|Systematic IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||78.9720 g mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
A phosphite anion or phosphite in inorganic chemistry usually refers to [HPO3]2− but includes [H2PO3]− ([HPO2(OH)]−). These anions are the conjugate bases of phosphorous acid (H3PO3). The corresponding salts, e.g. sodium phosphite (Na2HPO3) are reducing in character.
The IUPAC recommended name for phosphorous acid is phosphonic acid. Correspondingly, the IUPAC-recommended name for the HPO2−
3 ion is phosphonate. In the US the IUPAC naming conventions for inorganic compounds are taught at high school, but not as a 'required' part of the curriculum. A well-known university-level textbook follows the IUPAC recommendations. In practice any reference to "phosphite" should be investigated to determine the naming convention being employed.
Salts containing HPO2−
3, called phosphonates or phosphites
From the commercial perspective, the most important phosphite salt is basic lead phosphite. Many salts containing the phosphite ion have been investigated structurally, these include sodium phosphite pentahydrate (Na2HPO3·5H2O). (NH4)2HPO3·H2O, CuHPO3·H2O, SnHPO3 and Al2(HPO3)3·4H2O. The structure of HPO2−
3 is approximately tetrahedral.
Salts containing HP(O)2OH−
Acid or hydrogen phosphites are called hydrogenphosphonates or acid phosphites. IUPAC recommends the name hydrogenphosphonates). They are anions HP(O)2OH−. Aypical derivative is the salt [NH4][HP(O)2OH]. Many related salts are known, e.g., RbHPHO3, CsHPHO3, TlHPHO3. These salts are prepared by treating phosphorous acid with the metal carbonate. These compounds contain a layer polymeric anion consisting of HPO3 tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonds. These layers are interleaved by layers of metal cations.
Salts containing H
5, called diphosphites or pyrophosphites
Parallels in arsenic chemistry
In contrast to the paucity of evidence for PO3−
3, the corresponding arsenic ion, ortho-arsenite, AsO3−
3 is known. An example is Ag3AsO3 as well as the polymeric meta-arsenite (AsO−
n. The iso-electronic sulfite ion, SO2−
3 is known from its salts.
Use as fungicides
Inorganic phosphites (containing HPO2−
3) have been applied to crops to combat fungus-like pathogens of the order Oomycetes. The situation is confusing because of the similarity in name between phosphite and phosphate (a major plant nutrient and fertilizer ingredient), and controversial because phosphites have sometimes been advertised as fertilizers, even though they are converted to phosphate too slowly to serve as a plant's main phosphorus source. Lemoynie and others have described this complicated situation and noted that calling phosphites fertilizers avoided the regulatory complication and negative public perceptions that might have been incurred by registering them as fungicides.
- Hypophosphite – H
- Phosphine – PH3 and the organic phosphines PR3
- Phosphine oxide – OPR3
- Phosphinite – P(OR)R2
- Phosphonite – P(OR)2R
- Phosphinate – OP(OR)R2
- Phosphonate – organic phosphonates OP(OR)2R
- Phosphate – PO3−
- Organophosphate – OP(OR)3
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- Franz Müller, Peter Ackermann, Paul Margot (2012). "Fungicides, Agricultural, 2. Individual Fungicides". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.o12_o06.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Phosphites and Phosphates: When Distributors and Growers alike could get confused!" by Jean-Pierre Leymonie. Courtesy of New Ag International, September 2007 edition.
- Thao; Yamakawa (2008). "Phosphite (phosphorous acid): Fungicide, fertilizer or bio-stimulator?". Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 55: 228–234. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0765.2009.00365.x.