|Province of British India|
Odisha in a 1907 map of British India before the creation of the province
|35,664 km2 (13,770 sq mi)|
• Bifurcation of Bihar and Orissa Province
|Today part of||State of Odisha|
On 22 March 1912, both Bihar and Orissa divisions were separated from the Bengal Presidency as Bihar and Orissa Province. On 1 April 1936, Bihar and Orissa Province was split to form Bihar Province and Orissa Province. Parts of the Ganjam District and the Vizagapatam district of Madras Presidency were transferred to Orissa Province along with portions of the Vizagapatam Hill Tracts Agency and Ganjam Hill Tracts Agency.
On 14 October 1803, Orissa was occupied by the British Raj. Under the Raj, it was a division of the Bengal Presidency with its capital in Cuttack. It had an area of 35,664 km² and 5,003,121 inhabitants in 1901. The province included the Orissa Tributary States. On 1 April 1912, the province of Bihar and Orissa was detached from Bengal, and the Orissa Tributary States were under the authority of the governor of Bihar and Orissa. In 1936, Orissa became a separate province with five districts.
The Government of India Act provided for the election of a provincial legislative assembly and a responsible government. Elections were held in 1937, and the Indian National Congress took a majority of the seats but declined to form the government. A minority provisional government was formed under Krushna Chandra Gajapati, the Maharaja of Paralakhemundi.
|Krushna Chandra Gajapati||Home, Finance, Law and Commerce|
|Mandhata Gorachand Patnaik||Revenue, Education and Commerce|
|Moulavi Latifur Rahman||Public Works, Local Self-Government and Forests|
The Congress reversed its decision and resolved to accept office in July 1937. Therefore, the Governor invited Biswanath Das to form the government.
|Biswanath Das||Premier, Home, Finance and Education|
|Nityanand Kanungo||Revenue and Public Works Departments|
|Bodhram Dube||Local Self-government, Health, Law and Commerce|
In 1939, along with Congress ministries in other provinces, Das resigned in protest of the Governor-General's declaration of war on Germany without consulting with Indian leaders, and Orissa came under Governor's Rule till 1941 when Krushna Chandra Gajapati was again made the Premier. This government lasted till 1944.
|Krushna Chandra Gajapati||Premier|
|Godabarish Mishra||Finance and Education|
|Maulvi Abdus Sobhan Khan|
|N. K. Chaudhary|
|R. K. Biswasray|
- 1 April 1936 – 11 August 1938 Sir John Austen Hubback (1st time) (b. 1878 – d. 1968)
- 11 Aug 1938 – 8 December 1938 G. T. Boag (acting) (b. 1884 – d. 1969)
- 8 December 1938 – 1 April 1941 Sir John Austen Hubback (2nd time) (s.a.)
- 1 April 1941 – 1 April 1946 Sir William Hawthorne Lewis (b. 1888 – d. 1970)
- 1 April 1946 – 15 August 1947 Sir Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi (b. 1893 – d. 1981)
Chief Ministers of Orissa
- 1 April 1937 – 19 July 1937 Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo (b. 1892 – d. 1974) Non-party (1st time)
- 19 Jul 1937 – 4 November 1939 Biswanath Das (b. 1889 – d. 1984) INC
- 4 November 1939 – 24 November 1941 Governor's Rule
- 24 Nov 1941 – 29 June 1944 Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo (s.a.) Non-party (2nd time)
- 29 Jun 1944 – 23 April 1946 Governor's Rule
- 23 Apr 1946 – 15 August 1947 Harekrushna Mahatab (b. 1899 – d. 1987) INC
- Provinces of British India
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 277. .
- Joseph E. Schwartzberg, ed. A historical atlas of South Asia, New York/Oxford 1992, ISBN 0-19-506869-6
- Sharma, Sadhna (1995). States Politics in India. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. ISBN 9788170996194.