The Sultanate of Patani Darussalam
The Sultanate of Patani
Map of the Sultanate of Patani
|Common languages||Classical Malay |
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
• Conquest by Siam in 1785, later followed by annexation
|Today part of||Thailand|
Pattani (Patani) or the Sultanate of Patani was a Malay sultanate in the historical Patani Region. It covered approximately the area of the modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia. The 6–7th century Hindu state of Pan Pan may or may not have been related.
- 1 Early history
- 2 Patani and the Siamese Kingdom
- 3 Chronology of rulers
- 4 See also
- 5 Further reading
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Langkasuka was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, founded in the region as early as the 2nd century CE, which appeared in many accounts by Chinese travellers, the most famous of whom was the Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching. The kingdom drew trade from Chinese, Indian, and local traders as a stopping place for ships bound for, or just arrived from, the Gulf of Thailand. Langkasuka reached its greatest economic success in the 6th and 7th centuries and afterward declined as a major trade center. Political circumstances suggest that by the 11th century Chola invasion, Langkasuka was no longer a major port visited by merchants. However, much of the decline may be due to the silting up of its harbour, shown most poignantly today because the most substantial Langkasukan ruins lie approximately 15 kilometres from the sea.
Patani became part of the Hindu-Buddhist Empire of Srivijaya, a maritime confederation based in Palembang. Srivijaya dominated trade in the South China Sea and exacted tolls on all traffic through the Straits of Malacca. Malay culture had substantial influence on the Khmer Empire, and the ancient city of Nakhon Pathom.
The founding of the Islamic kingdom of Patani is thought to have been around the mid-13th century CE, with folklore suggesting it was named after an exclamation made by Sultan Ismail Shah, "Pantai ini!" (pronounced as "pata ni!", 'this beach' in the local Malay language). However, some think it was the same country known to the Chinese as Pan Pan.
An alternative theory is that the Patani kingdom was founded in the 14th century. Local stories tell of a fisherman named Pak Tani (Father of Tani), who was sent by a king from the interior to survey the coast, to find a place for an appropriate settlement. After he established a successful fishing outpost, other people moved to join him. The town soon grew into a prosperous trading center that continued to bear his name. The authors of the 17th–18th century Hikayat Patani chronicle claim this story is untrue, and support the claim that the kingdom was founded by the Sultan.
The Patani kingdom's golden age was during the reign of its four successive queens from 1584, known as Ratu Hijau (The Green Queen), Ratu Biru (The Blue Queen), Ratu Ungu (The Purple Queen) and Ratu Kuning (The Yellow Queen), during which the kingdom's economic and military strength was greatly increased to the point that it was able to fight off four major Siamese invasions, with the help of the eastern Malay kingdom of Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanate of Johor.
Patani and the Siamese Kingdom
In the 14th century CE, King Ram Khamhaeng the Great (c.1239 – 1317) of Sukhothai (also known as Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng, Thai: พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช), occupied Nakhon Si Thammarat and its vassal states – including Patani.
The Thai Ayutthaya kingdom conquered the isthmus during the 14th century CE, bringing it into a single unified state, with Ayutthaya as a capital, and many smaller vassal states under its control. This consisted of a self-governing system in which the vassal states and tributary provinces owed allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya, but otherwise ran their own affairs.
A sheikh named Sa'id or Shafi'uddin from Kampong Pasai (presumably a small community of traders from Pasai who lived on the outskirts of Patani reportedly healed the king of a rare skin disease and after much negotiation (and recurrence of the disease), the king agreed to convert to Islam, adopting the name Sultan Ismail Shah. All of the sultan's officials also agreed to convert. However, there is fragmentary evidence that some local people had begun to convert to Islam prior to this. The existence of a diasporic Pasai community near Patani shows the locals had regular contact with Muslims. There are also travel reports, such as that of Ibn Battuta, and early Portuguese accounts that claimed Patani had an established Muslim community even before Melaka (which officially converted in 1413), which would suggest that merchants who had contact with other emerging Muslims centres were the first to convert to the region.
During much of the 15th century Ayutthaya's energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, especially the trading port of Malacca, which fell under the rule of the Malacca Sultanate. Ayutthaya's sovereignty extended over Malacca and the Malay states south of Tambralinga (Nakorn Sri Thammarat). Ayutthaya helped develop and stabilise the region, opening the way for lucrative trade on the isthmus. This attracted Chinese merchants seeking speciality goods for the Chinese market.
First Siamese-Burmese wars
The 16th century witnessed the rise of Burma, which under an aggressive dynasty had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and made war on Ayutthaya. A second siege (1563–64) led by King Bayinnaung forced King Maha Chakkraphat to surrender in 1564. The royal family was taken to Bago, Burma, with the king's second son Mahinthrathirat installed as the vassal king. With the brief decline of Ayutthaya's hegemony in this period, Patani may have become independent temporarily.
King Dhammaraja (reigned 1569–90) was a Siamese noble of the Sukhothai dynasty, and was formerly the King of Phitsanulok - an important city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Dhammaraja became the King of Ayutthaya by aiding the Burmese King in the siege of Ayutthaya in 1568. After, taking over Ayutthaya, Bayinnaung installed Dhammara as a vassal king. After Bayinnaung's death in 1581, uparaja Naresuan proclaimed Ayutthaya's independence in 1584. The Thai fought off repeated Burmese invasions (1584–1593). Thai independence was later restored by Dhammaraja son, King Naresuan the Great (reigned 1590–1605), who rebelled against the Burmese and by 1593 had driven them from the kingdom. The Burmese–Siamese War (1594–1605) was a Thai attack on Burma, resulting in the capture of the Tanintharyi Region as far as Mottama in 1595 and Lan Na in 1602. Naresuan even invaded mainland Burma as far as Taungoo in 1600, but was driven back.
Under King Naresuan, Ayutthaya returned to the summit of its power - its territory span over Lan Xang and the Khmer Kingdom. All the polities that broke away from its hegemony during Dhammaraja's reign returned to be under the Siamese control. King Naresuan set about unifying the country's administration directly under the royal court at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to govern Ayutthaya's provinces, instead assigning court officials who were expected to adhere the policies handed by the king. The royal princes were confined to the capital city. Their power struggles continued, but they were at court under the king's watchful eye. Even with King Naresuan's reforms, however, the power of the royal government during the next 150 years should not be overestimated.
Growth as a trade entrepot
Chinese merchants, beginning with Zheng He in the period 1406–1433 CE, played a major role in the rise of Patani as a regional trade center. They were joined by others including the Portuguese in 1516, Japanese in 1592, Dutch in 1602, English in 1612, and Malay and Siamese merchants who traded throughout the area. Many Chinese also moved to Patani, perhaps due to the activity of Lin Daoqian. A Dutch report of 1603 by Jacob van Neck estimated that there may be as many Chinese in Patani as there were native Malays, and they were responsible for most of the commercial activity of Patani. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) established warehouses in Patani in 1603, followed by the English East India Company in 1612, both carrying out intense trading. In 1619, John Jourdain, the East India Company's chief factor at Bantam was killed off the coast of Patani by the Dutch.
Patani was seen by European traders as a way to access the Chinese market. After 1620, the Dutch and English both closed their warehouses, but a prosperous trade was continued by the Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese for most of the 17th century.
Reassertion of Thai power
Following a 1688 invasion by Ayutthaya, political disorder continued for five decades, during which the local rulers were helpless to end the lawlessness in the region. Most foreign merchants abandoned trade with Patani.
Death of the Yellow Queen
In the mid-17th century Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen) died. She is believed to be the last of four successive female rulers of Patani, which then went through decades of political chaos and conflict, experiencing a gradual decline.
One hundred years later, Ayutthaya under King Ekatat (Boromaraja V) faced another Burmese invasion. This culminated in the capture and destruction of the city of Ayutthaya in 1767, as well as the death of the king. Siam was shattered, and as rivals fought for the vacant throne, Patani declared its complete independence.
King Taksin finally defeated the Burmese and reunified the country, opening the way for the establishment of the Chakri dynasty by his successor, King Rama I. In 1785, a resurgent Siam sent an army led by Prince Surasi (Viceroy Boworn Maha Surasinghanat), younger brother of King Rama I, to seek the submission of Patani.
Patani in the Bangkok Period
Patani was easily defeated by Siam in 1785 and resumed its tributary status. However, a series of attempted rebellions prompted Bangkok to divide Patani into seven smaller puppet kingdoms in the early 1800s during the reign of King Rama II. Britain recognised the Thai ownership of Patani by the Burney Treaty.
Chronology of rulers
Inland Dynasty (Sri Wangsa)
- Sultan Ismail Shah (d. 1530?), founder of the kingdom according to one account, and the first ruler to convert to Islam. In fact, other rulers must have preceded him. It is also likely that during his reign the Portuguese first visited the port to trade, arriving in 1516. He was called King Phaya Tu Nakpa before his conversion.
- Sultan Mudhaffar Shah (c. 1530–1564), son of Sultan Ismail Shah, who died during an attack on Ayudhya (Siam).
- Sultan Manzur Shah (1564–1572), brother of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah.
- Sultan Patik Siam (1572–1573), son of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah, who was murdered by his half-brother, Raja Bambang.
- Sultan Bahdur (1573–1584), son of Sultan Manzur Shah, who was considered a tyrant in most accounts.
- Ratu Hijau (the Green Queen) (1584–1616), sister of Sultan Bahdur, during whose reign Patani attained its greatest economic success as a middle-sized port, frequented by Chinese, Dutch, English, Japanese, Malays, Portuguese, Siamese, and other merchants.
- Ratu Biru (the Blue Queen) (1616–1624), sister of Ratu Hijau.
- Ratu Ungu (the Purple Queen) (1624–1635), sister of Ratu Biru, who was particularly opposed to Siamese interference in local affairs.
- Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen) (1635-1649/88), daughter of Ratu Ungu and last queen of the Inland Dynasty. Controversy surrounds the exact date of the end of her reign.
First Kelantanese Dynasty
- Raja Bakal, (1688–1690 or 1651–1670), after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.
- Raja Emas Kelantan (1690–1704 or 1670–1698), thought by Teeuw & Wyatt to be a king, but claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen.
- Raja Emas Chayam (1704–1707 or 1698–1702 and 1716–1718), daughter of the two preceding rulers, according to al-Fatani.
- Raja Dewi (1707–1716; Fatani gives no dates).
- Raja Bendang Badan (1716–1720 or ?-1715), he was afterwards raja of Kelantan, 1715–1733.
- Raja Laksamana Dajang (1720–1721; Fatani gives no dates).
- Raja Alung Yunus (1728–1729 or 1718–1729).
- Raja Yunus (1729–1749).
- Raja Long Nuh (1749–1771).
- Sultan Muhammad (1771–1785).
- Tengku Lamidin (1785–1791).
- Datuk Pengkalan (1791–1808).
Second Kelantanese Dynasty
- Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad Ibni Raja Muda Kelantan/Raja Kampong Laut Tuan Besar Long Ismail Ibni Raja Long Yunus (1842–1856)
- Tuan Long Puteh Bin Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad (Phraya Pattani II) (1856–1881)
- Tuan Besar Bin Tuan Long Puteh (Phraya Pattani III) (1881–1890)
- Tuan Long Bongsu Bin Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad (Sultan Sulaiman Sharafuddin Syah / Phraya Pattani IV)(1890–1898)
- Sultan Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin Syah (Phraya Pattani V) deposed in 1902 had descendants:
- Reman Kingdom
- Pattani Province
- Pattani (region)
- South Thailand insurgency
- Yawi language
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
- Ibrahim Syukri. History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani. ISBN 0-89680-123-3.
- Thailand: Country Studies by the Library of Congress, Federal Research Division http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/thtoc.html
- Maryam Salim. (2005). The Kedah Laws. Dewan Bahasa and Pustaka. ISBN 983-62-8210-6
- "พงศาวดารเมืองปัตตานี" ประชุมพงศาวดาร ภาคที่ 3, พระนคร : หอพระสมุดวชิรญาณ, 2471 (พิมพ์ในงานศพ หลวงชินาธิกรณ์อนุมัติ 31 มีนาคม 2470) – Historical account of Patani made by a Thai official.
- History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, Ibrahim Syukri, ISBN 0-89680-123-3
- Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. Phayre (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. p. 111.
- GE Harvey (1925). History of Burma. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. pp. 167–170.
- Yen Ching-hwang. Ethnic Chinese Business In Asia: History, Culture And Business Enterprise. World Scientific Publishing Company. p. 57. ISBN 9789814578448.
- Anthony Reid (30 August 2013). Patrick Jory (ed.). Ghosts of the Past in Southern Thailand: Essays on the History and Historiography of Patani. NUS Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-9971696351.
- Keay, John (2010). The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company (EPUB ed.). Harper Collins Publishers. p. location 1218. ISBN 978-0-007-39554-5.