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The peaked cap, service cap, forage cap, barracks cover or combination cap is a form of headgear worn by the armed forces of many nations, as well as many uniformed civilian organisations such as law enforcement agencies and fire departments. It derives its name from its short visor, or peak, which was historically made of polished leather but increasingly is made of a cheaper synthetic substitute.
Other principal components are the crown, band and insignia, typically a cap badge and embroidery in proportion to rank. Piping is also often found, typically in contrast to the crown colour, which is usually white for navy, blue for air force and green for army. The band is typically a dark, contrasting colour, often black, but may be patterned or striped.
In the British Army, each regiment and corps has a different badge. In the United States Armed Forces, the cap device is uniform throughout service branch, though different variants are used by different rank classes.
The peaked cap originated in late 18th or early 19th-century Northern Europe, usually worn by working-class men. In the later years of the Napoleonic Wars, it began to appear in the senior ranks of the Russian and Prussian armies, being popular because of its comfort and light weight, as opposed to the cumbersome bicorns and shakos that were standard duty issue. During the Biedermeier period (1815–48), they became universal dress for German and Austrian civilian males of all classes, and for the entire 19th century, they were popular with the working classes all over Northern Europe, although in Britain the flat cap was preferred by civilians towards the end of the century.
In 1846, the United States Army adopted the peaked cap during the Mexican-American war due to the unsuitability of the shako in the hot Mexican climate. In 1856, a form of peaked cap was adopted by petty officers of Britain's Royal Navy, in imitation of an undress headdress worn by officers from as early as 1827. The British Army adopted peaked caps in 1902 for both the new khaki field dress and (in coloured form) as part of the "walking out" or off-duty wear for other ranks. A dark blue version was worn with dress blues by all ranks of the U.S. Army between 1902 and 1917.
During the 20th century, the combination or peaked cap became common in the armies, navies, air forces and police forces of the world, forgone in combat by common soldiers in favour of more protective combat helmets.
Australian Defence Force
In the Australian Army, the peaked cap is known as the service cap and is generally worn with the "Patrol Blues" order of dress by all ranks, with the cap colour being blue. Formerly, a khaki service cap could be worn by warrant officers, commissioned officers and officer/staff cadets with the service uniform on non-ceremonial occasions, until September 2010.
In the Royal Australian Navy, the peaked cap is the standard headdress worn by all ranks above leading seaman, when wearing ceremonial uniform, regular day dress and informal evening dress, among others.
Throughout the 19th century, the Austro-Hungarian army were issued with shakos, originally in black leather and later in pike grey wool. Gradually, the height of the shako decreased and the cardboard stiffening removed until, by 1908, it had evolved into the ski cap. This was worn by Austrian officers and enlisted personnel during both World Wars, but when the postwar Austrian Bundesheer was established in 1955 an olive drab peaked cap and American style uniform were introduced.
See also: Cap badge#Canadian Armed Forces
In the Canadian Forces, the peaked cap (French: casquette de service) is the primary headgear for men's Royal Canadian Navy service dress. It has been abandoned in the Royal Canadian Air Force in favour of the wedge cap. It has also been eliminated from the Canadian Army in favour of the beret, with two exceptions. General officers wearing army uniform can wear either a beret or a peaked cap with service dress. Royal Canadian Infantry Corps members of foot guards units such as the Canadian Grenadier Guards wear the bearskin cap with full dress but the peaked cap with undress and service dress.
On navy caps, the peak and chinstrap of the service cap are always black. The cap band is black with the exception of navy military police, who wear a scarlet cap band, and members of Canadian Special Operations Forces Command, who wear a tan cap band.
On both navy and army caps, the chinstrap is affixed to the cap via two small buttons, one roughly over each ear; these buttons are miniature versions of the buttons on the service dress tunic, and as such bear an RCN or regimental device.
The peak of the cap of non-commissioned members and subordinate officers is left plain, and officers' caps are adorned with one or more bands of braid (depending on rank) at the forward edge of the peak. The peak of the junior officer's cap has a gold band along the forward edge, that of the senior officer has a row of gold oak leaves across the forward edge, while that of the flag officer has two rows of gold oak leaves, one along the forward edge and one near the cap band. The same oak leaves are worn by the Governor General of Canada as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces.
The service cap is theoretically unisex, although there exists a service hat (French: chapeau de service) for women. The service hat does not have a crown top and has a stiff brim all around. The front of the brim is formed into a visor and the sides and back are folded upwards.
Police forces across Canada also wear a peaked cap. The cap is basic black with colour cap band of either of red (municipal forces), blue (Ontario Provincial Police (OPP)) or yellow (Royal Canadian Mounted Police). The peaked cap of the Sûreté du Québec is green with a green band and yellow piping.
Until recently the OPP's front line officers wore a black Campaign hat, but has since reverted to the peaked cap. The RCMP only use the Campaign hat for formal dress uniform or by members of the Musical Ride.
In Denmark, the use of peaked cap has seen a gradual decline from official uniforms, but it is still used in the ceremonial uniforms the general corps of the Army, officers of the Airforce, officers of the Navy, the police and fire department.
Peaked caps were first issued to German Landwehr troops during the Napoleonic Wars, since these were cheaper and easier to maintain than the heavy leather shakos and elaborate tailcoats worn by the British, French and Russian armies. The Prussian army was also the first to adopt the frock coat, so officers would not soil their dress uniforms on campaign.
When the Pickelhaube was introduced during the 1840s, enlisted German troops were issued with peakless forage caps resembling the sailor cap. Officers, however, continued to wear the peaked cap, or Schirmmütze, to set themselves apart from the French, who wore the kepi. Initially, German peaked caps were in the uniform color, e.g., Prussian blue, cornflower blue, green, etc., but before the First World War a field grey hat was issued, with piping colour coded for infantry, artillery or cavalry. These caps, known as "crushers", could be worn beneath a Stahlhelm or stuffed into a pocket or knapsak
In 1935, the Nazis introduced new uniforms designed for modern mechanised warfare. However, the basic design including the peaked cap remained the same as in the Weimar Republic's Reichsheer. But the new national emblem featuring eagle clutching swastika, and Black-red-white roundel in oak wreath were introduced on the caps. Enlisted personnel and non-commissioned officers were issued with peaked caps with leather chincord. Officers received caps with metallic chincord. Both enlisted-NCO's caps and Officer's caps featured specially colored piping around the cap according to their service branch (White for infantry, pink for panzer and so on). Gestapo and SS men were issued with black Schirmmützen featuring a silver death's head. On campaign, Wehrmacht officers often removed the wire stiffening so the cap would resemble the older First World War–era crusher.
Modern German army
After the Second World War, both the West German Bundeswehr and East German National People's Army continued to be issued uniforms derived from the Second World War pattern. East German caps bore the DDR State Cockade with the Hammer and Compass design, while West German caps had a cockade in the German national colours, and a badge featuring a pair of crossed swords. After reunification, the Schirmmütze remained part of the German army dress uniform.
The peaked cap and peaked hat are worn as formal dress by members of the Hong Kong Disciplined Services (police, fire, customs/excise, immigration, etc.) with influence from the British colonial services. All caps use black as base colour. The crown is flat and round in shape. Female police officers' caps have a coloured band, no crown top and front of the brim is flat with sides/back folded upwards.
Members of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison also wear a peaked cap, but the design is more influenced from the former Soviet Union, and varies with those used in Hong Kong. However, since from 2007, PLA started to change to adapt the Type 07 Service Uniform, the new uniform retains peaked cap but the style is more like the US and Commonwealth peaked cap instead of the Soviet style caps.
Members of the armed and uniformed services in Indonesia wear the Peaked cap during ceremonial and operational duties. It is widely worn by the Indonesian National Police, the Indonesian Armed Forces and other uniformed institutions in the country.
In the Israel Defense Forces, combination caps are used only by:
- Air Force Officers;
- Navy officers in ceremonial dress;
- Military Police soldiers in law enforcement duties;
- Israel Defense Forces Orchestra Soldiers;
- Some regimental sergeants major of other service branches, in ceremonial dress.
Amir Eshel former commander of the Israel Air Force, wearing a IAF combination cap
Military Police soldiers wearing a combination cap
Russia was the first country to adopt the peaked cap. The official act of adopting the cap for military use was made by Alexander I of Russia in 1811. During the Napoleonic Wars, various early versions of the peaked cap were in use in the Russian army. Imperial Russia abandoned the cap for a short period in the second half of the 19th century for a forage cap similar to the one used by Americans during their civil war, but the peaked cap soon returned. Early soldiers' peaked caps were, in fact, peakless, hence the nickname солдатский блин (soldier's flapjack) for the headgear; officers' caps had peaks from the start and looked like modern peaked caps. The peakless version remained in use in the Russian navy under the name of beskozyrka (literally "peakless one") and is still worn by Russian seamen. Also during the Imperial period, peaked caps were introduced as part of government officials' uniforms. Serfs and peasants adopted an almost identical hat into their fashion after the Napoleonic Wars, known as a kartuz.
In 1914, peakless caps were abolished everywhere in Russian armed forces except the Navy, and modern peaked caps were issued to all soldiers. However, after the October Revolution of 1917, it was replaced in Red Army field uniforms by the budenovka, and later by the garrison cap. The dress uniforms, on the other hand, retained this headgear, and various paramilitary Soviet agencies like the NKVD or VOKhR kept using it in all uniforms. Agencies like railway workers, firemen, pilots, mining supervisors, foresters, customs officers in the Soviet Union also were organised along military lines and wore uniforms with peaked caps of various designs.
In 1990s, the Russian peaked cap was redesigned and widely issued to the armed forces and police. Caps of this shape are most associated with Russia among foreigners, since they are large and high. In 2012, after Sergey Shoygu was appointed Minister of Defence, the design of the peaked cap was changed again to a lower and more proportional style.
Soviet client states
During the Cold War, uniforms copied from the Russian pattern were issued to the armies of various Asian, Eastern European and African communist regimes. Particularly famous are the oversized caps worn by North Korean army officers, unchanged since the 1950s.
See also: Cap badge#British armed forces
Royal Navy officers were first issued peaked caps in 1825 as a less formal alternative to the bicorne hat. From 1846, it was worn with a crown on the front, and later (from 1856), gold braid was added to the brim to ensure commissioned officers were instantly recognised by their subordinates. Commanders, captains and commodores had one gold wreath on their peaks, whereas flag officers had two. Before the Second World War, naval officers were required to possess two caps: one with a white cover for summer and one without for winter. However, flag officers often preferred the white-topped cap in order to stand out from their subordinates.
British army officers wore blue peaked caps as early as the Crimean War to distinguish themselves from enlisted men who wore the pillbox hat. The peaked caps were widely worn on campaign during the First and Second World Wars, until the more practical beret was popularised by generals like Bernard Montgomery. After the war, officers continued to wear khaki caps as part of the Number 2 dress uniform, but by the 1990s these had been phased out in favour of the dark blue and red caps previously worn with the Number 1 dress uniform.
Peaked caps were first issued to enlisted men in 1908 to replace the Glengarry caps and pillbox hats of the Boer War era. The new caps were made of khaki wool and sometimes had a neck flap to protect against the cold. Nicknamed the "gor blimey", these caps are associated with the First World War 'Tommy Atkins' and continued to be issued to members of the Home Guard and Territorial Army during the Second World War.
Royal Navy officers, Warrant officers, and Senior Rates today wear a framed cap with a white cover and a black band in Nos 1, 2 and 3 Dress; originally worn only in tropical climates, the white cover was adopted for all areas after the Second World War. Officers have an option of a cotton or plastic cover.
- The Royal Tank Regiment, Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, Army Air Corps, Parachute Regiment, SAS, Intelligence Corps and 4/73 Special OP Battery RA who wear berets;
- Personnel attached to the above also wear the appropriate coloured beret (For example, REME Mechanics or RLC Chefs attached to the unit)
- The Royal Regiment of Scotland who wear a regimental Glengarry with cockfeathers taken from the former ceremonial uniform of the Royal Scots;
- The Royal Irish Regiment who wear the Caubeen;
- The Brigade of Gurkhas who wear a round Kilmarnock cap in No 1 dress and the Slouch hat in No 2 Dress
- The Queen's Royal Hussars, whose officers wear a tent hat in No 2 Dress.
It has a cap band which may be coloured (red for all Royal Regiments and Corps), a crown (formerly khaki, now dark blue, except for Military Police which has always been red, and the Rifles who wear Rifle Green) which may have coloured piping or a regimental/corps colour and a patent leather peak and chinstrap. The chinstrap is usually secured above and across the peak and secured at each end by a small (20 line) button of the appropriate regimental or corps pattern.
Officers in some regiments are also required to wear a khaki version of the cap, often called the "Service Dress Cap" with Service Dress (the Officers' No 2 Dress) or Barrack Dress; the design of this dates back to the cap worn in the field until replaced by the steel helmet during the First World War.
All ranks of the Royal Air Force wear a cap with a blue-grey crown and a black band, except other ranks of the RAF Police whose caps have a white crown, worn with the appropriate badge in No 1 dress, and sometimes in other types as well. The peak is:
- Black and polished for airmen, non-commissioned officers (NCOs) and warrant officers
- Blue-grey fabric for officers of the rank of Wing Commander and below. Officer cadets wear a white band instead of a black band.
- Black and polished with gold rank braid for officers of Group Captain and above
Basic headgear for male police officers in the UK is a peaked cap. This includes a cap badge and generally has a black and white diced band (called Sillitoe Tartan) around the hat.
Royal Yacht Clubs
Full members of Royal Yacht Clubs wear a black doeskin cap with plain black leather peak and a black band, worn with the appropriate individual club's badge.
Flag officers' caps are not distinguished by oak leaves or similar devices.
See also: Cap badge#United States
United States Marine Corps
In the United States Marine Corps, these caps are also worn, in two forms. For all ranks, the device is the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor device. In addition, officers wear a lace cross on the top, called the quatrefoil, a traditional mark of distinction from the Marine Corps' foundation enabling sharpshooters aboard ships to identify friendly officers from foes. For blue dress uniforms, the cap is white with a gold device for enlisted, while the gold and silver device is for officers. Only the visor is black, and the chin strap is black for enlisted Marines; it is gold and scarlet for officers. For the service uniforms, an olive drab combination cap is available; the device is black, and the chin strap is black for all ranks. In both cases, field grade officers (majors, lieutenant colonels and colonels) have gold oak leaf motifs on the visor, similar to those worn by navy commanders and captains, while general officers' caps have a different, larger oak leaf motif on the visor. Additionally the blue dress cap of the Commandant of the Marine Corps (as well as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff if it is also a Marine) adds an additional gold oak leaf motif to the front of the band. In the Marine Corps, the combination cap is referred to as the "barracks cover." Also referred as the dress cap or service cap in Marine Corps Orders.
In the United States Navy, midshipmen, chief petty officers, and commissioned officers wear combination covers, but there are differences between the three types. Midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy, United States Merchant Marine Academy or in Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) units wear a combination cap with a gold chinstrap attached by gold buttons, with a gold fouled anchor device. A chief petty officer wears a combination cap with a black chinstrap attached with gold buttons, with a device consisting of a gold fouled anchor with silver block letters "USN" superimposed on the shank of the anchor, with the addition of one, two, or three stars at the top of the anchor if the wearer is a Senior Chief Petty Officer, a Master Chief Petty Officer, or the Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, respectively; while a commissioned officer wears a combination cap with a gold chinstrap attached by gold buttons, with an officer crest device, a silver federal shield over two crossed gold fouled anchors, surmounted by a silver eagle. Chief petty officer and junior commissioned officer visors are shiny black plastic without ornamentation. Officers O-5 (Commander) and above have gold embroidered oak leaves and acorns on a black felt-covered visor, with additional embroidery for flag officers (O-7, or rear admiral lower half, and above), referred to as "scrambled eggs." A thin plastic crown and metal hoop provides structure, and the covering fabric come in khaki or in white (since 1963, the white combination cap is worn with both white and blue uniforms). The black band around the cap includes a black circle extending upward on the front of the crown as a backing behind the device. The gold buttons on the sides of the cover that fasten the chin strap are of a design to match the gold buttons on the service dress jacket and the snaps on officer shoulder boards. For the former female cap the brim was folded up on both sides whereas the men's cap has no brim but a visor at the front; the female cap was discontinued October 2018.
United States Army
In the United States Army soldiers of ranks Specialist and below are not authorized to wear a combination cap and may only wear a beret with the blue service uniform. The combination cap for the blue service and blue dress uniforms of noncommissioned officers (Corporal and above) has a golden stripe on top of the cap band, black chinstrap; the device is the United States' coat of arms in front of a gold disk (the exception is the Sergeant Major of the Army whose device is a gold-colored rendering of the U.S coat of arms surrounded by a gold-coloured wreath). The version for warrant officers and company-grade officers (second lieutenants, first lieutenants, & captains) has a cap band with the branch-of-service color between two golden stripes, and a gold-colored chinstrap. Field-grade officers O-4 and Above (major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel) have oak leaves known unofficially as "scrambled eggs" on the visor. General officers' caps are similar to those of field-grade officers, but the cap band is dark blue and embroidered with gold oak leaf motifs. Warrant officers' cap device and all commissioned officers' cap device is a gold-color rendering of the United States' coat of arms, larger than that of soldiers and lacking the golden disk backing.
The blue service cap issued to the modern US army as part of the dress uniform. A similar hat was regulation from 1902 until 1917.
United States Air Force
In the United States Air Force, all personnel have the option to wear service caps, but only field-grade (major through colonel) and general officers are required to own one. The service cap is issued without charge to enlisted airmen assigned to certain ceremonial units and details.
With the exception of enlisted airmen assigned to the Air Force Band and the Air Force Base Honor Guard, each of which has its own distinctive cap insignia and other uniform devices, Air Force combination caps bear a relief of the Great Seal of the United States rendered in silver-colored metal. For enlisted members, the arms are surrounded by a silver-colored metal circle. (The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force has a wreath instead of the circle). Commissioned officers' insignia is larger and lacks the encompassing circle.
The chinstrap is secured to each side of the cap with a silver-colored, screw-in, metal button bearing an updated and simplified version of the "Hap Arnold emblem" first designed by James T. Rawls for use by the Air Force's predecessor, the Army Air Forces, in 1942. Apart from the screw-back, the buttons are of the same design as those used to secure the uniform coat's epaulets and pockets.
Enlisted airmen's chinstraps and visors are of plain black leather or polymer material. All commissioned officers' chinstraps are also of plain black leather or polymer material. The visors of company-grade officers (second lieutenant through captain) are plain black leather or polymer material. Field-grade officers' visors have two pairs of clouds and lightning bolts, patterned after the oak leaf motifs used by the other services. General officers' caps add an extra pair of clouds and bolts on the visor, while the cap of the Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force adds clouds and bolts around the entire cap band. The clouds and bolts are jokingly referred to in military slang as "farts and darts", much as the other services' oak leaf motifs are known as "scrambled eggs".
The USAF service cap is also worn by the Air Force's civilian auxiliary, the Civil Air Patrol. Senior members (those over the age of 18 who are not cadets and everyone over 21) may wear the service cap with the CAP-specific service cap device. Similar to the Air Force, company grade officers (and NCOs) wear the service cap with a plain brim, field-grade officers wear the service cap with two sets of clouds and bolts on the brim, and general officers wear the service cap with three sets of clouds and bolts. Cadet officers of the CAP also have the option to wear the service cap with the distinctive CAP cadet officer service cap device. The brim is always plain black leather or polymer, regardless of the cadet's rank. The service cap may also be worn by cadets of a CAP Honor Guard detail, even if they are not cadet officers. The manner of wearing is identical to that of a cadet officer.
United States Army Air Forces
During World War II, the "50 mission crush" cap was popular among aircrews of the United States Army Air Forces. Bomber and fighter aircrews had to wear headsets over their service cap during flight, so they would remove the stiffening wire from the cap. The headset would then crush the cap, which would eventually retain its crushed appearance. Since it took a good many missions to properly achieve the look, a so-called "50-mission crush" cap was considered a sign of a seasoned combat veteran. Current US Air Force regulations prohibit the wearing of such caps.
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard wears the combination cap, known as the combo cover, with the Service Dress Blue uniform (SDBs), the Tropical Blue uniform (Trops), and with all other formal dress uniforms. The cover is identical to that of the Navy with respect to the chinstrap and peak ornamentation. Its crown is white. The buttons securing the chin strap to the sides of the band are smaller versions of the buttons worn on the Coast Guard's uniform coats. The blue band around the cap includes blue fabric extending upward on the front of the crown to serve as a backing behind the device. In the case of enlisted personnel, this extension is a blue circle identical to that on the caps of naval officers and chief petty officers. In the case of commissioned officers, however, the extension is a more elaborate polygon to accommodate the officers' cap device.
Unlike their naval counterparts, coast guardsmen below the rank of chief petty officer wear combination covers; their cap device is a golden representation of the Coast Guard emblem. Coast Guard chief petty officers' cap devices match those of the Navy, albeit with a shield on the front of the fouled anchor; like Navy chiefs, their cap devices are enlarged renderings of the rank insignia worn on their collars. Coast Guard officers' cap device is an eagle with wings outstretched, above an anchor grasped horizontally in its talons.
Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and NOAA Commissioned Corps
The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps—the two small services, consisting only of officers, which are the two uniformed services that are not armed forces—wear uniforms and rank insignia adopted from the Navy. The combination covers of the two services are identical to those of the Navy with respect to colors, and peak ornamentation. The chinstrap of the PHS is gold with a burgundy stripe. The buttons securing the chin strap to the sides of the band are smaller versions of the buttons worn on the services' uniform coats. The cap device of NOAACC officers is similar to that of Navy officers with a globe in place of the shield; the cap device of PHSCC officers is similar to that of Navy officers but has a caduceus in place of one of the anchors.
United States Maritime Service
While the majority of American merchant mariners are employed by shipping businesses and accordingly wear either uniforms prescribed by their employers or civilian attire, some officers receive commissions in the United States Maritime Service for federal government duty, such as the faculty of the United States Merchant Marine Academy and the Military Sealift Command's civilian officers manning non-commissioned United States Naval Ships. These officers wear uniforms and rank insignia adopted from the U.S. Navy, albeit with United States Merchant Marine's own button design, cap device, awards, and decorations. The combination covers these officers are identical to those of naval officer with respect to colors, chinstrap and peak ornamentation. The buttons securing the chin strap to the sides of the band are smaller versions of the buttons worn on their coats. The USMS cap device is a rendering of the Merchant Marine device in gold- and silver-colored metal. Like the device worn by naval officers, it features a silver eagle, with wings outstretched, above a gold shield; the shield, however, is defaced with an anchor and surrounded by a wreath.
Public safety officers, such as those from the police, fire department, ambulance service, and customs, often wear peaked caps, especially on formal occasions. In the US, police forces use caps that have softer tops and are not round and rigid in form (notable are those worn in New York and San Francisco). British and Australian policemen have a checkerboard pattern on the cap band, and traffic wardens often have a reflective yellow strip.
A number of civilian professions—the most notable modern examples being merchant marine and civil aviation—also wear peaked caps. In such civilian old traditional usage, only captains aboard ships and pilots in command (airline captains) in service aboard aircraft, have the golden oak leaf motifs ("scrambled eggs") on the visor; this is in contrast to the naval tradition, where it is also worn by commanders (one rank below captain) as well as by commodores and flag officers.
The original civilian variant of the peaked cap was widely worn by sailors and workers from the mid 19th century onwards. These were made of wool or canvas, and sometimes waterproofed with tar. During the 1960s, blue denim Greek fisherman's caps became an essential accessory for the counterculture due to their use by John Lennon of the Beatles. A black leather version, sometimes embellished with chains or metal studs, was worn by bikers, greasers imitating Marlon Brando in The Wild One, and members of the 1970s Black Power movement.
Student caps in Northern and Central European countries are frequently peaked caps. The student caps in Nordic countries are traditionally white (summer uniform) or black (winter uniform) but the colors of the bands, lining, tassels and cockades differ, depending on the school or the faculty. In German-speaking countries and in Poland, Estonia and Latvia, student caps come in a variety of colors, depending on the colors of the student organization or the school, and can be decorated with its zirkel (a monogram).
A typical peaked cap has a spring stiffening, often in the form of a wire grommet frame, to ensure the sides and rear of the fabric covering have the proper shape. A crusher cap removes the stiffener to allow headphones to be worn over the hat or use in confined spaces such as tanks and submarines, giving it a slouched and worn "crushed" appearance. Such modified caps were especially popular among US Army Air Forces combat pilots and German tank commanders and submariners in the Second World War.
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