|Molar mass||278.839 g·mol−1|
|Shock sensitivity||18.82 J|
|Friction sensitivity||15.6906 N|
|Detonation velocity||3,600 m/s @ .8 g/cm3|
7,000 m/s @ 1.7 g/cm³
|RE factor||1.05 @ 1.7 g/cm³|
Carc. Cat. 1
Muta. Cat. 3
Repr. Cat. 2
Dangerous for the environment (N)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Nickel hydrazine nitrate (NHN), (chemical formula: [Ni(N2H4)3](NO3)2 is an energetic material having explosive properties in between that of primary explosive and a secondary explosive. It is a salt of a coordination compound of nickel with a reaction equation of 3N2H4·H2O + Ni(NO3)2 →〔Ni(N2H4)3〕(NO3)2 ＋ 3H2O
NHN can be synthesized by reacting nickel nitrate with a dilute aqueous solution of hydrazine monohydrate at 65 C. To help speed the drying of the product after filtration from the hot water, it can be rinsed with alcohol. The product is a fluffy powder (density=0.9 g/cm3). To increase its bulk density to (1.2 g/cm3), dextrin in the amount of (1%) of the weight of the Nickel Nitrate can be added.
Non-primary explosive detonator (NPED)
NHN, when properly made, needs some confinement to properly make the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) and act as a replacement for traditional primaries. Thin steel/aluminum tubing with dimensions 5/16" OD, 0.273" ID (a 0.020" wall thickness) is sufficient for NHN to make the DDT. Properly made NHN will even detonate in a plastic tube setting off a sensitive secondary like melt-cast ETN or PETN.
NHN straddles the line between primary and secondary. Because of this it is a relatively safe explosive to work with having 80x less sensitivity to friction (16.0 N) than Lead Azide (0.1N) as shown in table 2.
Friction sensitivities of some traditional explosives (lead azide – 0.1N; lead trinitroresorcinate – 1.5 N; mercury fulminate (white) – 5,0 N; tetrazene – 8.0 N; PETN – 60 N; hexogen – 120 N; octogen – 120 N, show that NHN is not very sensitive, and is thereby not exceedingly hazardous in handling.
Table 1. General and structural properties of Nickel hydrazine nitrate
|Molecular formula||Ni H12 N8 O6|
|Crystal density (g/cm3)||2.1|
|Average particle size (μm)||13|
|Nickel content (%)||21.16 (21.06) a|
|Hydrazine content (%)||34.46 (34.45) a|
|Nitrate content (%)||44.47 (44.49) a|
|Nitrogen content in coordination sphere (%)||30.25 (30.14) a|
|FTIR peaks, (cm−1)||3238, 1630 (NH2); 1356,1321 (-NO3)|
|Moisture content (at 333 K for 10 min) (%)||0.34|
|Average mol wt of combustion products||27.35|
|Percent condensable Ni (l)||18|
|Oxygen balance %||-5.74|
a Values in brackets are theoretical
Table 2. Comparative properties of Nickel hydrazine nitrate and lead azide
|Property||Nickel hydrazine nitrate a||Lead azide b|
|Crystal Density (g/cm3)||2.129||4.38|
|Oxygen balance (%)||– 5.74 c||– 5.50|
|Heat of combustion (kJ/kg)||5225||2635|
|Heat of formation (kJ/mol)||– 449||469|
|Heat of explosion (kJ/kg)||4390||1610|
|Pressure output in closed vessel (100 mg in 48 cm3) (kg/cm2)||17.5||8.2 c|
|Onset of decomposition (K)||505.7||463|
|Peak of decomposition (K)||506.5||618|
|Friction sensitivity (kg f)||1.6||0.02|
|Impact sensitivity (cm, 400 g wt, 20 mg sample, 50% explosion)||21 b||10.5|
|ESD sensitivity (J)||0.02 b||0.003|
|Vol. of detonation gases (ml/g)||884 c||308|
|Detonation temperature (K)||2342 c||5600|
|Detonation pressure (GPa)||20.8 c (1.7 g/cm3)||16.1 (3.0 g/cm3)|
|Detonation velocity (m/s)||7000 b (1.7 g/cm3)||4630 (3.0 g/cm3)|
|RE Factor||1.05 b (1.7 g/cm3)||.8 (3.0 g/cm3)|
a Experimental value, b literature value, and c theoretical value
- Hariharanath, B.; Chandrabhanu, K. S.; Rajendran, A. G.; Ravindran, M.; Kartha, C. B. (2006). "Detonator using Nickel Hydrazine Nitrate as Primary Explosive". Defence Science Journal. 56 (3): 383–9. doi:10.14429/dsj.56.1904.
- Chhabra, J.S; Talawar, M.B; Makashir, P.S; Asthana, S.N; Singh, Haridwar (2003). "Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of (Ni/Co) metal salts of hydrazine: Potential initiatory compounds". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 99 (3): 225–39. doi:10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00247-9. PMID 12758009.
- "NOPR: Studies on nickel hydrazinium nitrate (NHN) and bis-(5-nitro-2H tetrazolato-N2)tetraamino cobalt(III) perchlorate (BNCP): Potential lead-free advanced primary explosives". Nopr.niscair.res.in. Retrieved 2017-03-31.