The history of Persian Egypt is divided into three eras:
- Achaemenid Egypt (525–404 BC and 343–332 BC), referring to two periods of Achaemenid rule punctuated by an interval of independence:
- Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (525–404 BC), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy.
- Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt (343–332 BC), also known as the Second Egyptian Satrapy.
- Sasanian Egypt (619–629 AD), referring to a period of occupation by the Sasanian Empire (Second Persian Empire), after the Sasanian conquest of Egypt and shortly before the Muslim invasions
Egypt was a rich country, and the Persians had coveted it for more than a millennium. It had been conquered twice by the Achaemenids (525–404 and 343–332 BC, before Alexander's conquest), but the stable and powerful Ptolemaic Kingdom, and then the Roman Empire, kept away Persians from Egypt for much of the Greek, Roman, and Byzantine periods. But the expansionist designs of the Sasanian King Khosrow II (590–628), taking advantage of a troubled period on the Byzantine side, allowed Persians under the command of Shahrbaraz to conquer Egypt once again (among other parts of the Near East), for a short period (619–629).
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