New York General Assembly
|Founded||October 17, 1683|
|Disbanded||April 3, 1775|
|Succeeded by||New York Provincial Congress|
Length of term
|Authority||Charter of Liberties and Privileges|
The General Assembly of New York, commonly known internationally as the New York General Assembly, and domestically simply as General Assembly, was the supreme legislative body of the Province of New York. It was the representative governing body in New York until April 3, 1775, when the Assembly disbanded after the outbreak of the Revolutionary War.
The New York General Assembly was first convened on October 17, 1683 during the governorship of Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick, which passed an act entitled "A Charter of Liberties" that decreed that the supreme legislative power under the Duke of York (later King James II) shall reside in a governor, council, and the people convened in general assembly; conferred upon the members of the assembly rights and privileges making them a body coequal to and independent of the British Parliament; established town, county, and general courts of justice; solemnly proclaimed the right of religious liberty; and passed acts enunciating certain constitutional liberties, e.g. taxes could be levied only by the people met in general assembly; right of suffrage; and no martial law or quartering of the soldiers without the consent of the inhabitants.
The Assembly grew to twenty-seven members,[a] elected viva voce by the people once every seven years and the districts they represented. The representatives terms was originally at the will of the governor and new elections were ordered as it suited his interests. A law was passed that limited member's terms to three years, but it was annulled by King George III. The Septennial Act was passed in 1743, and remained in force till the revolution.
The General Assembly elected a Speaker from their own ranks, chose their own clerk, and published their own journal. The Assembly had the sole right of originating all laws granting appropriations of money, and, during Governor William Cosby's administration, which was defined by political struggles and is known as one of the most oppressive royal placeholders, they indeed withheld his compensation in an attempt to bring him closer to their desires. Reportedly, "these quarrels had considerably subsided before the revolution; but they doubtless had an influence beneficial to liberty, by introducing political discussions, and imparting a knowledge of the tendencies of irresponsible power."
The General Assembly continued until May 1775. Among its last acts was the adoption of petitions to the King and British Parliament, in which, while they "professed a warm attachment to the royal person and government, they solemnly protested against the aggressions that had for years been gaining upon the rights of the people, and expressed, quite as strongly as was then avowed by the patriots of the day, the sentiments advocated in the revolution."
- Albany County: all of the region that is now northern and western New York.
- Cortlandt Manor[b]
- Dutchess County: now Dutchess and Putnam counties.
- Kings County: the current Kings County; Brooklyn.
- Livingston Manor[c]
- New York County: the current New York County; Manhattan.
- Orange County: now Orange and Rockland counties.
- Queens County: now Queens and Nassau counties.
- Rensselaer Manor[d]
- Richmond County: the current Richmond County; Staten Island.
- Town of Schenectady
- Suffolk County: the current Suffolk County.
- Ulster County: now Ulster and Sullivan counties and part of what is now Delaware and Greene counties.
- Westchester County: now Westchester and Bronx counties.
|Albany||Coenradt Ten Eyck||1747/8-50||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1748 to 1750.|
|Dirck Ten Broeck||1728||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1746 to 1748.|
|Dirck Wessels||1691–98, 1701||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1696 to 1698.|
|Evert Bancker||1702-5||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1695 to 1696 and 1707 to 1709.|
|Hans Hansen||1750-52||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1731 to 1732 and 1754 to 1756.|
|Hendrick Hansen||1699–1702, 1708–9, 1715–24||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1698 to 1699.|
|Jacob H. Ten Eyck||1759-77||Albany merchant who served as assistant alderman in the second ward from 1739 to 1743 and 1746 to 1748.|
|Jan Jansen Bleecker||1698-1701||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1700 to 1701.|
|Johannes Cuyler||1705–13, 1715–26, 1727–28||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1725 to 1726.|
|Johannes Schuyler||1710-13||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1703 to 1706.|
|John Abeel||1695–98, 1701-5||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1694 to 1695 and 1709 to 1710.|
|John Bleecker||1701-6||Also served as recorder and mayor of Albany from 1701 to 1702. Son of Jan Jansen Bleecker.|
|Levinus Van Schaick||1691-93||A merchant who returned to Amsterdam and traded with Robert Livingston.|
|Myndert Schuyler||1701–10, 1713–15, 1724–37||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1719 to 1720 and 1723 to 1725.|
|Peter Douw||1747/8-50, 1752–59|
|Peter Van Brugh||1713–15, 1727–28||Also served as mayor of Albany from 1699 to 1700 and 1721 to 1723.|
|Peter Van Bruggen||1705-8|
|Peter Winne||1737–47, 1752–61||Captain Winne ran a skipper along the Hudson River and was a partner in the Sacandaga Patent of 1741.|
|Philip Schuyler||1728–47, 1750–52|
|Philip Schuyler||1768-77||A Revolutionary War General and, later, a U.S. Senator and father-in-law of Alexander Hamilton.|
|Robert Livingston||1709-15||The 1st Lord of Livingston Manor.|
|Ryer Jacobse Schermerhorn||1698-1702||The sole trustee of the Schenectady Patent.|
|Volkert P. Douw||1761-8?||Later served in the New York State Senate from 1785 to 1793. Son of Peter Douw.|
|Cortlandt Manor||Philip Verplanck||1737-64||Verplanck married into the Van Cortlandt family.|
|Pierre Van Cortlandt||1768-77||Also served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795.|
|Dutchess||Baltus Van Kleeck||1715-16|
|Dirck Brinckerhoff||1768-77||Later served in the 2nd New York State Legislature.|
|Henry Beekman||1725-59||A grandson of acting New York City mayor Wilhelmus Beekman.|
|Henry Livingston||1754-68||Father of Henry Livingston Jr., Gilbert Livingston, and John Henry Livingston.|
|Jacobus Tur Boss||1737-43|
|Johannes Van Kleeck||1726-37|
|Leonard Van Kleeck||1768-77|
|Robert R. Livingston||1759-68|
|Coert Stuyvesant||1693-94||Likely a descendant of the last Dutch Director of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant.|
|Cornelius Sebring||1695–98, 1698-1726|
|Cornelius Van Brunt||1698-1716|
|D. Vander Vier||1750-59|
|Gerardus Beekman||1698||Also served as acting governor of the Province of New York in 1710.|
|Henry Filkin||1693/4-95||One of the Great Nine Partners Patent.|
|Johannes Lott||1727–47, 1750–61|
|Johannes Van Ecklen||1693-98|
|Simon Boerum||1761-77||He represented New York in the Continental Congress in 1774 and 1775.|
|Robert Livingston||1716-26||The 1st Lord of Livingston Manor (he previously represented Albany from 1709 to 1715).|
|Robert Livingston Jr.||1726-28||Also known as "Robert of Clermont", second son of Robert Livingston the Elder and father of Robert Livingston.|
|Gilbert Livingston||1728-37||Fourth son of Robert Livingston the Elder who married Cornelia Beekman, granddaughter of Wilhelmus Beekman.|
|Robert Livingston||1737-59||The 3rd Lord of Livingston Manor; Grandson of Robert Livingston the Elder and son of Philip Livingston.|
|William Livingston||1759-61||Later served as the 1st Governor of New Jersey.|
|Peter R. Livingston||1761-69||Son of Robert Livingston, 3rd Lord of Livingston Manor.|
|Philip Livingston||1769-77||A merchant who was a delegate to the Continental Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence.|
|Johannes Hardenbroek||1709-10||A prominent merchant.|
|Abraham Gouverneur||1701-2||Speaker of the Assembly from May 15, 1699 to May 3, 1702.|
|Adolph Philipse||1726-45||The second son of Frederick Philipse, the 1st Lord of the Philipsburg Manor.|
|Anthony Rutgers||1726-37||Related to Henry Rutgers.|
|Brandt Schuyler||1695-98||Brother of Pieter Schuyler and Arent Schuyler|
|Cornelius Van Horne||1743-59|
|David Clarkson||1739, 1745–52|
|David Provost||1699–1702, 1711–13, 1716–25||Also served as 24th mayor of New York City from 1699 to 1700.|
|Garret Van Horne||1716-37|
|Henry Cruger||1745-59||Eldest son of 38th mayor of New York City John Cruger and brother of Speaker John Cruger Jr.|
|Isaac De Rimier||1668-77|
|Jacobus Van Cortlandt||1691–93, 1698–99, 1702–16||Also served as 30th and 33rd mayor of New York City from 1710 to 1711 and 1719–1720.|
|James Alexander||1737-39||Also served as 4th New Jersey Attorney General from 1723 to 1728. Father of William Alexander, Lord Stirling.|
|James De Lancey||1768-77||Son of James De Lancey, Governor of the Province of New York from 1753 to 1755.|
|James Graham||1691–93, 1695-1701|
|Johannes Jansen||1709–11, 1716–26||Also served as 35th mayor of New York City from 1725 to 1726.|
|Johannes Kipp||1691–93, 1698–99|
|John Cruger||1759-73||Also served as 41st mayor of New York City from 1757 to 1766. Son of 38th mayor of New York City John Cruger.|
|Johannes de Peyster||1699-1702||Also served as 23rd mayor of New York City from 1698 to 1699.|
|John Spratt||1693/4-95||Glasgow, Scotland born merchant who was the father of Mary Alexander and son-in-law of Johannes de Peyster Sr.|
|John Van Home||1709-10|
|John Watts||1752-59||A Scottish immigrant. Father of U.S. Representative John Watts and son-in-law of Stephen Delancey.|
|Lawrence Reade||1695–98, 1708–9, 1711–15|
|Oliver De Lancey||1756-61||Merchant and Loyalist.|
|Peter De Lanoy||1693/4-95||Also served as 18th mayor of New York City from 1689 to 1691.|
|Philip French||1698–99, 1702-8||Also served as the 27th mayor of New York City from 1702 to 1703.|
|Samuel Bayard||1713-16||Also served as a Judge.|
|Samuel Staats||1693/4-95||Son of Abraham Staats.|
|Stephen De Lanoy||1702–16, 1725–27|
|Tunis De Key||1695-98|
|William Bayard||1761-68||Father of William Bayard Jr.|
|Orange||Abraham Gouverneur||1699-1702||Speaker of the Assembly from May 15, 1699 to May 3, 1702.|
|Abraham Haring||1745-47||Father of lawyer and Continental Congressman John Haring.|
|Cornelius Haring||1715–16, 1726–37|
|Hendrick Ten Eyck||1710-15||One of the Great Nine Partners Patent.|
|John De Noyellis||1769-77|
|Peter Haring||1701–2, 1709–10, 1716–26|
|Samuel Gale||1750–59, 1769–77|
|Queens||Benjamin Hicks||1725-37||Relation of Federalist Assemblyman Benjamin Hicks.|
|Daniel Whitehead||1691–1701, 1702-4|
|John Jackson||1693–1701, 1702–16|
|John Talman||1701, 1709–10|
|Jonathan Smith Sr.||1701-2|
|Thomas Willet||1701, 1710–25|
|Zebulon Seaman||1759–61, 1763–77|||
|Rensselaer Manor||Abraham Ten Broeck||1761-77|
|Andries Douw||1708-5||Douw lived in Rensselaerswyck, where his family held extensive lands.|
|Hendrick van Rensselaer||1705-15|
|Jeremias Van Rensselaer||1726-43|
|J.B. Van Rensselaer||1743-61|
|Kiliaen Van Rensselaer||1691–1701, 1702-3|
|Christopher Billop||1769-77||Later a United Empire Loyalists who served in the 1st New Brunswick Legislative Assembly.|
|Elias Duksberry||1691, 1695–98|
|John La Count||1726-59|
|William Walton||1752-61||A merchant who was one of the founders of the New York Society Library.|
|Henry Pierson||1691-95||Speaker of the Assembly from March 2, 1694 to April 20, 1695.|
|John Tuthill||1693-3/4, 1695–98|
|Nathaniel Woodhull||1769-77||Also a brigadier general of the New York militia during the American Revolution.|
|William Nicoll||1701-23||A son of 6th New York City mayor Matthias Nicoll.|
|Arent Bradt||1737–48, 1745–47|
|Jacob Glen||1726–37, 1747/8-50||Namesake of Glen, New York.|
|Jacob Van Slyck||1750-52|
|Jacobus Mynderse||1752–59, 1768–79|
|Ryer Schermerhorn||1761||Grandson and principal heir of Ryer Jacobse Schermerhorn.|
|Ulster||Abraham G. Chambers||1716-39|
|Abraham Hasbrouck||1698-1701||One of twelve patent holders to the 40,000 acre New Paltz Patent.|
|Abraham Hasbrouck||1739–45, 1747/8-50, 1759–68||Son of Abraham Hasbrouck.|
|Albert Pawlding||1726–37, 1745|
|Charles DeWitt||1668-77||Also served as a delegate to the New York Provincial and Continental Congresses.|
|George Clinton||1768-77||He later served as the 1st Governor of the State of New York and the 4th Vice President of the United States.|
|Hendrick Beekman||1691–93, 1695–98, 1702–16||Represented Westchester & Dutchess from 1691 to 1693.|
A son of acting New York City mayor Wilhelmus Beekman.
|Jacob Rutsen||1693/4-95, 1699–1702, 1713–26||Represented Ulster & Dutchess from 1693/4-95.|
|Jacobus Bruyn||1759-68||Father of New York Assemblymen Jacobus S. Bruyn, Severyn Tenhout Bruyn, Johannes Bruyn, and Cornelius Bruyn.|
|Johannes Hardenbergh||1737-43||Owner of the Hardenbergh patent of land in the Catskill Mountains.|
|Moses De Pue Jr.||1752-59|
|Thomas Garton||1691, 1693/4-95, 1698–99, 1702-18||Represented Westchester & Dutchess in 1691 and 1693/4-95.|
|William Demire||1691–93, 1695–98|
|Westchester||Adolph Philipse||1722-26||The second son of Frederick Philipse, the 1st Lord of the Philipsburg Manor, uncle to Frederick Philipse II.|
|Caleb Heathcote||1701-2||Also served as 31st mayor of New York City from 1711 to 1713.|
|Frederick Philipse II||1726-50||The 2nd Lord of Philipsburg Manor, part of the Philipse Patent (today's Putnam County).|
|Frederick Philipse III||1751-77||The 3rd (and last) Lord of Philipsburg Manor.|
|John De Lancey||1764?-77|
|John Drake||1698–1701, 1709–10, 1713–15|
|John Pell||1691-95||The 2nd Lord of Pelham Manor.|
|Joseph Purdy||1695–99, 1701–2, 1709–10|
|Joseph Theall||1691–95, 1697|
|Josiah Hunt||1702–10, 1715–16|
|Lewis Morris||1710-28||Uncle to Lewis Morris Sr.|
|Lewis Morris Sr.||1733-38||Governor of New Jersey|
|Lewis Morris Jr.||1732-50||Also served as Speaker of the Assembly|
|Lewis Morris III||1769||Also served as a delegate to the New York Provincial and Continental Congresses.|
|Peter De Lancey||1750-68||Son of Stephen Delancey.|
|William Willet||1701, 1702–9, 1710–15, 1716-33|
- By 1775, thirty-nine Assemblymen represented sixteen districts made up of Counties and Manors.
- Van Cortlandt Manor was originally a 86,000-acre (35,000 ha) tract granted as a Patent to Stephanus Van Cortlandt in 1697 by King William III, stretching from the Hudson River on the west to the first boundary line between the Province of New York and the Colony of Connecticut, on the east, twenty English miles in length by ten in width, in shape nearly a rectangular parallelogram, forming, "The Manor of Cortlandt."
- Livingston Manor was a 160,000 acre (650 square kilometres (250 sq mi)) tract of land granted to Robert Livingston the Elder and confirmed by royal charter of George I of Great Britain in 1715, creating the manor and lordship of Livingston. The original patent was obtained in July 1686.
- The Manor of Rensselaerwyck was, first, a Dutch patroonship and, later, an English manor. The estate was originally deeded by the Dutch West India Company to merchant Kiliaen van Rensselaer in 1630. Rensselaerswyck extended for miles on each side of the Hudson River near present-day Albany. It included most of what are now the present New York counties of Albany and Rensselaer, as well as parts of Columbia and Greene counties.
- No journals or records of names of members of general assembly, between 1683 and 1691, are preserved. The duration of office of members, previous to 1743, was unlimited and dependent upon the will of the governor; and this power of convening, proroguing and dissolving the assembly was frequently exercised to procure a compliance with the wishes of the executive.
- "English Colony and Province". www.nycourts.gov. Historical Society of the New York Courts | New York Legal History. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Driscoll, John T. "Thomas Dongan." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 6 Jun. 2014
- "New York General Assembly". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Hough, A.M., M.D., Franklin B. (1858). The New York Civil List: Containing The Names And Origin Of The Civil Divisions, And The Names And Dates Of Election Or Appointment Of The Principal State And County Officers From The Revolution To The Present Time. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co. Retrieved 19 September 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Bolton, Robert (1881). The History of the Several Towns, Manors and Patents of the County of Westchester Vol 1. New York: Charles F. Roper. pp. 94–95. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Livingston, Edwin Brockholst (1901). The Livingstons of Livingston manor; being the history of that branch of the Scottish house of Callendar which settled in the English province of New York during the reign of Charles the Second; and also including an account of Robert Livingston of Albany, "The nephew," a settler in the same province and his principal descendants. New York: The Knickerbocker Press. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- Livingston, James D.; Penney, Sherry H. (March 1987). "The Breakup of Livingston Manor" (PDF). The Hudson Valley Regional Review. 4 (1): 56–73. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- "Freedoms, as Given by the Council of the Nineteen of the Chartered West India Company to All those who Want to Establish a Colony in New Netherland". World Digital Library. 1630. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- Murlin, Edgar L. (1908). The New York Red Book. J. B. Lyon Company. pp. 356–365. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Hough, Franklin Benjamin (1854). A History of Jefferson County in the State of New York: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. Joel Munsell. p. 452. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Dirck Ten Broeck". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Dirck Wesselse Ten Broeck". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Register of the National Society of Colonial Dames in the State of New York. The Society. 1901. p. 190. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- Laer, Arnold J. F. Van (2009). Early Records of the City and County of Albany and Colony of Rensselaerswyck: Volume 4 (Mortgages 1, 1658-1660, and Wills 1-2, 1681-1765). Genealogical Publishing Company. ISBN 9780806351537. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Hendrick Hansen". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Jacob H. Ten Eyck". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Register of the National Society of Colonial Dames in the State of New York. The Society. 1913. pp. 271, 425. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Johannes Schuyler". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
- Reynolds, Cuyler (1906). Albany Chronicles: A History of the City Arranged Chronologically, from the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time; Illustrated with Many Historical Pictures of Rarity and Reproductions of the Robert C. Pruyn Collection of the Mayors of Albany, Owned by the Albany Institute and Historical and Art Society. J. B. Lyon Company, printers. p. 128. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Bergen, Tunis Garret (1915). Genealogies of the State of New York: A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making of a Commonwealth and the Founding of a Nation. Lewis Historical Publishing Company. p. 750. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Leder, Lawrence H. (2012). Robert Livingston and the Politics of Colonial New York, 1654-1728. UNC Press Books. p. 125. ISBN 9780807838624. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Myndert Schuyler". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Pieter Van Brugh". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Pieter Winne". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Philip Schuyler papers". archives.nypl.org. New York Public Library. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Ryer Schermerhorn". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Reynolds, Cuyler (1911). Hudson-Mohawk Genealogical and Family Memoirs: A Record of Achievements of the People of the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys in New York State, Included Within the Present Counties of Albany, Rensselaer, Washington, Saratoga, Montgomery, Fulton, Schenectady, Columbia and Greene. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- Chester, Alden; Williams, Edwin Melvin (2005). Courts and Lawyers of New York: A History, 1609-1925. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 268. ISBN 9781584774242. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Judd, Jacob (1977). Van Cortlandt Family Papers Vol II. Tarrytown: Sleepy Hollow Restorations. pp. xxxviii, liv. ISBN 0-912882-29-8.
- Livingston, Edwin Brockholst (1910). The Livingstons of Livingston Manor: Being the History of that Branch of the Scottish House of Callendar which Settled in the English Province of New York During the Reign of Charles the Second; and Also Including an Account of Robert Livingston of Albany, "The Nephew," a Settler in the Same Province and His Principal Descendants. Knickerbocker Press. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Thompson, Benjamin Franklin (1839). History of Long Island: Containing an Account of the Discovery and Settlement; with Other Important and Interesting Matters to the Present Time. E. French. p. 172. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- "New-York Historical Society | Dr. Gerardus Beekman (1653-1723)". www.nyhistory.org. New York Historical Society. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Clifford Buck and William McDermott, "Eighteenth Century Documents of the Nine Partners Patent Dutchess County, New York", Collections of the Dutchess County Historical Society, Vol. X, Gateway Press, 1979.
- "BOERUM, Simon - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- "Philip Livingston". dsdi1776.com/. The Society of the Descendants of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- Bergen, Teunis G. (1876). The Bergen Family; Or: The Descendants of Hans Hansen Bergen, One of the Early Settlers of New York and Brooklyn, L. I. J. Munsell. p. 153. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Adolph Philipse Estate Records (1749-1767)". archives.nypl.org. New York Public Library. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Lamb, Martha Joanna (1896). History of the City of New York: Its Origin, Rise and Progress. A. S. Barnes. p. 771. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- Annual Register of the National Society of Colonial Dames in the State of New York. National Society of Colonial Dames in the State of New York. 1913. p. 260. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- Council, New York (N Y. ) Common; Osgood, Herbert Levi; Keep, Austin Baxter; Nelson, Charles Alexander (1905). Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776: In Eight Volumes ... Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 375. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Whittelsey, Charles Barney (1902). The Roosevelt Genealogy, 1649-1902. Hartford, Connecticut: Press of J.B. Burr & Company. p. 36. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Edward T. James, ed. (1974). Notable American Women, 1607–1950 : A Biographical Dictionary (3. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674627342.
- "WATTS, John - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- Bonomi, Patricia (1971). A Factious People, Politics and Society in Colonial New York. ISBN 0-231-03509-8.
- Burrows, Edwin G. and Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-195-11634-8. pp.99-100
- Caliendo, Ralph J. (2010-05-01). New York City Mayors. Xlibris Corporation. p. 63. ISBN 9781450088145.[self-published source]
- "HARING, John - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Ross, Peter; Pelletreau, William Smith (1905). A History of Long Island: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Lewis Publishing Company. p. 94. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Bielinski, Stefan. "Andries Douw". exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov. New York State Museum. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Bell, David (2015). American Loyalists to New Brunswick: The ship passenger lists. Formac Publishing Company. p. 301. ISBN 9781459503991. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Barrett, Walter (1864). The Old Merchants of New York City. Books on Demand. p. 104. ISBN 9780598379436. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Malone, Dumas (1943). Dictionary of American Biography. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Schermerhorn, Richard (1914). Schermerhorn Genealogy and Family Chronicles. T.A. Wright. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Schenkman, A. J. (23 December 2013). "The Trials and Tribulations of Abraham Hasbrouck". The New York History Blog. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- White, J. T. (1909). The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography: Being the History of the United States as Illustrated in the Lives of the Founders, Builders, and Defenders of the Republic, and of the Men and Women who are Doing the Work and Moulding the Thought of the Present Time, Volume 11. J. T. White. p. 331. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "U.S. Senate: George Clinton, 4th Vice President (1805-1812)". www.senate.gov.
- Kestenbaum, Lawrence. "The Political Graveyard: Bruyn family of New York". politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- "Sullivan County History". www.hopefarm.com. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Fox, Dixon Ryan (1926). Caleb Heathcote, Gentleman Colonist: The Story of a Career in the Province of New York, 1692-1721. C. Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Hall, Edward Hagaman (1912). Philipse Manor Hall at Yonkers, N.Y.: The Site, the Building and Its Occupants. American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. p. 117. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- Kenneth T. Jackson: The Encyclopedia of New York City: The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press; 1995. P. 324.