The northern coast of Egypt (Arabic: الساحل الشمالي Al Sāḥel Al Šamāli, north coast, commonly shortened to الساحل Al Sāḥel, "the coast") extends for about 1,050 km (650 mi) along the Mediterranean Sea from the eastern side of the Sinai Peninsula at the Egypt-Gaza border to the western village of Sallum at the Egypt–Libya border. It is one of the longest Mediterranean coastlines in North Africa.
The city of Alexandria lies at the center of Egypt's Mediterranean coastline in Lower Egypt (northern Egypt), as chosen by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE. The north coast has been the hub of sea travel between the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile Delta for over 2,300 years.
Geography and nature
On contrast to Egypt's Red Sea Riviera, its Mediterranean coastline is totally plain with low altitude shrublands along the region, except for the westernmost portion which is formed by the 400m-high Marmarika Plateau. It is also characterised by the occurrence of Egypt's five northernmost lakes.
The region has typical Mediterranean flora and fauna on land and in marine life with the weather being between pleasant and hot during summer and mild in winter. The region receives the most rain in Egypt, hail and sleet fall rarely in winter. Snowfalls occur in some inland towns and locations.
Even though most of Egypt lies within the hot desert climate (BWh) according to Köppen climate classification with little precipitation, prevailing winds from the Mediterranean sea greatly moderate the temperatures of the northern coastal line, making the summers moderately hot and humid, while the winters moderately wet and mild, when sleet and hail are also common, in and around the wettest places, as Alexandria.
Cities, towns and villages
Egypt's Mediterranean coast can be differentiated into 4 subregions:
- Western North Coast: Which has higher rain precipitation. Higher altitude witnesses higher snowfalls and it is colder than the other 3 portions. It also has more shrubbed and forested terrain, but no lakes. This subregion faces Greece and Crete. It has cities, towns and villages such as:
- Sallum a border town at Libyan borders.
- Baqiqi a fishing local village.
- Sidi Barrani a snowy town, and Egypt's closest inhabited settlement towards Europe and Greece.
- Shammas a fishing local village.
- Zawyet Umm El Rakham a village with archeological sites.
- Marsa Matruh the main seaport on Egypt's Western Mediterranean coast.
- Fuka a village famous for excellent Mediterranean fruits and touristic beaches.
- El Dabaa is a main town
- Sidi Abdel Rahman a new touristic seaport town with a number of leading resorts like Hacienda bay and white, Marassi (made by Emaar), Lazorde and Diplo.
- Central North Coast: The southernmost Mediterranean shoreline in Egypt, forming a big gulf. It has no lakes. This subregion faces the West of Turkey. It has cities, towns and villages such as:
- El Alamein the southernmost Mediterranean coastal city
- Marina, Egypt a leading Egyptian major resorts town, and host site of Ancient Egyptian and Roman monuments.
- Sidi Kreir a major town and municipality
- Borg El Arab a major city
- Alexandria the main Mediterranean city and seaport. At the center of the entire Medi coastline and the second largest city in Egypt.
- Delta's North Coast: Which is settled by larger populations and hosts larger cities, with the exception of Alexandria. It has the Nile Delta which features hail and sleet in winters. Sometime frost and frozen ground during winter nights destroy the crops and agriculture plants. Three of Egypt's Northern Lakes are located there: Lake Mariout, Edko Lake and Lake Burullus. This subregion faces Central Turkey. Its cities, towns and villages are:
- Rosetta a historic western Nile delta city where Rashid's Nile branch and Mediterranean meet (aka Rashid)
- Baltim at the northern tip of the Nile Delta. One of North Africa's northern towns
- Gamasa a local touristic city
- Ras El Bar a touristic city for locals where the Damietta's Nile branch and the Mediterranean meet
- Ezbet El Borg is a fishing city at the other bank of the Damietta River
- Damietta a major eastern Nile Delta city and seaport in Egypt
- Eastern North Coast: It has the least precipitation, yet its cities and towns are of great geopolitical and economic importance. It is colder on its eastern part than its other part. 2 Northern lakes of Egypt are found in this subregion as well: Lake Manzala and Lake Bardawil. This subregion faces Cyprus and Turkey. It has cities, towns and villages like:
- Al-Aees, Shaimaa (5 November 2018). "Inertia Holding earns EGP 4bn in Jefaira North Coast project sales since launch". Daily News Egypt.