|Names||Pharmacist, Chemist, Doctor of Pharmacy, Druggist, Apothecary or simply Doctor|
|Health care, health sciences, chemical sciences|
|Doctor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Diploma in Pharmacy|
|Doctor, pharmacy technician, toxicologist, chemist, pharmacy assistant, other medical specialists|
Pharmacy is the health science that links medical science with chemistry and it is charged with the discovery, production, control, disposal, safe and effective use of drugs. The practice of pharmacy requires excellent knowledge of drugs, their mechanism of action, side effects, interactions, mobility and toxicity. At the same time, it requires knowledge of treatment and understanding of the pathological process. Some specialties of pharmacists, such as that of clinical pharmacists, require other skills, e.g. knowledge about the acquisition and evaluation of physical and laboratory data. 
The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing of medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize the use of medication for the benefit of the patients.
An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a pharmacy (this term is more common in the United States) or a chemist's (which is more common in Great Britain). In the United States and Canada, drugstores commonly sell medicines, as well as miscellaneous items such as confectionery, cosmetics, office supplies, toys, hair care products and magazines and occasionally refreshments and groceries.
In its investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients, the work of the pharma may be regarded as a precursor of the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology, prior to the formulation of the scientific method.
The field of pharmacy can generally be divided into three primary disciplines:
The boundaries between these disciplines and with other sciences, such as biochemistry, are not always clear-cut. Often, collaborative teams from various disciplines (pharmacists and other scientists) work together toward the introduction of new therapeutics and methods for patient care. However, pharmacy is not a basic or biomedical science in its typical form. Medicinal chemistry is also a distinct branch of synthetic chemistry combining pharmacology, organic chemistry, and chemical biology.
Pharmacology is sometimes considered as the 4th discipline of pharmacy. Although pharmacology is essential to the study of pharmacy, it is not specific to pharmacy. Both disciplines are distinct. Those who wish to practice both pharmacy (patient-oriented) and pharmacology (a biomedical science requiring the scientific method) receive separate training and degrees unique to either discipline.
Pharmacoinformatics is considered another new discipline, for systematic drug discovery and development with efficiency and safety.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic-linked variants that effect patient clinical responses, allergies, and metabolism of drugs.
Pharmacists are healthcare professionals with specialized education and training who perform various roles to ensure optimal health outcomes for their patients through the quality use of medicines. Pharmacists may also be small-business proprietors, owning the pharmacy in which they practice. Since pharmacists know about the mode of action of a particular drug, and its metabolism and physiological effects on the human body in great detail, they play an important role in optimization of drug treatment for an individual.
Pharmacists are represented internationally by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). They are represented at the national level by professional organisations such as the Royal Pharmaceutical Society in the UK, Pharmacy Guild of Australia (PSA), Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA), Indian Pharmacist Association (IPA), Pakistan Pharmacists Association (PPA), and the American Pharmacists Association (APhA). (See also: List of pharmacy associations.)
In some cases, the representative body is also the registering body, which is responsible for the regulation and ethics of the profession.
In the United States, specializations in pharmacy practice recognized by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties include: cardiovascular, infectious disease, oncology, pharmacotherapy, nuclear, nutrition, and psychiatry. The Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy certifies pharmacists in geriatric pharmacy practice. The American Board of Applied Toxicology certifies pharmacists and other medical professionals in applied toxicology.
Pharmacy technicians support the work of pharmacists and other health professionals by performing a variety of pharmacy-related functions, including dispensing prescription drugs and other medical devices to patients and instructing on their use. They may also perform administrative duties in pharmaceutical practice, such as reviewing prescription requests with medic's offices and insurance companies to ensure correct medications are provided and payment is received.
A Pharmacy Technician in the UK has recently been referred to by some as a professional. Legislation requires the supervision of certain pharmacy technician's activities by a pharmacist. The majority of pharmacy technicians work in community pharmacies. In hospital pharmacies, pharmacy technicians may be managed by other senior pharmacy technicians. In the UK the role of a PhT in hospital pharmacy has grown and responsibility has been passed on to them to manage the pharmacy department and specialized areas in pharmacy practice allowing pharmacists the time to specialize in their expert field as medication consultants spending more time working with patients and in research. Pharmacy technicians are registered with the General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC). The GPhC is the regulator of pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy premises.
In the US, pharmacy technicians perform their duties under the supervision of pharmacists. Although they may perform, under supervision, most dispensing, compounding and other tasks, they are not generally allowed to perform the role of counseling patients on the proper use of their medications.
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
There are different requirements of schooling according to the national jurisdiction where the student intends to practise.
In the United States, general pharmacist will attain a Doctor of Pharmacy Degree (Pharm.D.). The Pharm.D. can be completed in a minimum of six years, which includes two years of pre-pharmacy classes, and four years of professional studies. After graduating pharmacy school, it is highly suggested that the student go on to complete a one or two-year residency, which provides valuable experience for the student before going out independently to be a generalized or specialized pharmacist.
The curriculum specified for a Pharm.D. consists of at least 208-credit hours. Of the 208-credit hours, 68 are transferred-credit hours, and the remaining 140-credit hours are completed in the professional school. There are a series of required standardized tests that students have to pass throughout the process of pharmacy school. The standardized test to get into pharmacy school in the United States is called the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT). In a student's third professional year in pharmacy school, it is required to pass the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Once the Pharm.D. is attained after the fourth year professional school, the student is then eligible to take the North American Pharmacist Licensure Exam (NAPLEX) and the Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam (MPJE) to work as a professional pharmacist.
The earliest known compilation of medicinal substances was the Sushruta Samhita, an Indian Ayurvedic treatise attributed to Sushruta in the 6th century BC. However, the earliest text as preserved dates to the 3rd or 4th century AD.
In Ancient Greece, Diocles of Carystus (4th century BC) was one of several men studying the medicinal properties of plants. He wrote several treatises on the topic. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides is famous for writing a five-volume book in his native Greek Περί ύλης ιατρικής in the 1st century AD. The Latin translation De Materia Medica (Concerning medical substances) was used a basis for many medieval texts and was built upon by many middle eastern scientists during the Islamic Golden Age.
Pharmacy in China dates at least to the earliest known Chinese manual, the Shennong Bencao Jing (The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic), dating back to the 1st century AD. It was compiled during the Han dynasty and was attributed to the mythical Shennong. Earlier literature included lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by a manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangdui, sealed in 168 BC.
In Japan, at the end of the Asuka period (538–710) and the early Nara period (710–794), the men who fulfilled roles similar to those of modern pharmacists were highly respected. The place of pharmacists in society was expressly defined in the Taihō Code (701) and re-stated in the Yōrō Code (718). Ranked positions in the pre-Heian Imperial court were established; and this organizational structure remained largely intact until the Meiji Restoration (1868). In this highly stable hierarchy, the pharmacists—and even pharmacist assistants—were assigned status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists. In the Imperial household, the pharmacist was even ranked above the two personal physicians of the Emperor.
There is a stone sign for a pharmacy with a tripod, a mortar, and a pestle opposite one for a doctor in the Arcadian Way in Ephesus near Kusadasi in Turkey. The current Ephesus dates back to 400 BC and was the site of the Temple of Artemis, one of the seven wonders of the world.
In Baghdad the first pharmacies, or drug stores, were established in 754, under the Abbasid Caliphate during the Islamic Golden Age. By the 9th century, these pharmacies were state-regulated.[unreliable source?]
The advances made in the Middle East in botany and chemistry led medicine in medieval Islam substantially to develop pharmacology. Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865–915), for instance, acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936–1013) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation. His Liber servitoris is of particular interest, as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the 'simples' from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used. Sabur Ibn Sahl (d 869), was, however, the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments. Al-Biruni (973–1050) wrote one of the most valuable Islamic works on pharmacology, entitled Kitab al-Saydalah (The Book of Drugs), in which he detailed the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist. Avicenna, too, described no less than 700 preparations, their properties, modes of action, and their indications. He devoted in fact a whole volume to simple drugs in The Canon of Medicine. Of great impact were also the works by al-Maridini of Baghdad and Cairo, and Ibn al-Wafid (1008–1074), both of which were printed in Latin more than fifty times, appearing as De Medicinis universalibus et particularibus by 'Mesue' the younger, and the Medicamentis simplicibus by 'Abenguefit'. Peter of Abano (1250–1316) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-Maridini under the title De Veneris. Al-Muwaffaq's contributions in the field are also pioneering. Living in the 10th century, he wrote The foundations of the true properties of Remedies, amongst others describing arsenious oxide, and being acquainted with silicic acid. He made clear distinction between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, and drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds, especially copper vitriol, and also lead compounds. He also describes the distillation of sea-water for drinking.[verification needed]
There are pharmacies in Europe that have been in operation since medieval times. In Dubrovnik (Croatia), a pharmacy that first opened in 1317 is located inside the Franciscan monastery: it is oldest operating pharmacy in Europe. In the Town Hall Square of Tallinn (Estonia), there is a pharmacy dating from at least 1422. === The word pharmacy is derived from Old French farmacie "substance, such as a food or in the form of a medicine which has a laxative effect" from Medieval Latin pharmacia from Greek pharmakeia (Greek: φαρμακεία) "a medicine", which itself derives from pharmakon (φάρμακον), meaning "drug, poison, spell"[n 1] (which is etymologically related to pharmakos).
Separation of prescribing and dispensing
Separation of prescribing and dispensing, also called dispensing separation, is a practice in medicine and pharmacy in which the physician who provides a medical prescription is independent from the pharmacist who provides the prescription drug.
In the Western world there are centuries of tradition for separating pharmacists from physicians. In Asian countries, it is traditional for physicians to also provide drugs.
In contemporary time researchers and health policy analysts have more deeply considered these traditions and their effects. Advocates for separation and advocates for combining make similar claims for each of their conflicting perspectives, saying that separating or combining reduces conflict of interest in the healthcare industry, unnecessary health care, and lowers costs, while the opposite causes those things. Research in various places reports mixed outcomes in different circumstances.
The future of pharmacy
In the coming decades, pharmacists are expected to become more integral within the health care system. Rather than simply dispensing medication, pharmacists are increasingly expected to be compensated for their patient care skills. In particular, Medication Therapy Management (MTM) includes the clinical services that pharmacists can provide for their patients. Such services include a thorough analysis of all medication (prescription, non-prescription, and herbals) currently being taken by an individual. The result is a reconciliation of medication and patient education resulting in increased patient health outcomes and decreased costs to the health care system.
This shift has already commenced in some countries; for instance, pharmacists in Australia receive remuneration from the Australian Government for conducting comprehensive Home Medicines Reviews. In Canada, pharmacists in certain provinces have limited prescribing rights (as in Alberta and British Columbia) or are remunerated by their provincial government for expanded services such as medications reviews (Medschecks in Ontario). In the United Kingdom, pharmacists who undertake additional training are obtaining prescribing rights and this is because of pharmacy education. They are also being paid for by the government for medicine use reviews. In Scotland, the pharmacist can write prescriptions for Scottish registered patients of their regular medications, for the majority of drugs, except for controlled drugs, when the patient is unable to see their doctor, as could happen if they are away from home or the doctor is unavailable. In the United States, pharmaceutical care or clinical pharmacy has had an evolving influence on the practice of pharmacy. Moreover, the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.) degree is now required before entering practice and some pharmacists now complete one or two years of residency or fellowship training following graduation. In addition, consultant pharmacists, who traditionally operated primarily in nursing homes are now expanding into direct consultation with patients, under the banner of "senior care pharmacy".
In addition to patient care, pharmacies will be a focal point for medical adherence initiatives. There is enough evidence to show that integrated pharmacy based initiatives significantly impact adherence for chronic patients. For example, a study published in NIH shows "pharmacy based interventions improved patients' medication adherence rates by 2.1 percent and increased physicians' initiation rates by 38 percent, compared to the control group".
The symbols most commonly associated with pharmacy are the mortar and pestle (North America) and the ℞ (Medical prescription) character, which is often written as "Rx" in typed text; the green Greek cross in France, Argentina, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and India; the Bowl of Hygieia (only) often used in the Netherlands but may be seen combined with other symbols elsewhere. Other common symbols include conical measures, and (in the US) caduceuses, in their logos. A red stylized letter A in used Germany and Austria (from Apotheke, the German word for pharmacy, from the same Greek root as the English word "apothecary"). The show globe was used in the US until the early 20th century;the Gaper in the Netherlands is increasingly rare.
Rod of Asclepius, the internationally recognised symbol of medicine
Simple green Greek cross, widely used in Europe and India, often an animated neon sign
A hanging Show globe, formerly used in the United States
- American Society for Pharmacy Law
- Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, Doctor of Pharmacy
- Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals
- Clinical pharmacy
- Consultant pharmacist
- Evidence-based pharmacy in developing countries
- History of pharmacy
- Hospital pharmacy
- International Pharmaceutical Federation
- International Pharmaceutical Students' Federation
- List of drugs by year of discovery
- List of pharmaceutical laboratories by year of foundation
- List of pharmacies
- List of pharmacy associations
- List of pharmacy organizations in the United Kingdom
- List of pharmacy schools in the United States
- List of pharmacy schools
- Nuclear pharmacy
- Online pharmacy
- Pharmaceutical company
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Pharmaceutical packaging
- Pharmacy Automation - The Tablet Counter
- Pharmacy residency
- Pharmacy informatics
- Professional Further Education in Clinical Pharmacy and Public Health
- Raeapteek (one of the oldest continuously run pharmacies in Europe)
Notes and references
- Thomas D (November 2018). Clinical Pharmacy Education, Practice and Research. ISBN 9780128142769.
- Reference, Genetics Home. "What is pharmacogenomics?". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2011 – Table 6: Health workforce, infrastructure, and essential medicines. Geneva, 2011. Accessed 21 July 2011.
- Board of Pharmacy Specialties, Current Specialties
- "Pharmacist Certification and Course Requirements". Learn.org. 2013–2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Pharmacy Student handbook 2017–2018" (PDF). KU Pharmacy. August 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- "Pharmacy Student Handbook 2017–2018" (PDF). KU Pharmacy. August 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- John K. Borchardt (2002). "The Beginnings of Drug Therapy: Ancient Mesopotamian Medicine". Drug News & Perspectives. 15 (3): 187–192. doi:10.1358/dnp.2002.15.3.840015. ISSN 0214-0934. PMID 12677263.
- Edward Kremers, Glenn Sonnedecker (1986). "Kremers and Urdang's History of pharmacy". Amer. Inst. History of Pharmacy. p.17. ISBN 0931292174
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834) Annales des empereurs du Japon, p. 434.
- "PBase.com". www.pbase.com.
- Hadzovic, S (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development". Medicinski Arhiv (in Croatian). 51 (1–2): 47–50. ISSN 0025-8083. OCLC 32564530. PMID 9324574.
- al-Ghazal, Sharif Kaf (October 2003). "The valuable contributions of Al-Razi (Rhazes) in the history of pharmacy during the Middle Ages" (PDF). Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. 2 (4): 9–11. ISSN 1303-667X. OCLC 54045642.
- Levey M. (1973), ‘ Early Arabic Pharmacology', E. J. Brill; Leiden.
- "History of Pharmacy Web Pages – Sweden´s oldest pharmacies". Archived from the original on 23 June 2011.
- "700 godina ljekarne Male braće". Hrvatska radiotelevizija.
- "Dubrovačka ljekarna Male braće (1357.)". 17 July 2019.
- "pharmacy | Origin and meaning of pharmacy by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
- φάρμακον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
- "PY 1314 Vn + frr. (Cii)". DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo. University of Oslo.Raymoure, K.A. "pe-re". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean."The Linear B word pa-ma-ko". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of ancient languages.
- American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Evidence of the Economic Benefit of Clinical Pharmacy Services: 1996–2000
- American Pharmacy Student Alliance (APSA)[unreliable source?]
- American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy Defined
- American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, What is a Senior Care Pharmacist? Archived 23 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Brennan, Troyen A.; Dollear, Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Matlin, Olga S.; Shrank, William H.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Grambley, William (1 January 2012). "An integrated pharmacy-based program improved medication prescription and adherence rates in diabetes patients". Health Affairs (Project Hope). 31 (1): 120–129. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0931. ISSN 1544-5208. PMID 22232102.
- Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel (2009). "From History of Pharmacy to Pharmaceutical History". Pharmacy in History. 51 (1): 3–13. PMID 20027914.
- (in Japanese) Asai, T. (1985). Nyokan Tūkai. Tokyo: Kōdan-Sha.
- (in French) Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652], Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland....Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)
- Pharmacy Consulting Services | McKesson – A landmark study in hospital pharmacy performance based on an extensive literature review and the collective experience of the Health Systems Pharmacy Executive Alliance.
|Look up pharmacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Pharmacy|
|Wikiversity has learning resources about Pharmacy|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pharmacy.|
- Navigator History of Pharmacy Collection of internet resources related to the history of pharmacy
- Soderlund Pharmacy Museum – Information about the history of the American Drugstore
- The Lloyd Library Library of botanical, medical, pharmaceutical, and scientific books and periodicals, and works of allied sciences
- American Institute of the History of Pharmacy American Institute of the History of Pharmacy—resources in the history of pharmacy
- International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Federation representing national associations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists. Information and resources relating to pharmacy education, practice, science and policy
- Pharmaboard German association of pharmacy students