds to flee in terror after the killing of a Polish pedestrian struck along with his companion in a hit-and-run by a Romani male driver.|
|2002||Gujarat pogrom||2002 Gujarat violence||790–2,000 Muslims and 254 Hindus||Inter-communal violence in the Indian state of Gujarat which lasted for approximately three days with the state government being accused of supporting or even instigating the riots|
|2004||March pogrom||2004 unrest in Kosovo||16 ethnic Serbs||Over 4,000 Serbs were forced to leave their homes, 935 Serb houses, 10 public facilities and 35 Serbian Orthodox church-buildings were desecrated, damaged or destroyed, and six towns and nine villages were ethnically cleansed according to Serbian media|
|2013||2013 Burma anti-Muslim riots||anti-Rohingya pogrom||Rohingya Muslims||Muslims called the Rohingyas were targeted in the Buddhist-majority Myanmar.|
- Prof. Sandra Gambetti: "A final note on the use of terminology related to anti-Semitism. Scholars have frequently labeled the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. as the first pogrom in history and have often explained them in terms of an ante litteram explosion of anti-Semitism. This work [The Alexandrian Riots] deliberately avoids any words or expressions that in any way connect, explicitly or implicitly, the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. to later events in modern or contemporary Jewish experience, for which that terminology was created. ... To decide whether a word like pogrom, for example, is an appropriate term to describe the events that are studied here, requires a comparative re-discussion of two historical frames—the Alexandria of 38 C.E. and the Russia of the end of the nineteenth century."
- John Klier: "upon the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev Sviatopolk, rioting broke out in Kiev against his agents and the town administration. The disorders were not specifically directed against Jews and are best characterised as a social revolution. This has not prevented historians of medieval Russia from describing them as a pogrom."
George Vernadsky: "Incidentally, one should not suppose that the movement was anti-Semitic. There was no general Jewish pogrom. Wealthy Jewish merchants suffered because of their association with Sviatopolk's speculations, especially his hated monopoly on salt."
- John Klier: "Russian armies led by Tsar Ivan IV captured the Polish city of Polotsk. The Tsar ordered drowned in the river Dvina all Jews who refused to covert to Orthodox Christianity. This episode certainly demonstrates the overt religious hostility towards the Jews which was very much a part of Muscovite culture, but its conversionary aspects were entirely absent from modern pogroms. Nor were the Jews the only heterodox religious group singled out for the tender mercies of Muscovite religious fanaticism."
- Israeli ambassador to Ireland, Boaz Moda'i: "I think it is a bit over-portrayed, meaning that, usually if you look up the word pogrom it is used in relation to slaughter and being killed. This is what happened in many other places in Europe, but that is not what happened here. There was a kind of boycott against Jewish merchandise for a while but that’s not a pogrom."
- William Rubinstein: "London-based sources, especially the press, Jewish and non-Jewish, consistently exaggerated the resemblance of the Welsh riots to Russian 'pogroms'. ... The Western Mail's 'London Letter' pointed this out on 28 August 1911, when it stated that 'both the Government and the Jewish leaders think that the Jewish press is betraying an unnecssary amount of alarm, and that it would have been better advised to have treated the attacks upon Jews and their property in Wales as part of a general attack upon persons and property'. Perhaps the most cogent letter on this subject came from Bertam Jacobs, a Welsh-born London barrister who wrote to the South Wales Argus. ... Jacobs pointed out the absurdity of likening the South Wales riots to the Russian pogroms, noting the crucial differences between the two, especially the fact that no Jew was physically assautled, no private house belonging to a Jew was set up, no anti-Semitic cries or slogans were heard, and, especially, no synagogue was attacked."
- David Engel: "the repeated protests of some scholars that what happened in Lwów in November 1918 was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom""
Norman Davies: "The so-called pogrom in Lwów, in November 1918, turned out to be a military massacre where three times more Christians died than Jews."
Morgenthau report: The report's authors argued that the term pogrom was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone and required the situation to be antisemitic in nature rather than political.
- Carole Fink: "What happen in Pinsk on April 5, 1919 was not literally a "pogrom" – an organized, officially tolerated or inspired massacre of a minority such as has occurred in Lemberg – but rather a military execution of a small, suspect group of civilians. ... The misnamed "Pinsk pogrom", a plain, powerful, alliterative phrase, entered history in April 1919. Its importance lay not only in its timing, during the tensest moments of the Paris Peace Conference and the most crucial deliberations over Poland's political future: The reports of Pinsk once more demonstrated the swift transmission of local violence to world notice and the disfiguring process of rumor and prejudice on every level."
Norman Davies: "The so-called pogrom in Pinsk in March 1919 turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose order to executre thirty-five suspected Bolshevik infiltrators was described by a US investigator as 'fully justified by the circumstances'"
- Norman Davies: "Press reports in the West of 'Pogroms in Poland', though accepted by Jewish commentators, were repeatedly discredited by the investigations of independent British and American observers....the pogroms in Wilno in April 1919 and again in October 1920 were occasioned by the Red Army's hasty retreats, and by military reprisals against suspected collaborators."
- David Engel: "similar claims [that] the killing of two Jews and one Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936 [was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom"], which became the subject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain and ongoing argument in Poland and beyond in 2001"
- Media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public controversy. For example, Joyce Purnick of The New York Times wrote in 1993 that the use of the word pogrom was "inflammatory"; she accused politicians of "trying to enlarge and twist the word" in order to "pander to Jewish voters".
- Klier, John (2010). "Pogroms". The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.
The common usage of the term pogrom to describe any attack against Jews throughout history disguises the great variation in the scale, nature, motivation and intent of such violence at different times.
- Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica; et al. (2017). "Pogrom". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com.
(Russian: "devastation" or "riot"), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Weinberg, Sonja (2010). Pogroms and Riots: German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany and Russia (1881-1882). Peter Lang. p. 193. ISBN 978-3631602140.
Most contemporaries claimed that the pogroms were directed against Jewish property, not against Jews, a claim so far not contradicted by research.
- Klier, John D.; Abulafia, Anna Sapir (2001). Religious Violence Between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives. Springer. p. 165. ISBN 978-1403913821.
The pogroms themselves seem to have largely followed a set of unwritten rules. They were directed against Jewish property only.
- Brass, Paul R. (1996). Riots and Pogroms. NYU Press. p. 3. Introduction. ISBN 978-0814712825.
- Atkin, Nicholas; Biddiss, Michael; Tallett, Frank (2011-05-23). The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789. ISBN 9781444390728. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Klier, John (2011). Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780521895484.
By the twentieth century, the word "pogrom" had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews. The term was especially associated with Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire, the scene of the most serious outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence before the Holocaust. Yet when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East European life.
- For this definition and a review of scholarly definitions see Wilhelm Heitmeyer and John Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) pp 352–55 online
- Jonathan Dekel-Chen; David Gaunt; Natan M. Meir; Israel Bartal, eds. (2010-11-26). Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History. ISBN 978-0253004789.
Engel states that although there are no "essential defining characteristics of a pogrom", the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms "took place in divided societies in which ethnicity or religion (or both) served as significant definers of both social boundaries and social rank.
- Abramson, Henry (1999). A prayer for the government: Ukrainians and Jews in revolutionary times, 1917–1920.
The etymological roots of the term pogrom are unclear, although it seems to be derived from the Slavic word for "thunder(bolt)" (Russian: grom, Ukrainian: hrim). The first syllable, po-, is a prefix indicating "means" or "target". The word therefore seems to imply a sudden burst of energy (thunderbolt) directed at a specific target. A pogrom is generally thought of as a cross between a popular riot and a military atrocity, where an unarmed civilian, often urban, population is attacked by either an army unit or peasants from surrounding villages, or a combination of the two.
- Oxford English Dictionary, Dec. 2007 revision. See also: Pogrom at Online Etymology Dictionary.
- International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) "The word "pogrom" (from the Russian, meaning storm or devastation) has a relatively short history. Its international currency dates back to the anti-Semitic excesses in Tsarist Russia during the years 1881–1883, but the phenomenon existed in the same form at a much earlier date and was by no means confined to Russia. As John D. Klier points out in his seminal article "The pogrom paradigm in Russian history", the anti-Semitic pogroms in Russia were described by contemporaries as demonstrations, persecution, or struggle, and the government made use of the term besporiadok (unrest, riot) to emphasize the breach of public order. Then, during the twentieth century, the term began to develop along two separate lines. In the Soviet Union, the word lost its anti-Semitic connotation and came to be used for reactionary forms of political unrest and, from 1989, for outbreaks of interethnic violence; while in the West, the anti-Semitic overtones were retained and government orchestration or acquiescence was emphasized."
- Amos Elon (2002), The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews in Germany, 1743–1933. Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4. p. 103.
- Anna Foa The Jews of Europe after the black death 2000 p. 13 "The first massacres took place in April 1348 in Toulon, where the Jewish quarter was raided and forty Jews were murdered in their homes. Shortly afterwards, violence broke out in Barcelona."
- Codex Judaica: chronological index of Jewish history; p. 203 Máttis Kantor - 2005 "The Jews were savagely attacked and massacred, by sometimes hysterical mobs."
- John Marshall John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture; p. 376 2006 "The period of the Black Death saw the massacre of Jews across Germany, and in Aragon, and Flanders,"
- Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, «La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire» ("The greatest epidemic in history"), in L'Histoire magazine, n° 310, June 2006, p. 47 (in French)
- Durant, Will. The Renaissance, Simon and Schuster (1953), page 730–731, ISBN 0-671-61600-5
- Barbara Newman The Passion of the Jews of Prague: The Pogrom of 1389 and the Lessons of a Medieval Parody Church History 81:1 (March 2012), 1-26
- Herman Rosenthal (1901). "Chmielnicki, Bogdan Zinovi". Jewish Encyclopedia.
- Historians, who put the number of killed Jewish civilians at between 40,000 and 100,000 during the Khmelnytsky Pogroms in 1648–1657, include:
- Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman (2005). A Concise History Of The Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4366-8, p. 182.
- David Theo Goldberg, John Solomos (2002). A Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies, Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-20616-7, p. 68.
- Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland, p. 56: estimated at 56,000 dead.
- Historians estimating that around 100,000 Jews were killed include:
- Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate Side of Joseph de Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy, McGill-Queen's Press, 2005, ISBN 0-7735-2976-4, p. 26.
- Martin Gilbert (1999). Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-10965-2, p. 219.
- Manus I. Midlarsky. The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-81545-2, p. 352.
- Oscar Reiss (2004). The Jews in Colonial America, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-1730-7, pp. 98–99.
- Colin Martin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide, Verso, ISBN 1-85984-550-9, p. 146.
- Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching about Genocide: Issues, Approaches and Resources, Information Age Publishing, ISBN 1-59311-074-X, p. 25.
- Mosheh Weiss (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4402-8, p. 193.
- Historians who estimate that more than 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine in 1648–1657 include:
- Meyer Waxman (2003). History of Jewish Literature Part 3, Kessinger, ISBN 0-7661-4370-8, p. 20: estimated at about two hundred thousand Jews killed.
- Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland, p. 56: estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000 Jewish victims.
- Zev Garber, Bruce Zuckerman (2004). Double Takes: Thinking and Rethinking Issues of Modern Judaism in Ancient Contexts, University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2894-X, p. 77, footnote 17: estimated at about 100,000–500,000 Jews
- The Columbia Encyclopedia (2001–2005), "Chmielnicki Bohdan", 6th ed.: estimated at over 100,000 Jews.
- Robert Melvin Spector (2005). World without Civilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History and Analysis, University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2963-6, p. 77: estimated at more than 100,000.
- Sol Scharfstein (2004). Jewish History and You, KTAV, ISBN 0-88125-806-7, p. 42: estimated at more than 100,000 Jews killed.
- Elon, Amos (2002). The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews in Germany, 1743-1933. Metropolitan Books. p. 103. ISBN 0-8050-5964-4.
- Davies, Norman (2005). "Rossiya: The Russian Partition (1772–1918)". God's Playground: a history of Poland. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0199253401. Volume II: Revised Edition.
- "Shtetl". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jewish Virtual Library, The Gale Group. Also in: Rabbi Ken Spiro. "Pale of Settlement". History Crash Course #56. Aish.com.
- John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza (2004). Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History. Cambridge University Press. p. 376. ISBN 978-0521528511.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Also in: Omer Bartov (2013). Shatterzone of Empires. p. 97. ISBN 978-0253006318.
Note 45. It should be remembered that for all the violence and property damage caused by the 1881 pogroms, the number of deaths could be counted on one hand.Further information: Oleg Budnitskii (2012). Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 17–20. ISBN 978-0812208146.
- Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Pogroms in Russia: Explanations, Comparisons, Suggestions, Jewish Social Studies, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Autumn 2004), pp. 17–. Excerpt. [not in citation given]
- Henry Abramson (10–13 July 2002). "The end of intimate insularity: new narratives of Jewish history in the post-Soviet era" (PDF). Acts.
- Rosenthal, Herman; Rosenthal, Max (1901–1906). "Kishinef (Kishinev)". In Singer, Isidore; et al. The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
- Paul Joseph (2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of War. SAGE Publications. p. 1353. ISBN 978-1483359885.
- Sergei Kan (2009). Lev Shternberg. U of Nebraska Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0803224704.
- Shlomo Lambroza (1993). Herbert A. Strauss, ed. Jewish self-defence. Current Research on Anti-Semitism: Hostages of Modernization. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1256, 1244–45. ISBN 978-3110137156.
- Colin Tatz (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. Winton Higgins. ABC-CLIO. p. 26. ISBN 978-1440831614.
- Kleg, Milton (1993). Hate Prejudice and Racism. SUNY Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0791415368.
- Gitelman, Zvi Y. (2001). Revolution and the Ambiguities. p. 25. ISBN 978-0253338112. Chapter 2.
- Levin, Nora (1991). The Jews in the Soviet Union Since 1917: Paradox of Survival. NYU Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8147-5051-3.
- Gitelman, Zvi Y. (2001). A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press. pp. 65–70. ISBN 978-0253338112.
- Kadish, Sharman (1992). Bolsheviks and British Jews: The Anglo-Jewish Community, Britain, and the Russian Revolution. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 9780714633718.
- Encyclopaedia Judaica (2008). "Pogroms". The Jewish Virtual Library.
- Yekelchyk, Serhy (2007). Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3.
- Magocsi, Paul Robert (2010). History of Ukraine - The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 537. ISBN 978-1-4426-4085-6.
- Ivan Bunin (1998), Cursed Days: A Diary of Revolution. May 2/15, 1919. Ivan R. Dee, ISBN 1461730309. p. 141.
- Abramson, Henry (September 1991). "Jewish Representation in the Independent Ukrainian Governments of 1917–1920". Slavic Review. Vol. 50, No. 3 (Fall, 1991): 542–550.
- Budnitskii, Oleg (2012). Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 373, 364. ISBN 978-0812208146.
The battalion 'forced the Poles to retreat several versts' [one verst is roughly equal to 1 kilometer].
- Stachura, Peter D. (2004). Poland, 1918-1945: an Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic. Psychology Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0415343589.
- Gdański, Jarosław (2017). "Cossacks, Russians and Ukrainians on the Polish side in the War of the 1920" [Kozacy, Rosjanie i Ukraińcy po stronie polskiej w wojnie 1920 r.]. Magazyn IOH (bimonthly). ISSN 1734-9060. Also in: Tarczyński, Marek (1998). "1 dywizja Litewsko-Białoruska (1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division)". Battle of the Niemen; August 29 - October 18, 1920 [Bitwa niemeńska 29 VIII - 18 X 1920]. Collection of Documents. Warsaw: Rytm. pp. 265, 345, 390, 647. ISBN 978-83-87893-55-2.
- In God's Playground, Volume II, p192, Norman Davies writes in relation to events in Lviv (1918), Pinsk (1919) and Vilnius (1919-20): "Press reports in the West of 'Pogroms in Poland', though accepted by Jewish commentators, were repeatedly discredited by the investigations of independent British and American observers. The so-called pogrom in Lwów, in November 1918, turned out to be a military massacre where three times more Christians died than Jews. The so-called pogrom in Pinsk in March 1919 turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose order to executre thirty-five suspected Bolshevik infiltrators was described by a US investigator as 'fully justified by the circumstances'; the pogroms in Wilno in April 1919 and again in October 1920 were occasioned by the Red Army's hasty retreats, and by military reprisals against suspected collaborators."
- Morgenthau, Henry (1922). All in a Life-time. Doubleday & Page. p. 414. OCLC 25930642.
- Sloin, Andrew (2017). The Jewish Revolution in Belorussia: Economy, Race, and Bolshevik Power. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253024633..
- Bemporad, Elissa (2013). Becoming Soviet Jews: The Bolshevik Experiment in Minsk. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253008275.
- Wandycz, Piotr Stefan (1980). The United States and Poland. Harvard University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0674926851. American foreign policy library.
- Neil Prior. "History debate over anti-Semitism in 1911 Tredegar riot". BBC News, 19 August 2011.
- "Tragic Week Summary". BookRags.com. 2010-11-02. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Joanna B. Michlic (2006). Poland's Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew from 1880 to the Present. University of Nebraska Press. p. 111. "In three days 72 Jews were murdered and 443 others injured. The chief perpetrators of these murders were soldiers and officers of the so-called Blue Army, set up in France in 1917 by General Jozef Haller (1893–1960) and lawless civilians".
- Herbert Arthur Strauss (1993). Hostages of Modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism, 1870–1933/39. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1048.
- Gilman, Sander L.; Milton Shain (1999). Jewries at the Frontier: Accommodation, Identity, Conflict. University of Illinois Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780252067921.
After the end of the fighting and as a result of the Polish victory, some of the Polish soldiers and the civilian population started a pogrom against the Jewish inhabitants. Polish soldiers maintained that the Jews had sympathized with the Ukrainian position during the conflicts
- Marsha L. Rozenblit (2001). Reconstructing a National Identity: The Jews of Habsburg Austria during World War I. Oxford University Press. p. 137. "The largest pogrom occurred in Lemberg [= Lwow]. Polish soldiers led an attack on the Jewish quarter of the city on November 21–23, 1918 that claimed 73 Jewish lives".
- Zvi Y. Gitelman (2003). The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics: Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 58. "In November 1918, Polish soldiers who had taken Lwow (Lviv) from the Ukrainians killed more than seventy Jews in a pogrom there, burning synagogues, destroying Jewish property, and leaving hundreds of Jewish families homeless."
- Tobenkin, Elias (1919-06-01). "Jewish Poland and its Red Reign of Terror". New York Tribune. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Neal Pease (2003). M.B.B. Biskupski, ed. This Troublesome Question: the United States and the "Polish Pogroms" of 1918–1919. Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe. University of Rochester Press. ISBN 9781580461375. Also in: Carole Fink (2006). Defending the Rights of Others: The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0521029940. See: Wihelmstrasse. As well as: Peter D. Stachura (1998). Poland between the Wars, 1918–1939. Springer. p. 36. ISBN 978-1349269426.
- "World War II: Before the War", The Atlantic, June 19, 2011. "Windows of shops owned by Jews which were broken during a coordinated anti-Jewish demonstration in Berlin, known as Kristallnacht, on Nov. 10, 1938. Nazi authorities turned a blind eye as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed storefronts with hammers, leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed windows. Ninety-one Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps.
- Michael Berenbaum, Arnold Kramer (2005). The World Must Know. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 49.
- Gilbert, Martin (1986). The Holocaust: the Jewish tragedy. Collins. pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-0-00-216305-7.
- Browning, Christopher R. (1998) . "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 51, 98, 109, 124. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- Meier, Anna: "Die Intelligenzaktion: die Vernichtung der polnischen Oberschicht im Gau Danzig-Westpreusen" VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, ISBN 3-639-04721-4 ISBN 978-3639047219
- Dean, Martin (2003). Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 66–72. ISBN 9781403963710.
- Fischel, Jack (1998). The Holocaust, Greenwood, p. 41. ISBN 978-0-313-29879-0
- Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (RICHR) submitted to President Ion Iliescu in Bucharest on 11 November 2004.
- "The Farhud", Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Julia Magnet. "The terror behind Iraq's Jewish exodus", The Daily Telegraph, April 16, 2003.
- Holocaust Resources, History of Lviv.
- Löw, Andrea (10 June 2013). "Stanislawów (now Ivano-Frankivsk)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
From The USHMM Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945.
- Pohl, Dieter. Hans Krueger and the Murder of the Jews in the Stanislawow Region (Galicia) (PDF). pp. 12–13, 17–18, 21 – via Yad Vashem.org.
It is impossible to determine what Krueger's exact responsibility was in connection with 'Bloody Sunday' [massacre of 12 October 1941]. It is clear that a massacre of such proportions under German civil administration was virtually unprecedented.
- "Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3, Google Print, p.164.
- "Holocaust Revealed". www.holocaustrevealed.org. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
- "Instytut PamiÄci Narodowej". Retrieved 15 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
- A communiqué regarding the decision to end the investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941 Archived 20 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r.) from 30 June 2003.
- Contested memories By Joshua D. Zimmerman, Rutgers University Press – Publisher; pp. 67–68.
- Antisemitism By Richard S. Levy, ABC-CLIO – Publisher; p. 366.
- Alexander B. Rossino, Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa,[permanent dead link] Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003).
- Jan Tomasz Gross, "Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland", Penguin Books, Princeton University Press, 2002.
- Bostom, Andrew G. (Ed.) 2007. The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History.
- "Sunshine, Blossoms and Blood". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Easter in Kishinev". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Reading Ferguson: books on race, police, protest and U.S. history". Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Bergmann writes that "the concept of "ethnic violence" covers a range of heterogeneous phenomena, and in many cases there are still no established theoretical and conceptual distinctions in the field (Waldmann, 1995:343)" Bergmann then goes on to set out a variety of conflicting scholarly views on the definition and usage of the term pogrom.
- Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1997-11-01). Poland's Holocaust. ISBN 9780786429134. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Neal Pease. "'This Troublesome Question': The United States and the 'Polish Pogroms' of 1918–1919." In: Mieczysław B. Biskupski, Piotr Stefan Wandycz, page 60. Ideology, Politics, and Diplomacy in East Central Europe. Boydell & Brewer, 2003, p.72
- Mark, Jonathan (August 9, 2011). "What The 'Pogrom' Wrought". The Jewish Week. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- New York Media, LLC (1991-09-09). "New York Magazine". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Crown Heights: Politics and Press Coverage of the Race War That Wasn't, Carol B. Conaway, Polity, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 93-118
- "As a Jew, I was ashamed at the scenes of Jews opening fire at innocent Arabs in Hebron. There is no other definition than the term 'pogrom' to describe what I have seen."Settlers attack Palestinian village
- "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Olmert condemns settler 'pogrom'". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Heitmeyer and Hagan, International handbook of violence research, Volume 1 pp 352–55
- Prof. Sandra Gambetti (2009). The Alexandrian Riots of 38 C.E. and the Persecution of the Jews: A Historical Reconstruction. University of California, Berkeley: BRILL. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-9004138469.
- Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History, edited by John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza, pages 13 and 35 (footnotes)
- Klier also writes that Alexander Pereswetoff-Morath has advanced a strong argument against considering the Kiev riots of 1113 an anti-Jewish pogrom. Pereswetoff-Morath writes in "A Grin without a Cat" (2002) that "I feel that Birnbaum's use of the term "anti-Semitism" as well as, for example, his use of "pogrom" in references to medieval Rus are not warranted by the evidence he presents. He is, of course, aware that it may be controversial."
- George Vernadsky, Kievan Russia, Yale University Press, 1 Apr 1973, p94
- "Portugal". Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica.
- Limerick Leader, Saturday 6 November 2010, Jewish envoy says Limerick pogrom is 'over-portrayed'
- "Welsh Journals Online -". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Controversy and Crisis". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Daniela Gioseffi (1993). On Prejudice: A Global Perspective. Anchor Books. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-385-46938-8. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
...Andric describes the "Sarajevo frenzy of hate" that erupted among Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers following the assassination on June 28, 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo...
- Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History. Edited by Jonathan Dekel-Chen, David Gaunt, Natan M. Meir, and Israel Bartal "the repeated protests of some scholars that what happened in Lwów in November 1918 was not, strictly speaking, a "pogrom"— or similar claims about the killing of two Jews and one Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936, which became the subject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain and ongoing argument in Poland and beyond in 2001"
- Mideast Dispatch Archive
- Defending the Rights of Others:The Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938, Carole Fink, 2006, p185
- Steven K. Baum, Shimon Samuels. Antisemitism Explained. University Press of America. 2011. p. 174.
- "Istanbul love story". The Post and Courier. April 10, 2011.
- Kurt Jonassohn; Karin Solveig Björnson. Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. Transaction Publishers. pp. 256–258. ISBN 978-1-4128-2445-3.
- The Jewish Week, August 9, 2011 "A divisive debate over the meaning of pogrom, lasting for more than two years, could have easily been ended if the mayor simply said to the victims of Crown Heights, yes, I understand why you experienced it as a pogrom."
- Purnick, Joyce (June 3, 1993). "Editorial Notebook: Crown Heights Was Not Iasi". The New York Times.
- "TIMELINE: How the 1991 Crown Heights riots unfolded". New York Daily News. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- Okeowo, Alexis (August 19, 2011). "Crown Heights, Twenty Years After the Riots". The New Yorker.
Giuliani called the riots a pogrom.
- "Buddhists from Bangladesh resettle in Myanmar, Rohingya Muslims cry foul". Csmonitor.com. May 24, 2013.
- Bergmann, Werner (2003), "Pogroms", in Heitmeyer, Wilhelm; Hagan, John, International Handbook of Violence Research, 1, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-4020-1466-6
- Brass, Paul R. (December 6, 2002). On the Study of Riots, Pogroms, and Genocide. Sawyer Seminar session on "Processes of Mass Killing". Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University.
- Cohn, Norman (1966). Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: Harper & Row. OCLC 220903085.
- Engel, David (2010), "What's in a Pogrom? European Jews in the Age of Violence", in Dekel-Chen, Jonathan, Anti-Jewish Violence: Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-35520-1
- Horvitz, Leslie A.; Catherwood, Christopher, eds. (2006). Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide. New York, NY: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-6001-6.
- Klier, John D., ed. (2011), "What was a Pogrom?", Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-1882, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-89548-4
- Shelton, Dinah, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. Detroit: Macmillan Reference. ISBN 978-0-02-865847-6.
- Thackrah, John R., ed. (1987). Encyclopedia of Terrorism and Political Violence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7102-0659-6.