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In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Elves are one of the races that inhabit a fictional Earth, often called Middle-earth, and set in the remote past. They appear in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Their complex history is described in The Silmarillion, as well as in the Unfinished Tales and The History of Middle-earth.
Tolkien decided late in his life that Elves of the Second Clan who lived in Eldamar bore several names:
- "father-name" (Quenya ataressë), given by the father
- "mother-name" (amilessë), given by the mother
- "after-name" (epessë), a nickname given by others later in life
- "self-name" (kilmessë), assumed by oneself
Most elves in Tolkien's writing appear with only one name.
- Aegnor was the elder brother of Galadriel and younger brother of Finrod Felagund and Angrod; together with them joined the Exile of the Noldor from Valinor. Aegnor was "renowned as one of the most valiant of the warriors...; in wrath or battle the light of his eyes was like flame [which gave rise to his 'prophetic' mother-name], though otherwise he was a generous and noble spirit".
- Later in Beleriand he was a vassal of Finrod and together with Angrod held the highlands of Dorthonion against Morgoth, but both were slain in the Dagor Bragollach.
- Aegnor never married. He was in love with the mortal Andreth, but because it was wartime did not make his intentions towards her clear, and was killed soon after.
- The name Aegnor (pronounced [ˈaeɡnɔr]), is a Sindarized form of his Quenya mother-name Aicanáro or Aicanar ([aikaˈnaːrɔ]), meaning "Fell-fire", apparently given with regards to his character. His father-name was Ambaráto (in Telerin Quenya), meaning "High Noble".
- In earlier versions of Tolkien's books (cf. The History of Middle-earth), the character's name was Egnor. In some of the earliest stories (cf. The Book of Lost Tales), this was the name of the father of Beren (who then was a Noldorin Elf, not a Man as in later writings). It is unlikely that this earlier Egnor was the same character.
- Amarië (pronounced [aˈmariɛ]) was a Vanyarin Elf who was in love with Finrod Felagund, and he with her. She did not follow him to Middle-earth. Finrod never married anyone else while in Middle-earth. It is noted in The Lay of Leithian that Finrod was soon allowed to return to life in Valinor, and "now dwells with Amarië", so they probably were wed later.
- Amdír was an Elven king during the Second Age. He only appears in Unfinished Tales, a posthumously published collection of writings edited by Tolkien's son Christopher. He was conceived as a Sindarin Elf from Doriath who left east into Eriador after the War of Wrath. He took over the realm of Lórinand (later called Lothlórien) from Silvan Elves who had had no lords before, south of where Oropher (father of Thranduil the Elvenking of The Hobbit and grandfather of Legolas of The Lord of the Rings) established a realm among the Silvan Elves of Mirkwood.
- Tolkien wrote that Amdír was killed in the War of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men in S.A. 3434, during the Battle of Dagorlad. He and his troops were cut off from their allies into marshland, where more than half of them, including the King, were lost. The area later became known as the Dead Marshes. After his death his son Amroth became King of Lórinand.
- In another version of the events, Tolkien called the character Malgalad.
- Amras was the twin brother of Amrod, son of Fëanor and Nerdanel. Together they were the youngest of seven children, all male. Amras followed his father and his brothers to Middle-earth to war against the Dark Lord Morgoth, against the wishes of their guardians, the angelic, even godlike Valar.
- Amras' father-name in Quenya is Telufinwë, "Last Finwë" (after his grandfather Finwë; also he was the youngest and last son). His mother-name is Ambarussa, as was Amrod's originally.
- Amrod was the twin brother of Amras son of Fëanor and Nerdanel. Amras followed his father and his brothers on their venture to Middle-earth.
- Amrod's father-name in Quenya is Pityafinwë, "Little Finwë". His mother-name was originally Ambarussa "top-russet", referring to his red hair (most of Tolkien's named Elves have dark hair). He shared this name with Amras. Later Nerdanel later called him Umbarto, "the Fated". His father, disturbed by it, changed it to Ambarto. Nevertheless, both twins called each other Ambarussa.
- Amroth, son of Amdír, was a Sindarin Elf who succeeded his father as Lord of Lothlórien. He journeyed south to Edhellond, an old haven of his people, together with Nimrodel, his beloved. However, Nimrodel was lost in the Ered Nimrais, and Amroth delayed his departure to Valinor to wait for her. His ship was blown out to sea, but he thought he saw Nimrodel on the quays, and jumped overboard to swim back to her. He drowned in the Bay of Belfalas and never returned home.
- In earlier versions of the legendarium, Amroth was briefly Galadriel and Celeborn's son, brother to Celebrían, but this idea was dropped.
- Anairë was the Noldorin wife of Fingolfin and mother of Fingon, Turgon, Aredhel, and Argon. She did not leave Aman with her husband because of her friendship with Eärwen of the Teleri, the wife of Finarfin. Her name is Quenya and means "Holiest."
- Anairë is only mentioned in The History of Middle-earth.
- Angrod was the elder brother of Galadriel and Aegnor, and the younger brother of Finrod Felagund. He joined the Exile of the Noldor to Middle-earth, where together with Aegnor he held the highlands of Dorthonion against Morgoth. Aegnor and Angrod were both killed in the Dagor Bragollach.
- His wife was an Elven lady named Eldalótë. His son was Orodreth, who escaped to Nargothrond when his father was slain. Angrod was thus the grandfather of Gil-galad, Orodreth's son.
- His name was a Sindarized form of his Telerin Quenya name Angaráto [aŋɡaˈraːtɔ], which means "Iron-noble". This is a reference to his hands of great strength and an early received epessë Angamaitë 'iron-handed'.
- In the published The Silmarillion, Orodreth is given as Angrod's brother instead, following the extant narrative texts; Tolkien never altered them to reflect the later family tree.. This was an editorial decision by Christopher Tolkien which he admitted as a mistake.
- Annael was a Sinda of Mithrim. He fought in the Nírnaeth Arnoediad and hid in the caves of Androth in Mithrim after Hithlum was taken by the Easterlings. There he fostered Tuor. When Tuor was sixteen, Annael and his group attempted to move to the south, but were broken up by Orcs and Easterlings. Annael finally escaped Dor-lómin to Círdan's people in the far south of Beleriand.
Eöl and Aredhel
The White Lady of the Noldor,|
White Lady of Gondolin
- Aredhel (Y.T. 1362–Y.S. 400; died aged 1738) (born and known in Quenya as Írissë) is the daughter of Fingolfin and Anairë, sister of Fingon, Turgon and Argon, and mother of Maeglin. She was also known as Ar-Feiniel which in one translation means "The White Lady (of the Noldor)", as it is said that she was very pale, and wore only silver and white clothes. The names Aredhel ('noble Elf') and Ar-Feiniel ('noble white lady') were both originally intended to stand alone, replacing the name Isfin. The original name from the Fall of Gondolin of 1916, and in most use into the 1950s, is Isfin meaning snowlocks or exceedingly cunning.
- Argon (Arakáno)
- Argon was the fourth child of Fingolfin, High King of the Noldor in Beleriand. His mother was Anairë, and his brothers were Fingon, and Turgon. He had an older sister, Aredhel.
- His Quenya name was Arakáno ("High Commander"), named so partially for his character; this was also the mother-name of his father Fingolfin. Argon set foot on Middle-earth with his father and brothers, but he was killed during the Dagor-nuin-Giliath.
- Arakáno thus never received a true Sindarin name, but Argon was later devised for him in the records. It is recorded that this later became a popular name under the Eldar.
- Argon does not appear in the published The Silmarillion at all, as he only came to light in very late writings by Tolkien.
- Beleg is a great archer of the First Age and comrade of Túrin Turambar. He is called Beleg Cúthalion, Beleg Strongbow.
- After Túrin was captured by Orcs, by the treachery of Mîm the Petty Dwarf, Beleg set out to rescue Túrin. A few nights after Túrin's capture, Beleg met an elf named Gwindor, and they together on that same night found the horde of Orcs that had captured Túrin. Beleg untied Túrin from a tree, where the Orcs had tied him up to get him drunk and mock him. When Beleg had carried Túrin far enough to be out of the reach of the Orcs, he began to cut Túrin's bonds. As he was cutting, Beleg accidentally stabbed Túrin's hand, terribly frightening Túrin. Therefore, Túrin, not knowing what was going on, grabbed the sword from Beleg and killed him. Just after that moment, Túrin realized what he had done, and yelled a yell that frightened the whole horde of Orcs. After a long while of grief, Túrin and Gwindor buried Beleg.
- These names are all pronounced as if beginning with 'k'.
- Caranthir was a son of Fëanor and Nerdanel, called "The Dark". Caranthir is the Sindarin form of the Quenyan name Carnistir, "The Red-faced".
- Celeborn is the husband of Galadriel and co-ruler, along with her, of Lothlórien. He is the father of Celebrían, the wife of Elrond, and thus the grandfather of Arwen Evenstar and her older brothers Elladan and Elrohir. He is also a kinsman of Thingol. His name also appears as the Telerin Teleporno, with the same meaning.
- Celebrían is the daughter of Celeborn and Galadriel, wife of Elrond, and mother of Elrohir, Elladan and Arwen. She was referred to as "Lady of Rivendell". Her name means "silver queen" in Sindarin.
- Celebrimbor was the son of Curufin and grandson of Fëanor and Nerdanel. He was a leading figure in the making of the Rings of Power, and made the Three Rings of the Elves personally. His name also appears as the Quenya Telperinquar and the Telerin Telperimpar, with the same meaning.
- Círdan (pronounced [ˈkiːrdan]) ('ship-maker' in Sindarin) is a Telerin Elf, a great mariner and shipwright. He has a beard, which was rare for Elves; but he was of great age at the time of the War of the Ring (15,000 years estimated), being perhaps the oldest of all the Elves remaining in Middle-earth.
- "Círdan" is an after-name describing his occupation. His true name was Nōwē.
- Daeron was the loremaster and minstrel of King Thingol of Doriath. He was also a skilled linguist, and invented the Cirth alphabet.
- Daeron loved Lúthien, daughter of Thingol and Melian the Maia, but she did not love him. Nevertheless they were good friends, and Lúthien would often dance to his music. After Daeron found out about Lúthien's love for the mortal Beren, he betrayed them both to Thingol. When Lúthien later sought his help in freeing Beren who was held captive by Morgoth, Daeron again betrayed her to Thingol.
- After Lúthien departed in secret from Doriath Daeron repented, and set out to search for her. He never did find her and never returned to Doriath either, passing over the Ered Luin into Eriador where he apparently dwelt long after writing songs lamenting over the loss of Lúthien.
- Daeron is mentioned as the greatest minstrels of all the Children of Ilúvatar, and only Maglor son of Fëanor is said to come close to his skill.
- In earlier versions of the mythology as set out in The History of Middle-earth, Daeron (spelled Dairon) was originally envisioned as Lúthien's brother.
- Denethor was the son of the Nandorin Elf leader Lenwë (or Dan), who lived during the Years of the Trees. Hearing of the power of Thingol, he led many of his people over the Ered Luin to Beleriand. They settled in Ossiriand, renaming it Lindon, in the east of Beleriand, and Denethor became their king. They were called the Laiquendi, or Green-elves. Some time later, Morgoth loosed an army on Beleriand. The lightly armed Laiquendi were driven back to the great hill of Amon Ereb, where Denethor was slain. The Laiquendi became a reclusive people, seldom taking up arms, and never again naming a king.
- Duilin was a noble of Gondolin, lord of the House of the Swallow. He and his men were great archers. He appears in The Book of Lost Tales.
- Tolkien later used his name in The Lord of the Rings for a Man from Gondor.
- Eärwen is a daughter of Olwë of Alqualondë, the wife of Finarfin, and the mother of Galadriel, Finrod, Angrod, and Aegnor. She also had several brothers. She stayed in Aman after the flight of the Noldor. She is said to be friends with Anairë, Fingolfin's wife. She presumably still lives with Finarfin. She is Lúthien's cousin and Thingol's niece.
- Eärwen's hair is stated to have been "starlike silver", like Olwë's, and her son Finrod inherited from her "a love of the sea and dreams of far lands that he had never seen." Her name means "Sea-maiden".
- Ecthelion was a Noldorin Elf and one of the greatest warriors of the First Age. He was captain of the guard of Gondolin and he slew Gothmog, the Lord of the Balrogs and Morgoth's chief captain, in the battle for Gondolin. He himself was slain by Gothmog in this epic struggle.
- One of the first of Tolkien's characters to be created, he first appears in "The Fall of Gondolin", part of The Book of Lost Tales, the earliest version of his "mythology" and histories. "The Fall of Gondolin" was according to Tolkien's recollections the first to be written, in 1916 or 1917.
- Edrahil was the leader of the ten faithful companions who accompanied Finrod Felagund and Beren on the Quest for the Silmaril.
- Egalmoth was a Noldorin Elf of Gondolin. He survived the Fall of Gondolin, and fled to the Mouths of Sirion, and later died in the attack by the Sons of Fëanor. In The Book of Lost Tales and nowhere else, he is called the leader of the House of the Heavenly Arch. Alone of all the Noldor (as detailed in the same book), he uses a curved sword.
- His name was reused for the later The Lord of the Rings for a different character.
- Eldalótë means "Elven-flower" in Quenya. The Sindarin equivalent is Edhellos [ɛˈðɛlʲlɔθ].
- Elemmakil is an Elf of the hidden city of Gondolin. He was the captain of the guard at the first gate of the city. He initially barred the passage of Voronwë and Tuor, when they tried to enter, but afterwards consented to guide them into the city. He continued to be an officer of Gondolin until his death at the hands of a Balrog when the city was sacked.
- Elemmírë was a Vanyarin Elf, who wrote the lament for the Two Trees of Valinor called the Aldudénië.
- Elenwë was a Vanyarin Elf, the wife of Turgon and the mother of Idril, to whom she passed on the golden hair of her kindred. She died during the crossing of Helcaraxë, while Turgon almost perished himself trying to save her.
- Elu Thingol is the King of Doriath, King of the Sindar, High-king and Lord of Beleriand. He is said to be "the tallest of all the Children of Ilúvatar" and "mightiest of the Eldar save Fëanor only". He is very prominent in Tolkien's earlier works.
- "Elu Thingol" is Sindarin. He is also called Elwë Singollo in Quenya. Elu and Elwë mean "Star-man" (man as in male), and Thingol and Singollo mean "Greycloak".
- Elmo is only mentioned in Unfinished Tales in discussions on Galadriel and Celeborn. Because Celeborn is presented as a "kinsman of Thingol" in The Silmarillion, Tolkien wished to develop this family link. One of his solutions was to establish Celeborn as the grandson of Elmo, a non-important brother of Elwë who remained behind when Elwë was lost, becoming one of the Sindar of Doriath. In this conception Elmo has a son named Galadhon, who in turn sired Celeborn and another son named Galathil, who was the father of Queen Nimloth of Doriath.
- In writings which appear to be later than the one discussed above, Celeborn is made into a Telerin Elf, and a relative of Olwë of Valinor instead, but this was not further developed or published.
- It therefore remains uncertain if Elmo would have remained in the Middle-earth legendarium.
- Elrond of Rivendell
- Enel was one of the first six Elves.
- Enelyë was one of the first six Elves.
- Enerdhil was the maker of the Elfstone (Elessar) gem.
- Eöl "the Dark Elf" was the husband of Aredhel and father of Maeglin. He was one of the greatest Elven-smiths of Middle-earth; he forged the black sword Anglachel, famously used by Túrin Turambar. Eöl was of the Avari, the 'Refusers', who did not follow Oromë on the Great Journey to the West.
- Erestor is an Elf of Rivendell, and Lord Elrond's chief counsellor. He was present at the Council of Elrond, where he suggested that the One Ring should be sent to Tom Bombadil, there to be kept safe and hidden. When this idea was rejected, he said that the Ring must either be hidden or unmade, and the latter path was one "of despair". After the War of the Ring, he travelled with most of Elrond's household to Gondor to witness the wedding of Arwen and Aragorn.
- In early drafts of The Lord of the Rings, he was originally referred to as Half-elven, and is considered as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring.
- In Peter Jackson's movie, Erestor was portrayed by Jonathan Harding.
- Fëanor is the eldest son of Finwë, the High King of the Noldor, and his first wife Míriel. He was the creator of the Silmarils and, according to The Silmarillion, he was "the mightiest in skill of word and hand" and "the greatest of the Eldar in arts and lore." He plays a pivotal role in the history of the Elves, leading the rebellion of the Noldor against the Valar in revenge against Morgoth.
- His name is a compromise between the Sindarin Faenor and the Quenya Fëanáro, meaning "Spirit of Fire". He was originally named Finwë or Finwion after his father (Finwion is "son of Finwë") and later Curufinwë ("Skilful (son of) Finwë"). Fëanor wedded Nerdanel daughter of Mahtan, who bore him seven sons: Maedhros, Maglor, Celegorm, Caranthir, Curufin, Amrod and Amras.
- Finarfin was the third son of Finwë, full brother of Fingolfin, and half-brother of Fëanor. His mother was Finwë's second wife Indis. Finarfin was said to be the fairest and wisest of Finwë's sons. Like all of Finwë's sons, Finarfin founded his own house. Uniquely among the Noldor he and his descendants all had golden hair inherited from his mother, so his house was sometimes called "The Golden House of Finarfin".
- Findis was one of the daughters of Finwë.
- Fingolfin was the second son of Finwë, full brother of Finarfin, and half-brother of Fëanor. His mother was Finwë's second wife Indis. Fingolfin was said to be the strongest, most steadfast, and most valiant of Finwë's sons, and some have named him the greatest warrior of all the Children of Ilúvatar. His name in Quenya was Nolofinwë, or "wise Finwë."
- Fingon was a Noldorin Elf, the eldest son of Fingolfin, older brother of Turgon, Aredhel, and Argon.
- Finrod Felagund was a Noldorin Elf, the eldest son of Finarfin and Eärwen of Alqualondë in Aman. He was the brother of Galadriel, Angrod and Aegnor. He was king of Nargothrond.
- The name Finrod is a Sindarin form of his Telerin (Quenya) name Findaráto, with the approximate meaning "Mighty descendant of Finwë". (More fully it was Findaráto Ingoldo, including the name given by his mother which was never translated.) Artafindë was the proper Noldorin Quenya version of Findaráto. Felagund was an epessë given to him by the Dwarves who expanded the caves of Nargothrond, and meant "Hewer of Caves". It is not Sindarin, but rather Sindarized Khuzdul (Dwarf-language). Another name given to Finrod was Nóm ("Wisdom"). It was given to him by Bëor and his followers. His other titles include: King/Lord of Nargothrond, Friend-of-Men.
- Finwë, sometimes called Noldóran, was the first High King of the Elven Noldor to lead his people on the journey from Middle-earth to Valinor in the blessed realm of Aman. Many of the figures in Silmarillion material trace their ancestry to him.
- Finwë's name is not fully translated. The glossary in The Silmarillion translates Fin as "hair"; other sources say it means "skill".
- Galadhon appears only in Unfinished Tales. He is called the son of Elmo, who was named as the younger brother of Thingol and the father of Celeborn. He was created to explain how Celeborn was related to Thingol; this lineage makes Thingol Celeborn's great-uncle (though Tolkien's later notes provide an alternative origin for Celeborn). Galadhon was supposed to have another son, Galathil, who was the father of Nimloth; Nimloth would go on to marry her second-cousin, Dior. Galadhon's name seems to be related to galadh, the Sindarin word for "tree".
- Galadriel was a royal Elf of both the Noldor and the Teleri, being a grandchild of both King Finwë and King Olwë, and was also close kin of King Ingwë of the Vanyar through her grandmother Indis. Towards the end of her stay in Middle-earth she was co-ruler of Lothlórien along with her husband, Lord Celeborn.
- Galathil is a descendant of Thingol's brother Elmo, and the brother of Celeborn the Lord of Lórien. He is son of Galadhon and grandson of Elmo. His daughter Nimloth wedded Dior, Thingol's Heir, and so Galathil was a distant ancestor of Elrond, Aragorn and Arwen. In this way he was grandfather to Elwing and uncle to Celebrían.
- Galdor of the Havens
- Galdor of the Havens is an Elf of Mithlond who served as Círdan's messenger to the Council of Elrond.
- In Peter Jackson's movie The Fellowship of the Ring, Galdor was played by Nathan Clark.
- Galdor of Gondolin
- Galdor is a Noldorin Elf, who lived in Gondolin during the First Age, and was the leader of the Folk of the Tree. He was said to be the bravest Elf of Gondolin, save king Turgon himself. After the Fall of Gondolin he fled southwards to the Mouths of Sirion. It is said he later returned to the Undying Lands, and dwelt on Tol Eressëa.
- In late writings (see: The History of Middle-earth), Tolkien speculated that he and Galdor of the Havens may have been the same, but he ultimately rejected the notion: if Galdor had remained behind, he would either have completely rejected the call of the Valar, and thus have Fallen, or he would have had to leave and then return like Glorfindel did, which would make him a far more powerful person than his appearance in The Lord of the Rings suggests. For this reason Tolkien speculated that "Galdor" was simply a common Sindarin name. See The Peoples of Middle-earth
- Galion is the butler of the Elven King's halls in The Hobbit, whose fondness for drink allows for Bilbo and the dwarves' escape attempt
- Gildor Inglorion was a Noldorin Elf of the House of Finrod. In The Lord of the Rings he met Frodo Baggins and his friends on the road out of the Shire. He warned him about the Black Riders, gave Frodo's company food and lodging for the night and greatly impressed Sam. At the end, he is seen at the Grey Havens accompanying Bilbo, Frodo, Gandalf, Elrond, and Galadriel to Valinor.
- The question has arisen of the identity of this character. Gildor calls himself "Gildor Inglorion of the House of Finrod." He also says: "We are Exiles, and most of our kindred have long departed and we too are only tarrying here a while, ere we return over the Great Sea.". At the time when The Lord of the Rings was written, Finrod still meant the character later known as Finarfin. Since "House of Finrod" is the same as "House of Finarfin", we can place him among the Noldor who joined the host of Finarfin during the Exile, and came to Beleriand under Finrod Felagund.
- Some argue that the name Inglorion, which means "son of Inglor", suggests that he was in fact the son of Finrod Felagund himself, who was at that time still called Inglor. There is, however, strong evidence against it. In The Silmarillion it is stated that Finrod had no wife, since he loved Amarië of the Vanyar, who refused to go with him to the exile. This means that he could only have a son after he died in Middle-earth and went to the Halls of Mandos. He might have been resurrected by Mandos, and then married Amarië. It is very unlikely (probably impossible), however, that he would be allowed to return to Middle-earth. The only such instance would be Glorfindel, and it is doubtful that if that was the case, there would be no mention of it in Tolkien's writings. Furthermore, Gildor would not describe himself as one of the Exiles. Furthermore, if he were Finrod's son, he would have right to claim High Kingship of the Noldor instead of Gil-galad after Turgon's death. It is also said that there were only three children—Celebrimbor, Idril and Orodreth—"in the third generation from Finwë to go with the exiles".
- It should also be noted that Tolkien initially used names from his (unpublished) The Silmarillion writings rather at random in The Hobbit and the first drafts of the sequel which would become The Lord of the Rings: other examples are the mention of Gondolin and the appearance of Elrond in The Hobbit, which were only later brought into alignment with The Lord of the Rings and the unpublished mythology by a third edition of the book.
- This all suggests that, while Gildor might have been initially intended to be Felagund's son, in the final version he probably became a member of the House of Finrod as one of its servants, not one of its sons—perhaps one of the knights of Nargothrond, and a son of Inglor—a character unconnected to Finrod Felagund.
- Gil-galad (Ereinion)
- Ereinion Gil-galad, whose father-name was Artanáro, was the last High King of the Noldor in Middle-earth. After the War of Wrath, the remaining Elves of Beleriand followed him to the remains of Ossiriand, called Lindon, where he created the Kingdom of Lindon, which lasted longer than any Elf-kingdom ever and was the strongest of the Elven realms during the Second Age. He was a friend of the kings of Númenor and called upon their aid when Sauron moved against his kingdom during the War of the Elves and Sauron when he believed that the High King had the three rings of power made for the elves, but he only held two, Vilya and Narya. Many years later, when the faithful of Númenor returned to Middle-earth under Elendil and his sons, Gil-galad befriended them and helped them in the creation of the realm of Arnor. Later on, when Sauron amassed his strength and attacked the other Númenórean realm, Gondor, Elendil and Gil-galad formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men and marched from meeting point at Amon Sûl to Rivendell, where all beings that opposed Sauron, including birds and beasts, joined the alliance. During the Battle of Dagorlad, all races were divided, some fought for Sauron while others fought for the free peoples, all but the Elves, who fought solely under the command of Gil-galad. When Sauron finally came out of Barad-dûr after seven years of the siege of Baradur, he wrestled Elendil and Gil-galad, and although they defeated Sauron, they both died, ending the War of the Last Alliance against Sauron.
- Gimli is an aged Elf, a fellow prisoner of Beren in the kitchens of Tevildo, Prince of Cats. He appears in The Tale of Tinúviel, the earliest version of the story of Beren and Lúthien Tinúviel, found in the second volume of The Book of Lost Tales. The name "Gimli" was later used for a Dwarf in The Lord of the Rings.
- Glorfindel appears twice as a name of an Elf who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. The first appears in various materials relating to the First Age of Middle-earth, including The Silmarillion. The second appears in The Lord of the Rings, which takes place in Middle-earth's Third Age. In later writings, Tolkien states they were one and the same, though this is not evident from The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings.
- The character and his name (meaning "golden-haired") were among the first created, when Tolkien first conceived of what would become his Middle-earth legendarium in 1916–17.
- Gwindor son of Guilin was a prince of Nargothrond, brother of Gelmir. He was betrothed to the Princess Finduilas, daughter of King Orodreth. As he was counted the most valiant of his people, he and a small company were given leave to go to the Battle of Unnumbered Tears, but only under the command of Fingon, (the deeds of Celegorm and Curufin were the cause of the absence of the main host of Nargothrond).
- He actually began the Battle of Unnumbered Tears when, at the sight of his brother Gelmir's mangled corpse, he charged the hosts of Morgoth on the plains of Anfauglith. It is said that Morgoth trembled before his ire as he approached. However he charged too fast and went too far, and was trapped behind the gates of Angband where he was to remain for the next 14 years as a slave.
- After 14 years he managed to escape from the pits, only to become lost in Dorthonion. There he was found by Beleg and helped to rescue Túrin Turambar, and led him by way of Eithel Ivrin to Nargothrond. When he returned, his captivity had so greatly affected him that few of his kin recognized him. He also was reunited with Finduilas, only to eventually learn that she now loved Túrin Turambar; in anger at this he revealed Túrin's true name to the people of Nargothrond for which he was rebuked by Túrin.
- He later counselled against Túrin's policy of open warfare upon Morgoth's forces, but was mostly ignored. He met his end, along with King Orodreth at the Battle of Tumhalad. Before his death Túrin Turambar found him and they spoke one last time, then Gwindor revealed to him that only Finduilas lay between him and his doom, shortly before passing over to Mandos.
- Haldir was an Elf of Lothlórien, probably a Silvan Elf: a marchwarden who guarded the forest's northern borders. When the Fellowship of the Ring arrived in Lórien, he became their guide to Caras Galadhon. He and his companions are described as wearing grey hooded cloaks and living on platforms in the trees.
- Haldir was seen with his brothers, Rúmil and Orophin, when the fellowship entered Lórien. They are little discussed by Tolkien in the book and much less, if at all in the movie.
- Haldir was one of the few Elves of Lórien who could speak Westron (unlike either of his brothers).
- As Haldir led the Fellowship inside Lothlórien, law required him to blindfold Gimli the Dwarf until the company was brought before Galadriel and Celeborn. Haldir and other Silvan Elves still bore grudges against Dwarves as a result of long-past events in the First Age involving King Thingol, and treated Gimli as a potential foe. Aragorn, in his wisdom, suggested that all of the Fellowship, including Legolas the Elf, be blindfolded as well. Haldir successfully led the Fellowship so that they did not even stub their toes. After the company leaves Lothlórien, Tolkien never mentions him again.
- In Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, he is played by Craig Parker and has a somewhat larger role, not only leading the fellowship through Lothlórien, but leading a company of elves to the Battle of Helm's Deep, where he was killed in battle.
- In the video game The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, Haldir is depicted as an Elven hero comparable to others such as Glorfindel. In the good version of the story mode, he travels north and aids in the destruction of Gorkil the goblin king's fortress alongside Glorfindel and Glóin. In the evil mode, he is slain while defending Galadriel and Lórien from attack.
- The name Idril was a Sindarized form of her Quenya name Itarillë (or Itarildë), which means "sparkling brilliance". She had lovely golden hair; she inherited her hair colour from her Vanyarin mother.
- Imin is one of the first six Elves.
- Iminyë is one of the first six Elves.
- Indis is the second wife of Finwë, High King of the Noldor Elves, and is herself one of the Vanyar Elves. The birth of his son Fëanor drained so much of the spirit of Finwë's first wife Míriel that she was forced to depart for the gardens of Lórien. Finwë and Indis had two sons, Fingolfin and Finarfin, and two daughters, Findis and Irimë. She further became stepmother to Fëanor. After her husband was murdered by Melkor, who then stole the Silmarils, she and her eldest daughter Findis returned to live among her people, the Vanyar Elves. Either she herself or her mother was a sister of Ingwë, High King of the Vanyar. She was the grandmother of Galadriel, who plays an important role in The Lord of the Rings. She was called "the fair".
- See Gildor Inglorion.
- Ingwë is the leader of the first Kindred of Elves called the Vanyar. His name means "first one, Chief" in Quenya. He is one of the three elves (with Elwë and Finwë) of the first embassy to Aman and he persuades all of the clan of the Vanyar to follow him there where he becomes their king. He was reckoned as High King of all the Eldar and because of this is called Ingwë Ingweron "Chief of the Chieftains". He lives in Taniquetil, ruling from beneath Manwë High King of Arda. He has a son named Ingwion as well as unnamed children.
- He is stated in "The Lhammas" to be the first awakened Elf: "Ingwë, high-king of the Eldalië, and the oldest of all Elves, for he first awoke."
- According to the Book of Lost Tales, his name is Inwë in Elfin.
- In even earlier writings Ingwë (or Ing) was instead the name of a mortal man, King of Lúthien or Leithian or Luthany, who was driven east over the sea by Ossë and became ruler among the ancestors of the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Eventually the Angles, Saxon and Jutes return to Lúthien or Leithian or Luthany, now long renamed as Britain.
- Tolkien was here adapting traditions about a Germanic ancestral figure named Ing/Ingio/Ingui/Yngvi. He is seen as an eponymous ancestor of the Ingvaeones/Ingaevones, a people mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania as one of the three divisions of the Germanic tribes. In Scandinavian mythology, Ing was the mythological ancestor of the Swedish House of Ynglings and a name for the god Freyr. Like Ingwë, Freyr was the lord of the Elves in Álfheim.
- Ingwion is the son of Ingwë, the leader of the first Kindred of Elves called the Vanyar. He is also the cousin of Indis, wife of Finwë. His name means "Son of Ingwë (first one, Chief)" in Quenya. He lives in Taniquetil with his father. He led the armed Host of the Vanyar in the Faring Forth and the War of Wrath that overthrew Morgoth at the end of the First Age. Ingwion was captain of the force that landed and captured the haven of Eglarest in the first battle of that war.
- Irimë was one of the daughters of Finwë.
- Legolas Greenleaf "of the house of the Tree" is an Elf from The Book of Lost Tales.
- Greenleaf is a literal translation of Legolas.
- Legolas Greenleaf of Mirkwood
- Legolas Greenleaf is an Elf from Mirkwood and one of nine members of the Fellowship of the Ring. He was the son of Thranduil, King of the Woodland Realm of Northern Mirkwood, who appeared as "the Elvenking" in The Hobbit.
- Both Elves named Legolas are called Greenleaf. Tolkien's use of the name twice should not be taken to intentionally mean that the Legolas of The Lord of the Rings is the same person as the person in The Book of Lost Tales; whether through longevity and survival as in Galadriel, Celeborn or Elrond, or through being re-embodied and returned, as in Glorfindel. However, Legolas's actual age has never been defined in Tolkien's writings.
- Lindir (Sindarin for "Singer") is an Elf of Rivendell who listens to Bilbo Baggins declaiming poetry.
- Although Lindir does not appear in Tolkien's novel The Hobbit, New Zealand singer and musician Bret McKenzie appears as Lindir in the 2012 film The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey.
- Lúthien Tinúviel
- Lúthien Tinúviel was the only child of Elu Thingol, king of Doriath, and his queen, Melian the Maia. Lúthien's romance with the mortal man Beren is one of the great stories of the Elder Days.
- The name Lúthien appears to mean "enchantress" in a Beleriandic dialect of Sindarin, but it can also be translated "blossom". However, the root for "blossom" is "loth" as in "Lothlórien", and "luth" is clearly given by Tolkien as the root for "enchantment", which casts some doubt on this alternate translation. Tinúviel was a name given to her by Beren. It literally means "daughter of the starry twilight", which signifies "nightingale". She is described as the Morning Star of the Elves, while her descendant Arwen is called Evenstar, the Evening Star.
- Mablung was a Sindarin Elf who served in the army of King Elu Thingol of Doriath. Together with Beleg Cúthalion he was one of the great captains of the Sindar, and he was part of the Hunting of the Wolf together with Beren, who married Lúthien.
- Mablung became captain of the guard of Doriath after Beleg left to seek Túrin. When Morwen Eledhwen, who dwelt in Doriath at the time, learned of the fall of Nargothrond and that her son Túrin might be there, she wished to seek him out. Mablung was assigned by Thingol to guard her on their way. Unknown to both Mablung and Morwen until too late, Nienor daughter of Morwen, had joined them. Mablung was unable to prevent them both from getting ensnared in the traps of Glaurung the Dragon. Mablung hid from Glaurung and then searched the sacked Nargothrond, finding no sign of Túrin. Glaurung when returning mocked Mablung, sparing his life, and informing him that he had now lost also Morwen and Nienor.
- Nienor was found again by Mablung, but he later lost her again when she, her mind wiped by Glaurung, fled from Mablung during an Orc attack. Defeated, Mablung returned to Doriath, but he spent years afterwards searching for Morwen and Nienor.
- Mablung went to Brethil when he learned Glaurung was there, and there met Túrin. By admitting Nienor was lost he caused Túrin to realize that Níniel his wife had actually been his sister Nienor, and Túrin killed himself.
- His name means 'Heavy Hand'. It was probably not his real name but an epessë (honorary title), but his real name is unknown.
- Mablung is also the name of one of Faramir's Rangers in The Two Towers and The Return of the King in The Lord of the Rings.
- Maedhros was the first son of Fëanor, the creator of the Silmarils that were essential to the plot and the history of Middle-earth. Following his father in swearing to keep the Silmarils from being taken by anyone, he led the war against Morgoth and others, and brought eventual ruin upon him and his brothers.
- Maeglin was the son of Eöl the Dark Elf and Aredhel daughter of Fingolfin. He lived in the First Age of Middle-earth, and was a lord of Gondolin. His name means "sharp glance" in Sindarin.
- He is the only Elf to ever willingly and knowingly become a servant of Morgoth.
- Maglor was the second son of Fëanor, and the greatest singer and harpist of the Noldor.
- A skilled smith in Valinor, Mahtan learned the arts of metal and stone work under the Vala Aulë, and for this Mahtan was also called Aulendur, or "Servant of Aulë". He wore a copper circlet around his head (as his grandson Maedhros also did) and was known for his fondness for the metal. Mahtan in turn taught Fëanor, the greatest of all Elven craftsmen, who—to Mahtan's regret—used this knowledge to forge the first weapons and armour in Valinor.
- Mahtan had a beard, which was unusual for an Elf—especially one as young as he. According to J. R. R. Tolkien most Elves could only grow beards from the "third cycle" of their lives, while Mahtan was an exception in being only early in his second. It is unclear what these "cycles" actually refer to. Mahtan's name seems to come from an old root mahta-, meaning "to handle", with special reference to the arts and skills of making.
- His epessë was 'Rusco' (Quenya for "fox") in reference to his reddish brown hair, which his daughter Nerdanel and grandsons Maedhros, Amrod and Amras inherited.
- Míriel Þerindë (=Míriel Byrde, the broideress) was the first wife of Finwë, King of the Noldor. Her son was Curufinwë, whom she called Fëanor, which means 'Spirit of Fire'. Míriel's hair was described as silver in appearance, an unusual colour for one of the Noldor. In Vol. XII p.333, she is described as Finwë's first wife and a Noldorin Elda.
- After giving birth to Fëanor she wished to die, something which was impossible because, as an Elf, she was immortal within Arda. Instead her fëa departed from her body, and she entered the halls of Mandos: in essence she had died of free will. This was a shocking event for the Valar; it grieved Fëanor his entire life, led to the second marriage of Finwë, and from there to the Rebellion of the Noldor and the First Kinslaying.
- Mithrellas was a Silvan Elf, a companion of Nimrodel who fled Lothlórien with her. According to some, she was taken in by Imrazôr the Númenórean, whom she wedded. She bore him a son, Galador, and a daughter, Gilmith. Soon after she slipped away in the night, never to be seen again.
- Nellas was an Elf-maiden who was a friend of the young Túrin Turambar. Later she testified in his defence when he was unjustly charged with the murder of Saeros.
- She bore Fëanor seven sons: Maedhros, Maglor, Celegorm, Caranthir, Curufin, Amrod and Amras (see Sons of Fëanor). Nerdanel, unlike her husband, was of a peaceful nature and sought to moderate his fiery temper and pride with wisdom. For a time, she was the only one able to influence him. Nerdanel refused to follow her husband to Middle-earth.
- Nerdanel was a noted sculptor. She is said to have made statues so lifelike that people thought them real.
- Nerdanel's family are the only attested examples of Elves with red hair. Nerdanel's father Mahtan and three of her sons (Maedhros, Amrod, and Amras) are described as having reddish-brown hair, and this is described as a trait "of Nerdanel's kin"—though not of Nerdanel herself, who had brown hair and a rosy complexion.
- Nimrodel was the beloved of Amroth, last Silvan Elf-lord of Lórinand. She lived near a river in a tree-house, but when a Balrog appeared in Moria, she left for Edhellond to join her lover Amroth and leave Middle-earth for Valinor. However, she was lost after crossing the Ered Nimrais. The river near her dwelling-place was later named in her honour.
- Olwë is king of the Telerin Elves of Aman, and younger brother of Elu Thingol, King of the Sindar. He had a second brother, Elmo.
- Elwë and Olwë were both lords of the third clan of the Elves, the Teleri, and together they led their people from Cuiviénen to Aman. However, during a long wait in Beleriand Elwë disappeared. After years of searching, Olwë grew impatient, and led the greater part of the Teleri to Valinor, on the insistence of the Vala Ulmo. In Aman, they became known as the Sea-elves or Falmari for their love of the sea.
- Olwë became lord of the island of Tol Eressëa, where the Teleri built a great number of cities, and grew in number. When they finally came to Eldamar some centuries later, Olwë became King of Alqualondë. He had several sons. His daughter Eärwen married Finarfin, son of Finwë, and later High King of the Noldor in Valinor. Their children, when these came to Middle-earth, could thus claim kinship with Thingol.
- Orodreth was an Elf of the First Age, ruler of Nargothrond after Finrod Felagund. In the published Silmarillion he is the brother of Finrod and Angrod; later notes published in The Peoples of Middle-earth make him the son of Angrod (and father of Gil-galad, though his relationship to Gil-galad also varies in different printed versions).
- Oropher was one of the Sindarin Elves of Doriath, but after the War of Wrath he declined to depart Middle-earth as many others did. He instead went over the Ered Luin with his household. He eventually settled in Greenwood the Great, where Silvan Elves of Nandorin descent lived, and he was taken by them as lord. His capital was at Amon Lanc.
- West of Oropher's realm was the realm of Lórinand across Anduin, where Amdír, another Sinda, ruled over Silvan Elves.
- Oropher answered the summons for the Last Alliance of Elves and Men, and joined with Gil-galad's forces as they marched down Anduin to Dagorlad. Oropher's company was lightly armed. In the battle of Dagorlad, Oropher's company fought valiantly, but he was slain with the greater part of his people when he charged early. After Sauron was defeated, Thranduil, Oropher's son and heir, returned with the remainder of his people north back to Mirkwood. While beaten, their army was still large enough that the Orcs hiding in secret in the Hithaeglir did not dare attack them.
- He was also grandfather to (the later) Legolas.
- Orophin is a marchwarden of Lothlórien. He accompanied his brothers Rúmil and Haldir, and was present when Haldir waylaid the Fellowship of the Ring. He went away to warn his people of an approaching Orc-host, and is not mentioned again.
- Pengolodh is a loremaster of the Noldor. In different works his name was also spelled Pengolod, Pengoloð, Pengoloth, and Pengoloþ (the ending in all cases representing the voiced dental fricative). He appears only in The History of Middle-earth and not the major works published within Tolkien's lifetime (The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings) or after (The Silmarillion).
- Pengolodh was a Noldorin Elf of Gondolin, who was born in Nevrast to a Noldorin lord and a Sindarin lady. As a member of the Lambengolmor, Pengolodh was known as the Sage of the Noldor, and was accounted the greatest Loremaster since Fëanor and Rúmil.
- Pengolodh escaped the sack of the city with Tuor and Idril, and followed them to the Mouths of Sirion. He is not further mentioned in writing, but since the Annals of Beleriand are attributed to him, as well as the edited Annals of Aman (furthering the work of Rúmil), he must have stayed in Lindon for at least a while after the War of Wrath, so that the Dúnedain could copy his work.
- It was during his stay at the Mouths that Pengolodh did the majority of his work. Basing on information obtained from the refugees of Doriath, he made copies and extracts of documents written in cirth, possibly preserving them as an active writing system.
- Later, in the Second Age, he dwelt in the Noldorin kingdom of Gil-galad. Pengolodh was one of the few Elves admitted into Khazad-dûm, where he might have learned Khuzdul. Pengolodh left Middle-earth during the War of the Elves and Sauron and after the fall of Eregion, and left for Tol Eressëa, last of the Loremasters to leave Middle-earth.
- Pengolodh does not appear in any of the works on Middle-earth published within Tolkien's lifetime, but in the History of Middle-earth he is given as the author of many works, including the Annals of Beleriand, a work which was developed by Tolkien at the same time as the Silmarillion, and from which Christopher Tolkien drew much information to establish the published Silmarillion. Various late essays by Tolkien dealing with Elvish philology are presented as being the work of Pengolodh.
- Early Tolkien texts stated that, after removing to Tol Eressëa, Pengolodh dwelt in a village called Tavrobel (or Tathrobel). Centuries later Ælfwine of England, an Anglo-Saxon traveller, spoke with him there.
- Penlod is one of the lords of the city of Gondolin. He appears in "The Fall of Gondolin" in The Book of Lost Tales. He is the ruler of two noble houses, the "House of the Pillar" and the "House of the Tower of Snow". Penlod dies in the city's defence.
- Quennar i Onótimo
- Quennar i Onótimo (or simply Quennar Onótimo, the last word meaning something like "Reckoner") is a Noldorin loremaster mentioned in the History of Middle Earth as writing "Of the beginning of time and its reckoning", "Yénonótië" (Counting of Years), and the Tale of Years (a series of brief entries describing events of the First Age by year). His entries in the Tale of Years ended with the exiles crossing the ice into Beleriand. Pengolodh of Gondolin incorporated material from Quennar into the Annals of Aman and the Tale of Years, and extended the Tale of Years to the defeat of Morgoth at the end of the First Age.
- Rog, Lord of the House of the Hammer of Wrath, is a noble of Gondolin in The Book of Lost Tales. Christopher Tolkien excluded him from The Silmarillion because of his name, which was judged unlikely for an Elf (cf. Balrog, "demon of might").
- Rúmil of Lórien
- Rúmil was one of the border-guards of Lórien together with his brothers Haldir and Orophin. Like his brother Orophin, he lacks the ability to speak Westron. A very minor figure in Tolkien's writings, he shares his name with a much more prominent Rúmil.
- Rúmil of Tirion
- Rúmil was a Loremaster of the Noldor living in the city of Tirion. The origin of his name is not clear.
- Rúmil was the first Elf who invented writing: he invented the alphabet called Sarati (each letter being a Sarat). This alphabet was later expanded and perfected by Fëanor as the Tengwar. Rúmil was also a skilled linguist, and when the Teleri finally arrived in Valinor he was first to discover just how the Telerin language had changed from Common Eldarin compared to Quenya.
- Rúmil was one of the Noldor who refused the summons of Fëanor, and he remained in Tirion as one of the Noldor of Finarfin, where he presumably remains still.
- In The History of Middle-earth series, Rúmil is additionally given as the original author of much of the work which is included in The Silmarillion: the Ainulindalë, Valaquenta and Annals of Aman are by his hand. He is also given as the author of the Lhammas and Lhammasethen, as well as the Ambarkanta.
- The War of the Jewels attributes to him a collection of sayings called i Equessi Rumilo.
- Saeros is one of the few Elves of Middle-earth to be portrayed in a negative light. Tolkien wrote little about him except the account of his dealings with Túrin Turambar.
- Said to be very arrogant, Saeros was one of the Laiquendi who fled to the safety of Doriath after the First Battle of Beleriand. Over the next five centuries, he became a high councillor of Elu Thingol, King of Doriath.
- On the twelfth anniversary of his departure from his mother and home, Túrin returned to the king's halls from warfare on the marches of the realm. Weary, hungry, and saddened by the anniversary, Túrin sat in an unoccupied seat at the king's table, the seat of Saeros. Soon, Saeros appeared and was greatly offended by the "usurpation" of his place. Taking a seat opposite Túrin, he insulted his unkempt appearance. As Túrin had long, uncombed hair, Saeros asked if his female kin behaved like animals, running "clad only in their hair". At this, Túrin threw a goblet at his mouth, wounding him. Horrified with himself, Túrin fled the hall immediately.
- The next day, Saeros ambushed Túrin as he was walking in the woods. Despite the advantage of surprise, he was disarmed in the resulting fight. At this, Túrin forced him at sword-point to strip naked and run through the woods. Not understanding that Túrin did not intend to harm him farther, Saeros ran quickly and carelessly at a river crossing and fell to his death. Seeing this, and expecting to be judged guilty of murder, Túrin fled the realm forever, despite the pleas of Mablung for him to stay.
- In a trial in absentia conducted some time afterward, the elf-maiden Nellas led Thingol to judge Túrin not guilty by speaking of the ambush (which she witnessed) and stating that Túrin did not intend to kill Saeros.
- Saeros was originally named Orgof in the first version of Túrin's story, found in The Book of Lost Tales 2, part of the History of Middle-earth series edited by Christopher Tolkien, the author's son. Here he is killed outright by Túrin's goblet. The younger Tolkien, in re-editing the Túrin material for The Children of Húrin, discovered that his father had decided to rename this character Orgol, with negative meaning in Sindarin, and permitting a pun on Old English orgol, orgel "pride", cognate, but not ancestral, to Modern English orgulous. Nevertheless, Saeros was retained for the book as it was judged too late to replace.
- Salgant is a noble of Gondolin, the Lord of the House of the Harp from The Book of Lost Tales. He is described as a coward, fawning over Maeglin.
- Tata is one of the first six Elves.
- Tatië is one of the first six Elves.
- Turgon "the Wise" is an Elven king of the Noldor, second son of Fingolfin, brother to Fingon, Aredhel and Argon, and ruler of the hidden city of Gondolin.
- His name is a Sindarinised form of his Quenya name Turcáno, which probably means something like "valiant lord".
- Tuor is one of Tolkien's human heroes, a member of the noble House of Hador. He married Idril and Eärendil the Mariner was their son. He was eventually counted, uniquely among Men, among the Elves.
- Voronwë was a Noldorin Elf from Gondolin, who plays a key role in the story of Tuor. His name is Quenya, meaning 'steadfast one' (the Gnomish form is Bronweg).
- Voronwë also appears as a title of various other characters, for example Mardil Voronwë.
Notes and references
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Shibboleth of Fëanor", ISBN 0-395-82760-4
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth, p. 323-324, ISBN 0-395-68092-1
- History of Middle-earth, Vol. XI, pp.317–18, while preparing The Silmarillion for publication Christopher Tolkien could not discover which name was intended to be used as her final name, and he therefore chose to use both names, a decision he later stated in the History of Middle-earth series was possibly unwarranted.
- Parma Eldalamberon No. 15, Name List to The Fall of Gondolin, p.28
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, The Shibboleth of Fëanor, ISBN 0-395-82760-4
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Ch. 5 "Of Eldamar", p. 60, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Of Tuor and His Coming to Gondolin", ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien editor, History of Middle-earth, Vol.XI, (1994), p.21, "Fingolfin...acknowledged the high-kingship of Thingol"
- According to The History of Middle-earth vol. 12: The Peoples of Middle-earth (XI The Shibboleth of Fëanor)
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1987), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Lost Road and Other Writings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Etymologies", ISBN 0-395-45519-7
- History of Middle-earth, Vol. X, p.258, "Whereas Ingwë and Olwë beget many children..."
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien editor, The History of Middle-earth, Vol. V, p 171, The Lhammas.
- Noel, Ruth S. "The Languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth", page 166. Houghton Mifflin, 1974
- (2000) Vinya Tengwar (41): 40.
- The History of Middle Earth, X. Morgoth's Ring, "The Annals of Aman, p. 57, note 16.
- The History of Middle Earth, X. Morgoth's Ring, "The Annals of Aman, p. 48–51, 56–57.
- The History of Middle Earth, XI. The War of the Jewels, "The Tale of Years, p. 343.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1984), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Book of Lost Tales, 2, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Turambar and the Foalókë", ISBN 0-395-36614-3
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (2007), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Children of Húrin, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-007-24622-6
- Oxford English Dictionary, s. orgel, orgul, orgulous.
- Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #153, ISBN 0-395-31555-7