|New York City|
|City of New York|
|Nickname(s): See Nicknames of New York City|
Location within the U.S. state of New York
|United States and New York|
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Counties / (Boroughs)||
|Historic colonies|| New Netherland
Province of New York
|Named for||James, Duke of York|
|• Body||New York City Council|
|• Mayor||Bill de Blasio (D)|
|• Total||468.484 sq mi (1,213.37 km2)|
|• Land||302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2)|
|• Water||165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2)|
|• Metro||13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2)|
|Elevation||33 ft (10 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||8,537,673|
|• Rank||1st, U.S.|
|• Density||28,210/sq mi (10,890/km2)|
|• MSA (2016)||20,153,634 (1st)|
|• CSA (2016)||23,689,255 (1st)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP code(s)||100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xx|
|Area code(s)||212/646/332, 718/347/929, 917|
|GNIS feature ID||975772|
|Largest borough by area||Queens – 109 square miles (280 km2)|
|Largest borough by population||Brooklyn (2,636,735 – 2015 est)|
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2016 population of 8,537,673 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world with an estimated 23.7 million residents as of 2016. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, and sports. The city's fast pace defines the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of New York State. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States, and as many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2013, the tri-state New York Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.4 trillion. If New York City were a country, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world.
New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists of the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, and the city received a record 61 million tourists in 2016, hosting three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's bridges, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world.
In 1664, the city was named after then Duke of York, and future King of England James II. James had been named by his older brother Charles II as proprietor of the former territory of New Netherlands and its main city of New Amsterdam, which had recently been seized from the Dutch.
During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet (300 m) in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of regolith, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island.
In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.
The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême).
A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony's River). The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show North America's east coast continuously, was informed by Gomes' expedition and labeled the Northeastern U.S. as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.
In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered the New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson's first mate described the harbor as "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river as "a mile broad" and "full of fish." Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles north, past the site of present-day Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay would be claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland).
The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.
A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam). The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band, for 60 guilders (about $1,000 in 2006). A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.
Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly. To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen ("patroons", or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swathes of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.
Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economy growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).
In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Amsterdam grew from 2,000 to 8,000. Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship. The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.
In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops led by Colonel Richard Nicolls without bloodshed. The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom. The English promptly renamed the fledgling city "New York" after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England). The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.
Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.
New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, more than any other city other than Charleston, South Carolina. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.
The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.
The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765 as the Sons of Liberty organized in the city, skirmishing over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.
The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.
In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
Under New York State's gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children. It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.
In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration. The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.
Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.
The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city's population. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.
Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,835 in 2016) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class. The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York City Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area. It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.
In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.
In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.
New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.
New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.
Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.
The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks when 10 of the 19 terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda piloted American Airlines Flight 11 into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, and later destroyed them, killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area. The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is. The rebuilding of the area, has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) permanent station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city's third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of American independence.
The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
New York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island.
The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.
The city's total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.
New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.
Manhattan's skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011[update], New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world's tallest building.
The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design.
The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.
Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.
According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
New York City's five boroughs
Sources: see individual borough articles
New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States (New York [Manhattan], Kings [Brooklyn], Bronx, and Queens).
- Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park and most of the city's skyscrapers, and may be locally known simply as The City. Manhattan's (New York County's) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km²) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city. Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world. Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with The Bronx. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs.
- Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design.
- Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)
- Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.
- The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture. Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).
Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.
Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August.
The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably from year to year. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.
|Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1869–present[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||72
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||59.6
|Average high °F (°C)||38.3
|Daily mean °F (°C)||32.6
|Average low °F (°C)||26.9
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||9.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−6
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.65
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||7.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.4||9.2||10.9||11.5||11.1||11.2||10.4||9.5||8.7||8.9||9.6||10.6||122.0|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||4.0||2.8||1.8||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||2.3||11.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61.5||60.2||58.5||55.3||62.7||65.2||64.2||66.0||67.8||65.6||64.6||64.1||63.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||162.7||163.1||212.5||225.6||256.6||257.3||268.2||268.2||219.3||211.2||151.0||139.0||2,534.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||54||55||57||57||57||57||59||63||59||61||51||48||57|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)
See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.
See or edit raw graph data.
The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, the Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous US cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial ("Grant's Tomb"); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.
There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.
New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).
- Central Park, an 843-acre (3.41 km2) park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park contains a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City's park system.
- Washington Square Park is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University and Greenwich Village.
- Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.
- Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, with its 897 acres (363 ha) making it the city's fourth largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and the 1964 World's Fair and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.
- Over a fifth of the Bronx's area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.
- In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown. The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.
New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military's only active duty installation within the city. Established in 1825 in Brooklyn on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, it is one of America's longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.
|City compared to State & U.S.|
|2010 Census||NY City||NY State||U.S.|
|Population change, 2000 to 2010||+2.1%||+2.1%||+9.7%|
|Population density (people/sqmi)||27,012.5||411.2||87.4|
|Median household income (2015)||$53,373||$59,269||$53,889|
|Bachelor's degree or higher||35.7%||34.2%||29.8%|
|Hispanic (any race)||28.6%||17.6%||16.3%|
|Black or African American||25.5%||28.7%||21.1%||6.1%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||28.6%||24.4%||16.2%||1.6%|
|Note: Census figures (1790–2010) cover the present area of all five boroughs, before and after the 1898 consolidation. For New York City itself before annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, see Manhattan#Demographics. Sources: 1698–1771, 1790–1890, 1900–1990, 2000 and 2010, 2016 Census estimate.
New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high of 8,537,673 residents as of 2016[update], incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census. More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City's population is about 43% of New York State's population and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area.
In 2015, the city had an estimated population density of 28,053 people per square mile (10,756/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 Census. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan's 2015 population density of 69,468 inhabitants per square mile (26,822/km2) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city.
Race and ethnicity
The city's population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian. Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city's population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.
Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. The term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city's population.
Approximately 37% of the city's population is foreign born and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants. In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011[update] were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.
Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state's largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves – while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County on Long Island, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015. In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. Koreans made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City's population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Malaysians and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants.
New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010. The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010. People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people. Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.
The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States, is also ethnically diverse, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns; the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone.
Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013[update].
Sexual orientation and gender identity
The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, "New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame." The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.
Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. "None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement." Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter. New York City is home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. However, until the Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.
Christianity (59%) — made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%) — is the most prevalent religion in New York, as of 2014[update]. It is followed by Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents, over half of whom live in Brooklyn. The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city. Islam ranks third in New York City, with official estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city's public school children. These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation.
New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. As of 2017, New York City had the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 82, with a combined net worth of US$398 billion, including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg. New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001.
City economic overview
|Top publicly traded companies
in New York City
(ranked by 2015 revenues)
with City and U.S. ranks
|5||American International Group||49|
|7||New York Life||61|
|10||TIAA (Teachers Ins. & Annuity)||82|
|Every firm's revenue exceeded $30 billion|
|Financial services firms in green|
|Full table at Economy of New York City|
|Source: Fortune 500|
New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in the first half of 2014. In February 2017, New York City's unemployment rate fell to 4.3%, the lowest in the city's recorded history, with the city achieving the status of what many economists refer to as full employment.
Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York City top the FDi Magazine American Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.
Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year with 89% of the increase coming from market effects. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. According to Forbes, in 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten zip codes in the United States by median housing price. Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.
As of 2013[update], the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as "Madison Avenue". The city's fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.
Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.
Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were forming a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn as of 2014[update], while Godiva, one of the world's largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.
New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.
Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue. New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.:31–32 In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association. New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.:34–35 New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.
Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2015, is the largest central business district in the world.
Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology ("FinTech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. As of 2014[update], New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.
The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.
Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving a seventh consecutive annual record of approximately 61 million visitors in 2016. Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China. In 2016, New York City tourism attained a record high for the sixth year in a row.
I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.
Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.
Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold.
Media and entertainment
New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012[update], New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals; the filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015, and by volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.
New York City is additionally a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city's media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.
The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.
New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
Education and scholarly activity
Primary and secondary education
The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city's public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.
Higher education and research
Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city. New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Mercy College, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York (SUNY) system serves New York City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John's University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Fashion Institute of Technology, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King's College, and Wagner College.
Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005[update]; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.
Public library system
The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.
The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC's MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area's largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.
HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.
Police and law enforcement
The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York's Finest.
Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. By 2002, New York City's crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. In 2015, 50.5% of New York City misdemeanor assault suspects were black, 33.3% Hispanic, 11.1% white, 4.8% Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.3% Native American. New York City experienced 352 homicides in 2015, its second lowest number on record.
Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.
Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.
The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY's motto is New York's Bravest.
The New York City Fire Department faces highly multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.
The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications. The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.
Culture and contemporary life
New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York's Baruch College. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."
Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city's punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.
The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, disco, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, and jazz in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.
New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.
Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square, also sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way". Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan's Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.
New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.
New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Central European and Italian immigrants brought bagels, cheesecake, and New York-style pizza into the city, while Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses have become ubiquitous. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city's 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results.
New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan.
Accent and dialect
The New York area has historically been home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English. The classic version of this dialect is centered on middle and working-class people of European descent. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as in the past.
The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound [ɹ] does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk." There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This would often be misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family (played by Carroll O'Connor) was an example of having used this pattern of speech, which continues to fade in its overall presence.
New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer. The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps.
New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. who compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees.
The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.
The New York Islanders and the New York Rangers represent the city in the National Hockey League. Also within the metropolitan area are the New Jersey Devils, who play in nearby Newark, New Jersey.
The city's National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city's Women's National Basketball Association team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.
In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium. The New York Red Bulls play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York.
The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world's largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing's Triple Crown races, held just over the city's border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.
New York City's comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.
Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.
The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, London, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of train platforms.
Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where about 90% of commuters drive automobiles to their workplace. According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.
New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.
The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago 'L', the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro).
New York City's public bus fleet is the largest in North America, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
New York's airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011[update], JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport.
The Staten Island Ferry is the world's busiest ferry route, carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.
NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.
Taxis, transport startups, and trams
Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs; various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.
Streets and highways
Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street, Madison Avenue, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.
New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city's boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.
New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State's mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels.
The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world's longest. The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.
Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Hugh L. Carey Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.
Environmental impact reduction
New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.
New York's high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014[update], and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States. Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Research conducted by Quinnipiac University showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative. New York City's numerical "in-season cycling indicator" of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.
The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city's contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive "Green Buildings" plan.
Water purity and availability
New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history, with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020.
Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway's recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City's sewer system, and other accumulation.
Government and politics
New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.
The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit, which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.
Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.
The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.
New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also spent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return.
In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York's historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City's partnership network.
|New York City Global Partners network|
(Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean)
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- the Mayor, New York City Office of (January 8, 2010). "Biography". New York, City of. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2016 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2016 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- Community Facts for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 26, 2017.
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- "State & County QuickFacts – Kings County (Brooklyn Borough), New York". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 17, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2014 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – United States – Places of 50,000+ Population – 2014 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- Quick Facts for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Stormwater Archived January 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Accessed February 9, 2017. "These impervious surfaces cover approximately 72% of New York City’s 305 square miles in land area and generate a significant amount of stormwater."
- Mike Maciag (October 2, 2013). "Mapping the Nation's Most Densely Populated Cities". Governing – The States and Localities. Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
- "World's Largest Urban Areas [Ranked by Urban Area Population]". Rhett Butler. 2003–2006. Archived from the original on October 9, 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- "Largest Cities of the World – (by metro population)". Woolwine-Moen Group d/b/a Graphic Maps. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- "Global Power City Index 2009" (PDF). The Mori Memorial Foundation. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- Felix Richter (March 11, 2015). "New York Is The World's Media Capital". Statista. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Dawn Ennis (May 24, 2017). "ABC will broadcast New York's pride parade live for the first time". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- "Consulate General of Iceland New York Culture". Consulate General of Iceland New York. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Consulate of Latvia in New York". Consulate of Latvia. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Introduction to Chapter 14: New York City (NYC) Culture". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Archived from the original on May 5, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock ; essays by Dore Ashton ... [et al.]". NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S". Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world.
"PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Poliak, Shira. "Adjusting To New York City". Sun Sentinel. Archived from the original on December 3, 2015. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
Additionally, the fast-paced lifestyle of New York City demands adjusting.
- Stephen Miller. "Walking New York: Reflections of American Writers from Walt Whitman to Teju Cole pp.46, 50, 131". Oxford University Press – Google Books. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "Dictionary – Full Definition of NEW YORK MINUTE". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Plan your visit Archived March 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., United Nations. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The Headquarters of the United Nations is located in New York City, along the East River. When you pass through the gates of the United Nations visitors’ entrance, you enter an international territory. This 18-acre site does not belong to just one country, but to all countries that have joined the Organization; currently, the United Nations has 193 Member States."
- "NYC Mayor's Office for International Affairs". The City of New York. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- "New York City". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- "Port in a Storm: The Port of New York in World War II". New York State Museum. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Boroughs of New York City". Ben Cahoon. 2002. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- "A 5-Borough Centennial Preface for Katharine Bement Davis Mini-History". The New York City Department of Correction. 1997. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Endangered Language Alliance". 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
- "Linguistics- Say what?". The Economist. September 10, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Kleinfield, N. R. (January 15, 2016). "New Yorkers, Self-Assured and Opinionated, Defend Their Values". The New York Times on MSN. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- Roberts, Sam (April 28, 2010). "Listening to (and Saving) the World's Languages". The New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- Turin, Mark (August 9, 2013). "The World's Most Linguistically Diverse Location? New York City". PopAnth. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- "Place of Birth by Year of Entry by Citizenship Status for the Foreign-Born Population – Universe: Foreign-born population 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York City". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "More Foreign-Born Immigrants Live In NYC Than There Are People In Chicago". The Huffington Post. December 19, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of the United States in 2013, by metropolitan area (in billion current U.S. dollars)". Statista. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "U.S. Metro Economies (note CSA 2012 GMP total includes sum of New York, Bridgeport, New Haven, Allentown, Trenton, Poughkeepsie, and Kingston MSA 2012 GMP values cited)" (PDF). IHS Global Insight, The United States Conference of Mayors, and The Council on Metro Economies and the New American City. November 2013. pp. 9 through 18 in Appendix Tables. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "United States History – History of New York City, New York". Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "KINGSTON Discover 300 Years of New York History DUTCH COLONIES". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
- "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790–1990". U.S. Census Bureau. June 15, 1998. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "Statue of Liberty". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992–2011. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- Matt Flegenheimer (March 23, 2016). "Ted Cruz Deplores 'Liberal, Left-Wing Values' While Lobbying for New York Votes". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- "The Latest: China Hopes US Joins Climate Deal Quickly". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 22, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- Lisa Foderaro (September 21, 2014). "Taking a Call for Climate Change to the Streets". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- Kristine Phillips (July 8, 2017). "New York mayor on Germany trip: The world should know that Americans don't align with Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- Ginia Bellafante (June 29, 2017). "How Much Tourism Is Too Much?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2017.
- Shields, Ann (November 10, 2014). "The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 3: Times Square, New York City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000". Travel+Leisure. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
No. 3 Times Square,...No. 4 (tie) Central Park,...No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City
- "The 10 Most Photographed Cities In The World". The Crazy Tourist. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- O'Neill, Sean (June 12, 2011). "The 25 most photographed places on Earth". NBCNews.com. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Remnick, Noah; Schlossberg, Tatiana (August 24, 2015). "New York Today:Transforming Times Square". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Times Square – The Official Site of Times Square". Times Square District Management Association, Inc. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Times Square". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions No. 3: Times Square, New York City". Travel and Leisure. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- "The Most Jivin' Streetscapes in the World". Luigi Di Serio. 2010. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "New York Architecture Images- Midtown Times Square". 2011 nyc-architecture. Archived from the original on January 25, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Buildings in New York City Archived February 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Meaney, Thomas (February 12, 2016). "Michael Bloomberg's One Percent Foreign-Policy Doctrine". FP. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- Florida, Richard (March 3, 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 17" (PDF). Long Finance. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "NYSE Listings Directory". Archived from the original on June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- "2013 WFE Market Highlights" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Manhattan, New York – Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park". The Pinnacle List. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- Brennan, Morgan (March 22, 2013). "The World's Most Expensive Billionaire Cities". Forbes. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Waxman, Sarah. "The History of New York's Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "Chinatown New York City Fact Sheet" (PDF). explorechinatown.com. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Hesser, Amanda (May 2, 2001). "A Hungry Explorer in New York's 3 Chinatowns". New York Times. New York. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Kadet, Anne (April 18, 2014). "Metro Money: Comparing Three of New York City's Chinatowns". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Baker, Al; Pérez-Peña, Richard (December 20, 2005). "With Terrorism Concerns in Mind, Police Prepare to Guard a Shuttered System". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
- "How to Ride the Subway". mta.info. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "25 Most Extensive Metro Systems in the World". list25.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "NYC Subway 101". Walks of New York. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- "CWUR 2016 – World University Rankings". Center for World University Rankings. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- "Remnants of an Ice Age, The Wisconsin Ice Sheet Continues Its Journey". The City of New York. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Evan T. Pritchard: Native New Yorkers: the legacy of the Algonquin people of New York, p.27 (2002); ISBN 1-57178-107-2
- Rankin, Rebecca B.; Rodgers, Cleveland (1948). New York: The World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress. Harper.
- Wpa Writer's Project:A Maritime History of New York, p.246;Going Coastal Productions (2004) ISBN 0-9729803-1-8
- "The Hudson River". New Netherland Institute. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- "Henry Hudson". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Roberts, Sam (October 2, 2012). "Honoring a Very Early New Yorker". New York Times.
- Juan Rodriguez monograph. Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Briney, Amanda. "15 Oldest Cities in the United States". About.com. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- Dutch Colonies, National Park Service. Accessed May 19, 2007. "Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan."
- GovIsland Park-to-Tolerance: through Broad Awareness and Conscious Vigilance, Tolerance Park. Accessed February 9, 2017. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708.
- Frederick M. Binder, David M. Reimers: All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City, p. 4;(1996)ISBN 0-231-07879-X
- Pieter Schaghen Letter 1626: "... hebben t'eylant Manhattes van de wilde gekocht, voor de waerde van 60 gulden: is groot 11000 morgen. ... "("... They have purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders. It is 11,000 morgens in size ...)
- "Value of the Guilder / Euro". International Institute of Social History. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- "Letter describing purchase by Pieter Schaghen from Dutch National Archive, The Hague, with transcription". Nnp.org. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Miller, Christopher L; Hamell, George R (September 1986). "A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade". The Journal of American History. Organization of American Historians. 73 (2): 311–328. doi:10.2307/1908224. JSTOR 1908224.
- "Dutch Colonies". National Park Service. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- "The Patroon System". Library of Congress. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- "The Story of New Amsterdam". New Amsterdam History Center. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- "Peter Stuyvesant". New-York Historical Society. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- "Peter Stuyvesant". New Netherland Institute. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- "The surrender of New Netherland, 1664". Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- Homberger, Eric (2005). The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History. Owl Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-8050-7842-8.
- "Treaty of Breda". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Van Luling, Todd (April 17, 2014). "8 Things Even New Yorkers Don't Know About New York City". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- Peter Douglas. "The Man Who Took Back New Netherland" (PDF). New Netherland Institute. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- "Native Americans". Penn Treaty Museum.
- "Gotham Center for New York City History" Timeline 1700–1800
- "The Early History of Yellow Fever" (PDF). Pedro Nogueira, Thomas Jefferson University. 2009.
- "Timeline of Yellow Fever in America". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
- Oltman, Adele (October 24, 2005). "The Hidden History of Slavery in New York". The Nation. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Linder, Doug (2001). "The Trial of John Peter Zenger: An Account".
- Moore, Nathaniel Fish (1876). An Historical Sketch of Columbia College, in the City of New York, 1754–1876. Columbia College. p. 8.
- Trinity Church bicentennial celebration, May 5, 1897 By Trinity Church (New York, N.Y.) p. 37
- "The People's Vote: President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789)". U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Shorto, Russell (February 9, 2004). "The Streets Where History Lives". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Negro Slavery in New York" (L. 1799, Ch. 62)
- Harper, Douglas (2003). "Slavery in the North – Emancipation in New York". Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- New York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War online exhibit, New-York Historical Society, (November 17, 2006 to September 3, 2007, physical exhibit), accessed May 10, 2012
- Leslie M. Harris, "African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863", Department of History, Emory University
- Ira Rosenwaike (1972). Population History of New York City, p.55.
- Bridges, William (1811). Map Of The City Of New York And Island Of Manhattan With Explanatory Remarks And References.; Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68.
- Mushkat, Jerome Mushkat (1990). Fernando Wood: A Political Biography. Kent State University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-87338-413-X.
- "Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York". VNY, City University of New York.
- Leslie M. Harris, "The New York City Draft Riots", excerpt from In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863, University of Chicago Press, 2003
- "The Draft in the Civil War", u-s-history.com.
- McPherson, James M. (2001). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 399. ISBN 0077430352.
- Cook, Adrian (1974). The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863. pp. 193–195.
- "The 100 Year Anniversary of the Consolidation of the 5 Boroughs into New York City". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 28, 2010. , New York City. Retrieved June 29, 2007
- Cornell University Library: Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Ira Rosenwaike (1972).Population History of New York City, p.78.
- "New York Urbanized Area: Population & Density from 1800 (Provisional)". Demographia.com. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-62463-X.
- Burns, Ric (August 22, 2003). "The Center of the World – New York: A Documentary Film (Transcript)". PBS. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). "Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S". University of Kentucky. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- Nell Frizzell (June 28, 2013). "Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement". Pink News UK. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "Stonewall riots". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- U.S. National Park Service (October 17, 2016). "Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument". Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Tannenbaum, Allan. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Effgen, Christopher (September 11, 2001). "New York Crime Rates 1960–2009". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Missing Doctor Added to List of 9/11 Victims". TWO SL LLC, New York, NY. Associated Press. July 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- World Trade Center Transportation Hub, World Trade Center. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The state-of-the-art World Trade Center Transportation Hub, completed in 2016, serves 250,000 Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) daily commuters and millions of annual visitors from around the world. At approximately 800,000 square feet, the Hub, designed by internationally acclaimed architect Santiago Calatrava, is the third largest transportation center in New York City."
- Hetter, Katia (November 12, 2013). "It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "New York City Skyscraper Diagram". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- One World Trade Center Archived June 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., SkyscraperPage.com. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The roof height is the same as original One World Trade Center. The building is topped out by a 124-meter (408-foot) spire. So the tower rises 1,776 feet (541-meter) which marks the year of the American declaration of Independence."
- Matthews, Laura (April 30, 2012). "One World Trade Center On Top As Tallest Building In New York City". The International Business Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Lesser, Benjamin (April 30, 2012). "It's official: 1 World Trade Center is now New York's tallest skyscraper". Daily News. New York. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Nocera, Joe. "Two Days in September", The New York Times, September 14, 2012. Accessed May 6, 2017. "On the left, that anger led, a year ago, to the rise of the Occupy Wall Street movement. Thus, Anniversary No. 2: Sept. 17, 2011, was the date Occupy Wall Street took over Zuccotti Park in Lower Manhattan, which soon led to similar actions in cities across the country. The movement’s primary issue was income inequality — 'We are the 99 percent,' they used to chant."
- Washington, D.C. is 228 miles (367 km) driving distance from New York, and Boston is 217 miles (349 km) driving distance from New York. – Google Maps
- "Information About the Hudson River Estuary". Life.bio.sunysb.edu. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Berger, Joseph (July 19, 2010). "Reclaimed Jewel Whose Attraction Can Be Perilous". New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-7838-9785-5.
- Lopate, Phillip (2004). Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan. Anchor Press. ISBN 0-385-49714-8.
- New York State Gazetteer from 2010 United States Census, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Roberts, Sam (May 22, 2008). "It's Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Lundrigan, Margaret (2004). Staten Island: Isle of the Bay, NY. Arcadia Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 0-7385-2443-3.
- Howard, David (2002). Outside Magazine's Urban Adventure New York City. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 35. ISBN 0-393-32212-2.
- "As One World Trade Center soars, so do its costs". msnbc.com. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "Emporis Skyline Ranking". Emporis Corporation. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- Skyline Ranking, Emporis. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Staff. "Alchemy borrows $220M for Woolworth conversion" Archived February 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., Real Estate Weekly, June 15, 2016. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The neo-gothic Woolworth Building was commissioned by Frank W. Woolworth in 1910 as his eponymous company’s new headquarters and designed by renowned architect Cass Gilbert. The building was completed in 1913 and was for 17 years the tallest building in the world."
- Fischler, Raphael (1998). "The Metropolitan Dimension of Early Zoning: Revisiting the 1916 New York City Ordinance". Journal of the American Planning Association. 64 (2).
- "Favorites! 100 Experts Pick Their top 10 New York Towers". The Skyscraper Museum. January 22, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Pogrebin, Robin (April 16, 2006). "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Plunz, Richard A. (1990). "Chapters 3 [Rich and Poor] & 4 [Beyond the Tenement]". History of Housing in New York City: Dwelling Type and Change in the American Metropolis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-06297-4.
- "If You're Thinking of Living In/Riverdale, the Bronx; A Community Jealous of Its Open Space". The New York Times. March 1, 1998. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "New York Metro: 6 Affordable Neighborhoods". Nymag.com. September 17, 2001. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "If You're Thinking of Living In/Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel". The New York Times. February 8, 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- Lankevich (1998), pp. 82–83; Wilson, Rufus Rockwell (1902). New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks. J.B. Lippincott. p. 354.
- Elliot, Debbie (December 2, 2006). "Wondering About Water Towers". National Public Radio. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Hood, Clifton (2004). 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 175–177. ISBN 0-8018-5244-7.
- Robertson, Jessica; Petersen, Mark (July 17, 2014). "New Insight on the Nation's Earthquake Hazards". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "Current Population Estimates: NYC". NYC.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Jen Carlson (May 21, 2012). "Do You Refer To Manhattan As "The City"?". Gothamist. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
- Mann, Camille; Valera, Stephanie. "World's Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- Barry, Dan (October 11, 2001). "A Nation challenged: in New York; New York Carries On, but Test of Its Grit Has Just Begun". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
A roaring void has been created in the financial center of the world.
- Sorrentino, Christopher (September 16, 2007). "When He Was Seventeen". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
In 1980 there were still the remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world.
- Immerso, Michael (2002). Coney Island: The People's Playground. Rutgers University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8135-3138-1.
- Hughes, C. J. (August 21, 2016). "Marine Park, Brooklyn: Block Parties, Bocce and Salt Air". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
The neighborhood of Marine Park, a compact enclave in southeast Brooklyn, has a major claim to fame. It sits next to the borough’s largest park, Marine Park
- "19 Reasons Why Brooklyn Is New York's New Startup Hotspot". CB Insights. October 19, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
- Vanessa Friedman (April 30, 2016). "Brooklyn's Wearable Revolution". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
- Alexandria Symonds (April 29, 2016). "One Celebrated Brooklyn Artist's Futuristic New Practice". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
- O'Donnell, Michelle (July 4, 2006). "In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th .." New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Christine Kim; Demand Media. "Queens, New York, Sightseeing". USA TODAY. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- Andrew Weber (April 30, 2013). "Queens". NewYork.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- "Staten Island Greenbelt | New York-New Jersey Trail Conference". Nynjtc.org. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Frazier, Ian (June 26, 2006). "Utopia, the Bronx". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Bronx Zoo Animals & Exhibits". Wildlife Conservation Society. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- Ward, Candace (2000). New York City Museum Guide. Dover Publications. p. 72. ISBN 0-486-41000-5.
- Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop. Serpents Tail. ISBN 1-85242-243-2.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (May 31, 2013). "How Big Is That Park? City Now Has the Answer". The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- Johnson, Mary (October 29, 2012). "VIDEO: Dramatic Explosion at East Village Con Ed Plant". DNAinfo.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York". NewYorkPolonia.com. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "New York Central Park, NY Climate Normals 1961−1990". NOAA.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
-  Accessed November 13, 2017.
- "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Ltd, Copyright Global Sea Temperatures - A-Connect. "New York City Sea Temperature - United States - Sea Temperatures". World Sea Temperatures.
- Dolnick, Sam (August 28, 2011). "Damage From Irene Largely Spares New York – Recovery Is Slower in New York Suburbs". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "Superstorm Sandy blamed for at least 11 U.S. deaths as it slams East Coast". CNN. October 29, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Stone, Jeff; Gallucci, Maria (October 29, 2014). "Hurricane Sandy Anniversary 2014: Fortifying New York – How Well Armored Are We For The Next Superstorm?". International Business Times. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- Eshelman, Robert S. (November 15, 2012). "ADAPTATION: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor begins to form". E&E Publishing, LLC. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
-  Belvedere Castle at NYC Parks
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
- "Station Name: NY NEW YORK CNTRL PK TWR". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- Foderado, Lisa W. (June 5, 2013). "New York Parks Rank No. 2 in a Survey of 50 U.S. cities". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "Discover the truly wild side of New York's metropolitan area". nps.gov. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, New York City Region". Nysparks.state.ny.us. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Mayor Giuliani Announces Amount of Parkland in New York City has Passed 28,000-acre (110 km2) Mark". New York City Mayor's Office. February 3, 1999. Retrieved September 1, 2008.; "Beaches". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Pelham Bay Park". City of New York. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- Ann Shields (November 10, 2014). "The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 4 (tie) Central Park, New York City – Annual Visitors: 40,000,000". Travel+Lesiure. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- The Rservoir, CentralPark.com. Accessed October 20, 2017. "Officially named the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir in 1994, the Reservoir is famed for the 1.58 mile track that encircles the 106-acre body of water."
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (October 23, 2012). "A $100 Million Thank-You for a Lifetime's Central Park Memories". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Park History, Prospect Park Alliance. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. "How Big Is That Park? City Now Has the Answer", New York Times, May 31, 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017. "But the biggest loser was clearly Flushing Meadows. Previously the third-largest park in the city, it dropped to fourth place after the new analysis put its actual acreage at 897 (897.62 to be precise), down from 1,255 acres."
- [Flushing Meadows Corona Park World’s Fair Legacy; Celebrating the 50th & 75th Anniversaries of the 1939 & 1964 Fairs], New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- National Tennis Center Strategic Vision Project, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The 42-acre NTC is located within Flushing Meadows Corona Park on parkland leased by NYC Parks to USTA and is one of the world’s largest public recreational tennis facilities. For 11 months of the year, NTC facilities are open to the public for indoor and outdoor tennis. The NTC is also host to the US Open, one of the sport’s four Grand Slam championship tennis tournaments."
- via Associated Press. "Ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is blooming!", NBC News, July 2, 2008. Accessed February 9, 2017. "Despite its urban image, the Bronx has 7,000 acres of park land, about 25 percent of its total area. In addition to Yankee Stadium and the Bronx Zoo, the borough's green spaces include the New York Botanical Garden; a 19th century garden overlooking the Hudson River called Wave Hill; and Van Cortlandt and Pelham Bay parks, where you can bird-watch, play golf and ride horses."
- Conference House Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed February 9, 2017. "On September 11, 1776, this house was the site of a conference between British Lord Admiral Richard Howe and Founding Fathers Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge. The talks occurred just two months after the Declaration of Independence had been signed. With the British controlling New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island, the Americans seemed headed for defeat. Lord Howe offered to end the conflict peacefully if the American colonies would return to British control, but the Americans refused to give up their struggle for independence."
- Jerome Jacobson, Mary Harris, James V. Taylor, Albert J. Anderson, William A. Ritchie, Robert E. Funk. Burial Ridge, Tottenville, Staten Island, N. Y, Staten Island Institute of Arts & Sciences, 1980, at The Digital Archaeological Record. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- "Map of Military Installations in the Contiguous US" (PDF). NPS.gov. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The History of New York City, 2nd Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-300-11465-6.
- QuickFacts for New Yory City / New York State / United States, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- New York City Population Projections by Age/Sex & Borough, 2010–2040, New York City Department of City Planning, December 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
- From 15% sample
- The Encyclopedia of New York City, ed. Kenneth T. Jackson (Yale 1995, ISBN 0-300-05536-6), page 923, citing "U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population 1960 (vol.1, part A, table 28), 1970, 1980, 1990". After annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, the population of the then-New York City was 1,206,299 in 1880 and 1,515,301 in 1890.
- Harrington, Greene and (1932). American Population Before the Federal Census of 1790. New York.
- Rosenwaike, Ira (1972). Population History of New York City. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. p. 8. ISBN��0-8156-2155-8.
- U.S. Census, from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1929 (reprinted in 1971 by American Heritage Press and Workman Publishing, ISBN 0-07-071881-4), page 503.
- Gibson, Campbell. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, United States Census Bureau, June 1998. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- DP-1: Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 from the 2010 Demographic Profile Data for New York city, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Roberts, Sam (March 24, 2011). "City Population Barely Grew in the '00s, Census Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- Sherry, Virginia N. (March 27, 2014). "Staten Island population at all-time high of 473,000; NYC's soars to record 8.4 million". Staten Island Advance. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Roberts, Sam (March 14, 2013). "Fewer People Are Abandoning the Bronx, Census Data Show". New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
-  Accessed June 26, 2017.
-  Accessed June 26, 2017.
- GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – State – County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New York County, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Guide to State and Local Census Geography, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Highest Density, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Mann, Camille; Valera, Stephanie. "World's Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- Saul, Michael Howard (March 27, 2014). "New York City Population Hits Record High". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Roberts, Sam (March 24, 2011). "New York City's Population Barely Rose in the Last Decade, the Census Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Jones, Charisse (September 24, 2008). "Ellis Island strives to tell more complete immigration story". USA Today. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "New York City#Population". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 617.
- Semple, Kirk (June 8, 2013). "City's Newest Immigrant Enclaves, From Little Guyana to Meokjagolmok". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- The Newest New Yorkers: 2013, New York City Department of City Planning, December 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017. "The immigrant share of the population has also doubled since 1965, to 37 percent. With foreign-born mothers accounting for 51 percent of all births, approximately 6-in-10 New Yorkers are either immigrants or the children of immigrants."
- Semple, Kirk (December 18, 2013). "Immigration Remakes and Sustains City, a Report Concludes". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Goldstein, Joseph (November 28, 2013). "Bangladeshis Build Careers in New York Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- Semple, Kirk (June 23, 2011). "Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
Asians, a group more commonly associated with the West Coast, are surging in New York, where they have long been eclipsed in the city's kaleidoscopic racial and ethnic mix. For the first time, according to census figures released in the spring, their numbers have topped one million—nearly 1 in 8 New Yorkers—which is more than the Asian population in the cities of San Francisco and Los Angeles combined.
- "Asian American Statistics". Améredia Incorporated. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "State & County QuickFacts Nassau County, New York QuickLinks". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Shao, Heng (April 10, 2014). "Join The Great Gatsby: Chinese Real Estate Buyers Fan Out To Long Island's North Shore". Forbes. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 1". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Marzulli, John (May 9, 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: The New York Daily News. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. January 25, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA Chinese alone". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "American Fact Finder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Most Significant Unreached People Group Communities in Metro NY". GLOBAL GATES. July 17, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
- Table SF1-P9 NYC: Total Asian Population by Selected Subgroups, New York City Department of City Planning. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- "Queens County, New York QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Roleke, John. "A Growing Chinatown in Elmhurst". About.com. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "American FactFinder – Results". U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990". Population Division Working Paper. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
- "Census Estimates Show Another Increase in New York City's Non-Hispanic White Population". The New York Times. July 1, 2014.
- "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "American FactFinder – Results". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "A Community of Many Worlds: Arab Americans in New York City". Allied Media Corp. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Lawful Permanent Residents Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Ragaru, Nadège; Dymi, Amilda. "The Albanian-American Community in the United States : A Diaspora Coming to Visibility" (PDF). Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Gordon, Ian; Travers, Tony; Whitehead, Christine; London School of Economics and Political Science (July 2007). "The Impact of Recent Immigration on the London Economy" (PDF). The City of London Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Semple, Kirk (June 23, 2011). "Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2013". United States Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Scott M. Stringer, New York City Comptroller (June 2015). "LGBTQ Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Guide of Services and Resources" (PDF). City of New York. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
- Gates, Gary J. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Silverman, Brian; Chauvin, Kelsy (2013). "Frommer's New York City 2013". Frommer – Google Books. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Gates, Gary J. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation. Retrieved December 7, 2013..
- Silverman, Brian; Chauvin, Kelsy (2013). "Frommer's New York City 2013". Frommer – Google Books. Retrieved March 24, 2015..
- Confessore, Nicholas; Barbaro, Michael (June 24, 2011). "New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law". The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Kaiser, p. xiv Accessed March 28, 2017.
- "Revelers Take To The Streets For 48th Annual NYC Pride March". CBS New York. June 25, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
A sea of rainbows took over the Big Apple for the biggest pride parade in the world Sunday.
- Cristan Williams. ""So, what was Stonewall?"". The TransAdvocate. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- Jennifer Fermino (March 7, 2016). "De Blasio: NYC toilets won't discriminate by gender identity". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center, Accessed July 30, 2015.
- "World Jewish Population". SimpleToRemember.com – Judaism Online. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "Jewish Community Study of New York: 2011 Comprehensive Report" (PDF). UJA-Federation of New York. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Weichselbaum, Simone (June 26, 2012). "Nearly one in four Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- Josh Nathan-Kazis (June 12, 2012). "N.Y. Jewish Population Grows to 1.5M: Study".
- Santora, Marc; Otterman, Sharon (March 4, 2015). "New York City Adds 2 Muslim Holy Days to Public School Calendar". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- "Inequality" (PDF). harvard.edu. page 2, introduction. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 16, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "County Employment and Wages Summary". Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Ryan Salchert (March 21, 2017). "Where The Wealthiest Live: Cities With The Most Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- "Michael Bloomberg". Forbes. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Wallace, Gregory (August 4, 2014). "Want to meet a millionaire? Here's where to go". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Shapiro, Julie (January 11, 2012). "Downtown Baby Boom Sees 12 Percent Increase in Births". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on October 20, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Fortune, Volume 173, Number 8 (June 15, 2016), page F-40
- Strunsky, Steve (August 5, 2014). "Port reports record container volume for first half of 2014". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
- Greg David (March 30, 2017). "New York City reaches the Holy Grail of 'full employment' – The jobless rate is now down to 4.3%, the lowest ever". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Fortune 500 web site (cities), retrieved July 21, 2011; Fortune, Vol. 163, no. 7 (May 23, 2011), page F-45
- Wylde, Kathryn (January 23, 2006). "Keeping the Economy Growing". Gotham Gazette. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Kennedy, Simon (April 13, 2014). "Beijing Breaks Into Top Ten in Rankings by A.T. Kearney". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Kaske, Michelle. "New York City Tops Global Competitiveness Rankings, Economist Report Says", Bloomberg.com, March 12, 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of March 12, 2012. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- Walls, Jacqueline (April 8, 2013). "American Cities of the Future 2013–14". fDiIntelligence.com. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Department of Finance Publishes Fiscal Year 2017 Tentative Assessment Roll, New York City Department of Finance, January 15, 2016. "Today, Jacques Jiha, Commissioner for the Department of Finance, announced the publication of the Tentative Property Assessment Roll for fiscal year 2017, which shows the total Market Value for the upcoming year at about $1.072 trillion, an increase of $102.5 billion, or 10.6 percent from the 2016 Fiscal Year."
- Quirk, James. "Bergen offices have plenty of space". Archived from the original on December 22, 2007., The Record (Bergen County), July 5, 2007. Accessed July 5, 2007. "On Monday, a 26-year-old, 33-story office building at 450 Park Ave. sold for a stunning $1,589 per square foot, or about ,10 million. The price is believed to be the most ever paid for a U.S. office building on a per-square-foot basis. That broke the previous record—set four weeks earlier—when 660 Madison Ave. sold for $1,476 a square foot."
- Carlyle, Erin (October 8, 2014). "New York Dominates 2014 List of America's Most Expensive ZIP Codes". Forbes. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Janette Sadik-Khan (January 9, 2017). "A plea for Fifth Avenue". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- "Definition of Metonymy". Chegg, Inc. Archived from the original on May 22, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Fermino, Jennifer (February 7, 2014). "Mayor de Blasio announces $3M in grants for New York City's fashion industry". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Yang, Catherine (July 19, 2014). "The Garment District, Brooklyn Style". Epoch Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
- "More Than a Link in the Food Chain" (PDF). The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business. February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 31, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Potkewitz, Hilary (November 17, 2014). "'Chocolate district' in the making in Brooklyn". Crain Communications Inc. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "Godiva Chocolatier INC. Company Information". Hoover's Inc. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
- DiNapoli, Thomas P. (New York State Comptroller); Bleiwas, Kenneth B. (New York State Deputy Comptroller) (October 2013). "The Securities Industry in New York City" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Choudhury, Ambereen; Martinuzzi, Elisa; Moshinsky, Ben (November 26, 2012). "London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Vallikappen, Sanat (November 10, 2013). "Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "DiNapoli: Wall Street Bonuses Edge Up in 2014". Office of the New York State Comptroller. March 11, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- McKinsey & Company; New York City Economic Development Corporation. "Sustaining New York's and the US' Global Financial Services Leadership" (PDF). City of New York. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "Total debt securities" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements. June 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Enrich, David; Bunge, Jacob; Bryan-Low, Cassell (July 9, 2013). "NYSE Euronext to Take Over Libor". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Chaudhuri, Saabira (September 15, 2014). "Ranking the Biggest U.S. Banks: A New Entrant in Top 5". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Nelson, Andrew. "Top CBDs See Solid Growth in 2nd Quarter, US – Canada Performance Diverges" (PDF). Colliers International. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11" (PDF). Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Lahlou, Karim. "Startups move to co-shared offices amid high real estate prices". The Midtown Gazette. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Dickey, Megan Rose; D'Onfro, Jillian (October 24, 2013). "SA 100 2013: The Coolest People In New York Tech". Business Insider. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action" (PDF). New York City Economic Development Corporation. March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Pereira, Ivan (December 10, 2013). "City opens nation's largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem". amNewYork/Newsday. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Brodkin, Jon (June 9, 2014). "Verizon will miss deadline to wire all of New York City with FiOS". Condé Nast. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- S3 Partners (January 8, 2015). "5 signs NYC's tech scene is growing up – NYC tech sector hits 300,000". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Eugenios, Jillian; Hargreaves, Steve; Rawlins, Aimee (October 7, 2014). "The most innovative cities in America". CNNMoney. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (December 19, 2011). "Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Ju, Anne (December 19, 2011). "'Game-changing' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion". Cornell University. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Morris, Keiko (July 28, 2014). "Wanted: Biotech Startups in New York City: The Alexandria Center for Life Science Looks to Expand". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Interview with Milton Glaser The Believer. Accessed July 8, 2015.
- "I Love New York Logo". New York State Education Department. September 26, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Places To Visit In New York City". Pinterest Places To Visit In New York City. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Hargreaves, Steve (July 15, 2015). "Visa-seeking Chinese fund giant NY Ferris wheel". CNN. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Peltz, Jennifer; Associated Press (September 28, 2012). "NYC to get 'world's largest' Ferris wheel". NBC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 29, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Dailey, Jessica (October 9, 2013). "Number Of Manhattan Hotel Rooms To Increase 10% In 2014". Vox Media. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- Frank, Robert (October 6, 2014). "Waldorf becomes most expensive hotel ever sold: $1.95 billion". CNBC. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- Santora, Marc (February 26, 2014). "Four Marvel TV Shows to Film in New York". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Mayor De Blasio Announces Increased Growth of New York City's Entertainment Industry Brings $8.7 billion into the Local Economy". City of New York Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment. October 15, 2015. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
- "New York Film Academy, New York City". New York Film Academy. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- "Request for Expressions of Interest" (PDF). The Governors Island Preservation & Education Corporation. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 2, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "AICP Staff & National Offices". Association of Independent Commercial Producers. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- Goundry, Nick (June 6, 2014). "New York half-year location filming surpasses record for whole of 2013". Location Guide. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Goundry, Nick (June 25, 2014). "New York surpasses Los Angeles for TV drama pilot filming". Location Guide. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "Tampa Bay 12th Largest Media Market Now" (Press release). Tampa Bay Partnership. August 26, 2006. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Top 10 Consolidated Agency Networks: Ranked by 2006 Worldwide Network Revenue, Advertising Age Agency Report 2007 Index (April 25, 2007). Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- "Media and Entertainment". New York City Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on January 28, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "New York Daily News (American newspaper)". Britannica.com. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Allan Nevins, The Evening Post: Century of Journalism, Boni and Liveright, 1922, page 17.
- "Ethnic Press Booms In New York City". Editor & Publisher. July 10, 2002. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "el Diario/La Prensa: The Nation's Oldest Spanish-Language Daily". New America Media. July 27, 2005. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- John LeLand and Sarah Maslin Nir (August 22, 2017). "After 62 Years and Many Battles, Village Voice Will End Print Publication". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- "NYC Media". Nyc.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- "Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary". Mnn.org. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers: Spring 2006 Arbitron" (PDF). Radio Research Consortium. August 28, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "New York City Department of Education – About Us". The New York City Department of Education. 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Gross, Jane (May 6, 1997). "A Tiny Strip of New York That Feels Like the Suburbs". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 28, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016. ()
- Wienerbronner, Danielle (November 9, 2010). "Most Beautiful College Libraries". TheHuffingtonPost.com. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "The New York City Charter School Center". Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- "Private School Universe Survey". National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "The City University of New York". Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- McGeehan, Patrick (August 16, 2006). "New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan" (Press release). New York City Economic Development Corporation. November 18, 2004. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Horner, Blair; Levin, Arthur; Mattei, Suzanne; Casey, Ciceron (contributor) (August 2014). "The Doctor Is In: New York's Increasing Number of Doctors – p.13, Appendix 1: Comparison Of The Numbers Of New York Doctors By County, As Of 12/31/2004 And 12/31/2012" (PDF). Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Gary M. Stern (March 16, 2017). "The Young Mariners of Throgs Neck". The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
- "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "NewYork–Presbyterian". Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "HHC Website".
- "The History of New York City's Municipal Hospitals,". HHC Foundation. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012.
- "Metroplus". MetroPlus. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "2014 HHC Report to the Community" (PDF). NEW YORK CITY HEALTH + HOSPITALS. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "Funding Universe Web Site". Funding Universe. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "CEO of Chicago Public Hospitals to Take the Helm of HHC". WNYC. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- Henry Goldman and Jennifer Kaplan (August 28, 2017). "NYC Boosts Cigarette Prices to $13, Bans Sales by Pharmacies". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
- "Bureau of Justice Statistics – Appendix Table 1 – page 34" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
-  Accessed July 6, 2017.
- "NYPD Stop And Frisks: 15 Shocking Facts About A Controversial Program". Huffington Post. May 15, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "Stop-and-Frisk Campaign: About the Issue". NYCLU. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "NYPD Stop and Frisk". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- Winkley, Lyndsay. "San Diego County homicides up 12% in 2015".
- Arthur Prager, "Worst-Case Scenario" Archived March 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., American Heritage, February/March 2006.
- "Don't Tell New York, But Crime Is Going Up". Lib.jjay.cuny.edu. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Langan, Patrick A.; Matthew R. Durose (October 21, 2004). "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City" (PDF). Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- Fewer Killings in 2007, but Still Felt in City's Streets, The New York Times, January 1, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
- "New York City Police Department" (PDF).
- "Table 8 – New York".
- "NYC Murder Rate Drops To New Historic Low In 2014". Archived from the original on January 18, 2015.
- "Livingstone to follow methods of the NYPD". Telegraph. January 17, 2001.
- "Staying a beat ahead of crime". Theage.com.au. November 5, 2002.
- Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise (2006). "The Rise and Decline of Hard Drugs, Drug Markets, and Violence in Inner-City New York". In Blumstein, Alfred; Joel Wallman. The Crime Drop in America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86279-5.; Karmen, Andrew (2000). New York Murder Mystery: The True Story Behind the Crime Crash of the 1990s. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-4717-5.
- Shurkin, Joel N. (February 13, 2013). "Mystery Of New York's Falling Crime Rate Remains Unsolved". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- Drum, Kevin (January–February 2013). "America's Real Criminal Element: Lead". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- Lehren, Andrew W.; Hauser, Christine (July 2, 2009). "In New York City, Fewer Murders on Rainy Days". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- "Youth Gangs". Gotham Gazette. March 5, 2001.
- Sean Gardiner; Pervaiz Shallwani (February 18, 2014). "NY Crime – Mafia Is Down—but Not Out – Crime Families Adapt to Survive, Lowering Profile and Using Need-to-Know Tactics". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "How New York Gang Culture Is Changing". VICE. August 18, 2015.
- "9 Metrotech Center – FDNY Headquarters Archived January 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.". Fresh Meadow Mechanical Corp. Retrieved on November 5, 2009.
- "FDNY Fire Academy". The City of New York. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Speeches: Tom Christopher Exhibit Opening" (Press release). Consulate General of the United States: Frankfurt, Germany. May 9, 2007. Archived from the original on July 23, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Harlem in the Jazz Age". New York Times. February 8, 1987. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "ART; A 1920's Flowering That Didn't Disappear". NY Times. May 24, 1998. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Harlem Renaissance Music in the 1920s". 1920s Fashion & Music. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- "Will Gentrification Spoil the Birthplace of Hip-Hop? – New York". NY Times. May 21, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- Harrington, Joe S. Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'N' Roll. pp. 324–30. 2002. Hal-Leonard. USA.
- "Survival of the Streets". Vice. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
- "capital". Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Free To Dance – About The Film". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Group Visits". Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- Bradford, Julie (2014). Fashion Journalism. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9781136475368. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Dillon, Susan (2011). The Fundamentals of Fashion Management. A&C Black. p. 115. ISBN 9782940411580. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- "New York retakes Top Global Fashion Capital Title from London, edging past Paris". Languagemonitor.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Creative New York" (PDF). Center for an Urban Future. December 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Welsh, Anne Marie (June 6, 2004). "2 plays + 9 nominations=good odds for locals". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- McBeth, VR. "The Great White Way" on TimesSquare.com. Quote: "Coined in 1901 by O.J. Gude, the designer of many prominent advertising displays, to describe the new light show that beckoned along Broadway, The Great White Way is a phrase known worldwide to describe Broadway's profusion of theaters in Times Square."
- Tell, Darcy. Times Square spectacular: lighting up Broadway New York: HarperCollins, 2007
- Allen, Irving Lewis. The City in Slang: New York Life and Popular Speech. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Quote: "By 1910, the blocks of Broadway just above 42nd Street were at the very heart of the Great White Way. The glow of Times Square symbolized the center of New York, if not of the world."
- "Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics". The Broadway League. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "About Summer Stage". City Parks Foundation. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- "The Metropolitan Museum of Art General Information". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- "Museum Mile Festival". Official site. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- Kusisto, Laura (October 21, 2011). "Reaching High on Upper 5th Avenue". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "Museums on the Mile". Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- Chan, Sewell (February 9, 2007). "Museum for African Art Finds its Place". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "New Drive Promoting 5th Ave.'s 'Museum Mile'". The New York Times. June 27, 1979. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- Robin Pogrebin and Scott Reyburn (November 15, 2017). "Leonardo da Vinci Painting Sells for $450.3 Million, Shattering Auction Highs". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
- "Christ painting by Leonardo da Vinci sells for record $450M". Associated Press, on MSN. November 15, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- Strand, Oliver (July 5, 2011). "Brooklyn Market: Woodstock of Eating". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Bleyer, Jennifer (May 14, 2006). "Kebabs on the Night Shift". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "27,479 restaurants selected by the Michelin Guide – Top Destinations". Michelin. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- "Restaurant Inspection Results (Letter Grades)". The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "Millions Of Revelers Marvel Over Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade". CBS Broadcasting Inc. November 24, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Hilarey Wojtowicz. "Guide to the 2016 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade". The Independent Traveler, Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- Newman, Michael (2005). "New York Talk". In Wolfram, Walt; Ward, Ben. American Voices. Blackwell. pp. 82–87. ISBN 1-4051-2109-2.
- Sontag, Deborah (February 14, 1993). "Oy Gevalt! New Yawkese An Endangered Dialect?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Kit Fox (March 2, 2017). "2017 New York City Marathon Entrants By the Numbers – Applications for the world's largest race were at an all-time high for 2017". Runner's World – Rodale Inc. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "National Football League Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "Major League Baseball Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "National Basketball Association, Inc. Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "National Hockey League Company Information". Hoover's, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "Major League Soccer, L.L.C. Company Information". Hoovers, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- Esteban (October 27, 2011). "11 Most Expensive Stadiums In The World". Total Pro Sports. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Baseball: A Film by Ken Burns; Inning 7: The Capital of Baseball (Television Documentary). PBS.
- "New York Mets – TeamReport". Chicago Tribune. May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "2000S". Newyork Yankees. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "New York Yankees: Facts, History, Stats, and Resources". The free sources. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "How Mets, Colt .45s Grew Up To Beat The Bullies". Chicago Tribune. October 8, 1986. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Dodgers Timeline". Los Angeles Dodgers. Retrieved September 22, 2008.
- "Historical Moments". Dodgers Giants. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Major League Baseball, Police Athletic League and the Brooklyn Cyclones to host free MLB Umpire Camp". MLB Press Release. May 30, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "New ownership group for Staten Island Yankees talks about future plans". Silive. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- "Preparations Different for a Home-and-Home Contest". New York Times. December 22, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Owners warm up to New York/New Jersey as Super Bowl XLVIII host". NFL.com. Associated Press. May 26, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
It's the first time the league has gone to a cold-weather site that doesn't have a dome ... the NFL will wait and see how this foray into the great outdoors in winter goes. Then the league might OK another bid
- "Islanders Moving to Brooklyn". October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Anderson, Dave (May 14, 1995). "Sports of The Times; At Boston Garden, There's Much More Gold Than Green". New York Times. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
- "Devils' dance with Kings in Stanley Cup Finals gives Newark a spotlight". Nj.com. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- "Postseason Overview". National Invitation Tournament. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
-  Accessed May 10, 2017.
- "Picture-perfect opening for $200M Red Bull Arena in Harrison". Associated Press. March 20, 2010.
- "US Open 2015". United States Tennis Association. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- "TCS New York City Marathon". New York Road Runners. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "Boxer Johnny Tapia's 'crazy life' ends". CNN. May 31, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- "The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Pisarski, Alan (October 16, 2006). "Commuting in America III: Commuting Facts" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Service Hours". MTR. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Tsuen Wan Line". TravelChinaGuide.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Train Time Table – Search station". Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Subway map". Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Annual Subway Ridership". Metropolitan Transit Authority. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- Christie, Les (June 29, 2007). "New Yorkers are Top Transit Users". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved January 2, 2008.
- "NHTS 2001 Highlights Report, BTS03-05" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- The Hardest Working Cities (PDF) (Report). Office of the New York City Comptroller. March 2015.
- Weinberger, Rachel; Kaehny, John; Rufo, Matthew (2010). "U.S. Parking Policies: An Overview of Management Strategies" (PDF). Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. p. 62. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
New York City is the largest, densest and most transit- and pedestrian-oriented city in the United States. It is the only U.S. city in which a majority of households do not have a car. Despite this, New York City is very much an American city in the way it under prices and under uses curbside parking meters. Meter rates are far lower than in other leading world cities, and New York suffers from high levels of cruising and double parking (p 62) ... Nationally 90% of households own automobiles. New Yorkers own fewer at 48% with only 22% of Manhattan residents owning automobiles (page 78)
- "New York City's Green Dividend". CEOs for Cities. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Durkin, Erin (January 20, 2015). "Andrew Cuomo announces $450M plan to build AirTrain connecting LaGuardia Airport to the subway". NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Honan, Katie. "Cuomo Announces AirTrain to LaGuardia Airport from Subway, LIRR". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- "National Fact Sheet Fiscal Year 2013" (PDF). Amtrak. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Dobnik, Verena (February 7, 2013). "NYC Transit Projects: East Side Access, Second Avenue Subway, And 7 Train Extension (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- "Architect Chosen for Planned Office Tower Above Port Authority Bus Terminal's North Wing" (Press release). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. November 17, 2008. Archived from the original on February 22, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "Top 100 Transit Bus Fleets, page 4" (PDF). Metro Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "The Port Authority of NY and NJ 2016 Air Traffic Report" (PDF). The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. April 14, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- "2011 Year-to-date International Passenger Traffic (as of December 2011)". Airports Council International. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- Strunsky, Steve (May 31, 2012). "Stewart International Airport upgrade approved as Port Authority aims to increase passenger traffic". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- McGeehan, Patrick (July 27, 2015). "La Guardia Airport to Be Overhauled by 2021, Cuomo and Biden Say". The New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Anna Sanders (September 20, 2016). "Staten Island Ferry ridership breaks record". SILive.com. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
- Zoe Rosenberg (April 17, 2017). "First of New York's citywide ferries arrives in Brooklyn Bridge Park". Curbed New York, Vox Media. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Larry Higgs (September 14, 2016). "This is the new high-speed ferry coming to New Jersey in 2017". NJ Advance Media for NJ.com. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- "The State of the NYC Taxi" (PDF). New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission. March 9, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Winnie Hu (March 6, 2017). "The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York City Gridlock". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Karen DeWitt (January 10, 2017). "Cuomo pushes for ride-sharing services outside NYC". North Country Public Radio. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- "The Myths and Metaphors of Music and Dance Singin' in the Rain". Hofstra University. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- Nordquist, Richard. "Grammar & Composition metonymy". About.com. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- "Metonymy vs Synecdoche". 2012 Buzzle.com. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- George Washington Bridge turns 75 years old: Huge flag, cake part of celebration, Times Herald-Record, October 24, 2006. "The party, however, will be small in comparison to the one that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey organized for 5,000 people to open the bridge to traffic in 1931. And it won't even be on what is now the world's busiest bridge for fear of snarling traffic."
- "Longest Suspension Bridges in the World". Pearson Education. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge". Eastern Roads. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Bod Woodruff; Lana Zak & Stephanie Wash (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- New York Harbor Video – How the Earth Was Made. HISTORY.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Woodruff, Bod; Zak, Lana; Wash, Stephanie (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- New York Architecture Images-Manhattan Bridge. Nyc-architecture.com (December 31, 1909). Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- New York Architecture Images. Nyc-architecture.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "Lincoln Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Holland Tunnel (I-78). Nycroads.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2014.
- "Holland Tunnel". National Historic Landmark Quicklinks. National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 29, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Queens-Midtown Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "President the 'First' to Use Midtown Tube; Precedence at Opening Denied Hundreds of Motorists", The New York Times, November 9, 1940. p. 19.
- "Mayor de Blasio Commits to 80 Percent Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2050, Starting with Sweeping Green Buildings Plan". City of New York. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
- Newman, Andy (July 27, 2010). "Appeals Court Rejects Effort to Create Hybrid Taxi Fleet". New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- "Bicycling in New York City: Know the Facts". Transportation Alternatives. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
- Jervey, Ben (2006). The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 0-7627-3835-9.
- "2001 National Household Travel Survey: Summary of Travel Trends" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation. December 2004. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Florida, Richard (April 7, 2015). "2015's Most Walkable U.S. Cities". The Atlantic. MSN. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "NYC tops list of most walkable cities in America – video narrative by Mara Montalbano". Buzz60, on MSN. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "The 10 Most Walkable U.S. Cities". MarketWatch. 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- Hamblin, James (June 28, 2013). "The Summer Bicycles Took Control". The Atlantic Monthly. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Smith, Pat; Maurice Carroll (June 27, 2013). "New York City Voters Back Mayor's Storm Plan 4–1, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; Slim Majority Backs Food Recycling, Bike Rentals". Quinnipiac University Poll. Quinnipiac University. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- "NYC In-Season Cycling Indicator, page 3" (PDF). City of New York. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
- "Current Reservoir Levels". New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Lustgarten, Abrahm (August 6, 2008). "City's Drinking Water Feared Endangered; $10B Cost Seen". The New York Sun. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 23, 2014). "Quiet Milestone in Project to Bring Croton Water Back to New York City". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Flegenheimer, Matt (October 16, 2013). "After Decades, a Water Tunnel Can Now Serve All of Manhattan". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Jim Dwyer (April 6, 2016). "De Blasio Adding Money for Water Tunnel in Brooklyn and Queens". The New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- Navarro, Mireya (September 27, 2010). "Newtown Creek Is Declared a Superfund Site". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Newtown Creek Clean-Up Efforts". The City Concealed. Thirteen (WNET.org). December 12, 2008. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- "Forms of Municipal Government". National League of Cities. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "About the Council". New York City Council. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- Chan, Sewell; Hicks, Jonathan P. (October 23, 2008). "Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits". The New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
- Gibson, Ellen M.; Manz, William H. (2004). Gibson's New York Legal Research Guide (PDF) (3rd ed.). Wm. S. Hein Publishing. pp. 450, 458, 473. ISBN 1-57588-728-2. LCCN 2004042477. OCLC 54455036.
- Durkin, Erin (May 26, 2014). "Councilman Ben Kallos wants city to publish government notices on its website". New York Daily News.
- Barbaro, Michael; Chen, David W. (November 5, 2013). "De Blasio Is Elected New York City Mayor". The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- "NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status" (PDF). New York State Board of Elections. April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- "2006 Election Overview: Top Zip Codes". Opensecrets.org. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Downstate Pays More, Upstate Gets More: Does It Matter?". The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government – The Public Policy Research Arm of the State University of New York. December 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "NYC's Partner Cities". The City of New York. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- "K1084-2011: Recognizing Yunnan Province and Chongqing Municipality of the People's Republic of China as a "Sister City" with New York City". New York State Senate. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "KL's Sister Cities". poskod.my. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "(Israel) Sister Cities". Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on July 22, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Belden, E. Porter (1849). New York, Past, Present, and Future: Comprising a History of the City of New York, a Description of its Present Condition, and an Estimate of its Future Increase. New York: G.P. Putnam. From Google Books.
- Burgess, Anthony (1976). New York. New York: Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 90-6182-266-1.
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-195-11634-8
- Federal Writers' Project (1939). The WPA Guide to New York City (1995 reissue ed.). New York: The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-321-5.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (1995), The Encyclopedia of New York City, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0300055366
- Jackson, Kenneth T.; Dunbar, David S., eds. (2005). Empire City: New York Through the Centuries. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10909-1.
- Lankevich, George L. (1998). American Metropolis: A History of New York City. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-5186-5.
- White, E. B. (1949). Here is New York (2000 reissue ed.). Little Bookroom.
- White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000), AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.), New York: Three Rivers Press, ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5
- Whitehead, Colson (2003). The Colossus of New York: A City in 13 Parts. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50794-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to New York City.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for New York City.|