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1,112,123 Americans (2017)
23.15% of nationwide Puerto Rican population in 2010
5.5% of New York state population in 2010
|Regions with significant populations|
|New York City, New York|
|American English (Puerto Rican and New York Latino English), Puerto Rican Spanish|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic and Protestant|
Nuyorican is a portmanteau of the terms "New York" and "Puerto Rican" and refers to the members or culture of the Puerto Rican diaspora located in or around New York City, or of their descendants (especially those raised or still living in the New York area). This term could be used for Puerto Ricans living in other areas in the Northeast outside New York State. The term is also used by Islander Puerto Ricans (Puerto Ricans from Puerto Rico) to differentiate those of Puerto Rican descent from the Puerto Rico–born.
The term Nuyorican is also sometimes used to refer to the Spanish spoken by New York Puerto Ricans. An estimated 1,800,000 Nuyoricans are said to live in New York city, the largest Puerto Rican community outside Puerto Rico. Nuyoricans are not considered Puerto Ricans by some island Puerto Ricans due to cultural differences; this is a very controversial topic amongst both groups of Puerto Ricans. Nuyorican has a broad meaning; originally it meant Puerto Ricans, both island-born and mainland-born, living in New York, but many island-born Puerto Ricans use the term to describe assimilated Americans of Puerto Rican descent, living in any US state, or very assimilated or "Americanized" people of Puerto Rican ancestry, who largely lost touch with traditional Puerto Rican culture, and grew up culturally American, though still identify with Puerto Rico. Ethnic enclaves centered on Puerto Ricans include Spanish Harlem, Manhattan; Williamsburg, Brooklyn; and the South Bronx.
The Oxford English Dictionary cites this word as evolving slowly through roughly the last third of the 20th century, with the first cited reference being poet Jaime Carrero using neorriqueño in 1964 as a Spanish-language adjective combining neoyorquino and puertorriqueño. Many other variants developed along the way, including neoricano, neorican (also written as Neo-Rican and Neorican), and newyorican (also written as New Yorrican). Nuyorican itself dates at least from 1975, the date of the first public sessions of the Nuyorican Poets Café. Some of the best known "Nuyoricans" who have written and performed their experiences of being a Puerto Rican in New York are: Miguel Piñero, Miguel Algarín, Piri Thomas, Sandra María Esteves, Willie Colón, Pedro Pietri, and Giannina Braschi . Some of the newer poets: Willie Perdomo, Flaco Navaja, Nancy Mercado, Emanuel Xavier, Edwin Torres J.L. Torres, Caridad de la Luz aka La Bruja, Lemon Andersen, and Bonafide Rojas
Historically, the term has been used as a derogatory term by native Puerto Ricans when describing a person that has Puerto Rican ancestry but is born in the 50 states or a different commonwealth/territory. It also can sometimes include those born in Puerto Rico who now live elsewhere in the United States (other than New York). This changed from the original meaning with the increase in travel back and forth to different parts of the United States and the globe. The definition includes those born in New York who have moved to Puerto Rico as well.
The term is used by some members of this community to identify their history and cultural affiliation to a common ancestry while being separated from the island, both physically and through language and cultural shifts. This distance created a dual identity that, while still somewhat identifying with the island, recognizes the influences both geography and cultural assimilation have had. Puerto Ricans in other cities have coined similar terms, including "Philly Rican" for Puerto Ricans in Philadelphia, and "Chi-Town Rican" for Puerto Ricans in Chicago.
Many Nuyoricans are second- and third-generation Puerto Rican Americans whose parents or grandparents arrived in the New York metropolitan area during the Gran Migración (Great Migration). Puerto Ricans began to arrive in New York City in the nineteenth century but especially following the passage of the Jones-Shafroth Act on March 2, 1917, which granted U.S. citizenship to virtually all Puerto Ricans. The Gran Migración accelerated migration from Puerto Rico to New York during the 1940s and 1950s, but such large-scale emigration began to slow by the late 1960s.
In 2000, the Puerto Rican population of New York was over 1,050,000.
Historically, Nuyoricans resided in the predominantly Hispanic/Latino section of Manhattan known as Spanish Harlem, and around the Loisaida section of the East Village, but later spread across the city into newly created Puerto Rican/Nuyorican enclaves in Brooklyn, Queens and the South Bronx. Today, there are fewer island-born Puerto Ricans than mainland-born Puerto Ricans in New York City.
Prominent figures of the Nuyorican movement include poets and novelists Piri Thomas and Giannina Braschi. Miguel Algarín, Miguel Piñero and Pedro Pietri co-founded the Nuyorican Poets Café, a performance space for Nuyorican poets and musicians.
- https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_15_1YR_DP05&prodType=table=American Archived 2020-01-22 at Archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "2010 Census". census.gov. 2010. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010.
- The Nuyorican's Dilemma: Categorization of Returning Migrants in Puerto Rico
- Meraji, Shereen Marisol (January 22, 2014). "English Only? For Mainland Puerto Ricans, The Answer Is Often 'Yes'". NPR. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
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”Giannina Braschi, a celebrated member of the Nuyorican Poets group”
- "The Unlinking of Language & Puerto Rican Identity". The Library of Congress. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- "Héctor Olivencia rememora el pasado de gloria del BSN". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). 2017-02-18. Retrieved 2020-08-01.
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- Jones-Shafroth Act Archived 2011-11-25 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Library of Congress, accessed May 25, 2010.
- The Gran Migración Archived 2017-01-20 at the Wayback Machine, Maura Isabel Toro-Morn, Marixsa Alicea, Migration and Immigration: A Global View.
- Atlas of Stateside Puerto Ricans: Abridged Edition without Maps. Archived 2019-04-12 at the Wayback Machine Angelo Falcon. Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration. ca. 2002. Page 3. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
- 'Photographing Puerto Rican New York, With A 'Sympathetic Eye Archived 2015-02-27 at the Wayback Machine', NPR News, October 26, 2013.
- Sofrito For Your Soul Online Magazine
- Capicu Poetry & Cultural Showcase
- Celebrities Desde Nueva York
- The art of Santiago
- Association of Hispanic Arts (AHA)
- Nuyorican cinema
- Boricuation Cultural Foundation
- Soraida Martinez, New York born artist of Puerto Rican heritage known as creator of Verdadism
- "Nuyorican Power"