|Manufacturer||Nakajima Aircraft Company|
|First flight||23 October 1944|
|Primary user||Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service|
The Nakajima G8N Renzan (連山, "Mountain Range") was a four-engine long-range bomber designed for use by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Navy designation was "Type 18 experimental land-based attack aircraft" (十八試陸上攻撃機); the Allied code name was "Rita".
Design and development
In February 1943 the Imperial Navy staff asked Nakajima Aircraft Company to design a four-engined bomber, capable of meeting an earlier specification set for a long-range land-based attack plane. The final specification, issued on 14 September 1943, called for a plane with a maximum speed of 320 knots (590 km/h; 370 mph) able to carry a 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) bomb-load 2,000 nmi (3,700 km; 2,300 mi) or a reduced bomb-load 4,000 nmi (7,400 km; 4,600 mi).
Nakajima's design featured a mid-mounted wing of small area and high aspect ratio, a tricycle landing gear and a large single-fin rudder. Power came from four 2,000 hp Nakajima NK9K-L "Homare" 24 radial engines with Hitachi 92 turbosuperchargers and driving four-bladed propellers. The engines were cooled by counter-rotating fans positioned just inside the engine cowlings. Defensive armament included power-operated nose, dorsal, ventral and tail turrets along with two free-swiveling machine guns at the beam positions.
The initial prototype was completed in October 1944 and delivered to the Navy for testing in January 1945, a year after the Navy ordered development to start. Three further examples were completed by June 1945, with the third prototype being destroyed on the ground by US carrier aircraft.
Other than minor problems with the turbosuperchargers, the Renzan performed satisfactorily and the Navy hoped to have a total of 16 prototypes and 48 production-version G8N1s assembled by September 1945. But the worsening war situation and a critical shortage of light aluminium alloys led to the project's cancellation in June.
One proposed variant was the G8N2 Renzan-Kai Model 22, powered by four 2,200 hp Mitsubishi MK9A radial engines and modified to accept attachment of the air-launched Ohka Type 33 Special Attack Bomber.
Just before Japan's surrender in August 1945 consideration was also briefly given to producing an all-steel version of the aircraft, to be designated G8N3 Renzan-Kai Model 23, but the cessation of hostilities precluded any further development.
- G8N1 : Four-engine heavy bomber. Production version.
- G8N2 : Modified to carry Ohka Type 33 Special Attack Bomber. Four Mitsubishi MK9A radial engines.
- G8N3 : All-steel airframe.
Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War
- Crew: 10
- Length: 22.935 m (75 ft 3 in)
- Wingspan: 32.54 m (106 ft 9 in)
- Height: 7.2 m (23 ft 7 in)
- Wing area: 112 m2 (1,210 sq ft)
- Airfoil: root: K251 ; tip: K159
- Empty weight: 17,400 kg (38,360 lb)
- Gross weight: 26,800 kg (59,084 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 32,150 kg (70,879 lb)
- Powerplant: 4 × Nakajima NK9K-L Homare 24 18-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 1,500 kW (2,000 hp) each for take-off
- 1,380 kW (1,850 hp) at 8,000 m (26,247 ft)
- Propellers: 4-bladed constant-speed metal propellers
- Maximum speed: 593 km/h (368 mph, 320 kn) at 8,000 m (26,247 ft)
- Cruise speed: 370 km/h (230 mph, 200 kn) at 4,000 m (13,123 ft)
- Range: 3,945 km (2,451 mi, 2,130 nmi)
- Ferry range: 7,464 km (4,638 mi, 4,030 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 10,200 m (33,500 ft)
- Time to altitude: 8,000 m (26,247 ft) in 17 minutes 34 seconds
- Wing loading: 239.3 kg/m2 (49.0 lb/sq ft)
- Power/mass: 0.2191 kW/kg (0.1333 hp/lb)
- 6× 20 mm Type 99 cannon - 2 each in the dorsal, ventral, and tail turrets
- *2× 13 mm (.51 in) Type 2 machine guns in nose turret
- 2× 13 mm (.51 in) Type 2 machine gun in fuselage sides
- 2x 2,000 kg (4,409 lb) bombs - maximum
- 4x 250 kg (551 lb) bombs - normal
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- Avro Lincoln
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- Focke-Wulf Fw 191C
- Focke-Wulf Fw 261
- Heinkel He 177B
- Junkers Ju 290
- Martin XB-33A Super Marauder
- Petlyakov Pe-8
- Francillon, p. 440. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFrancillon (help)
- Francillon 1979, p. 441. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFrancillon1979 (help)
- Thorpe 1977, p. 27. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFThorpe1977 (help)
- A G8N "Rita" in the USA via http://www.ww2incolor.com
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Collier, Basil. Japanese Aircraft of World War II. New York: Mayflower Books, 1979. ISBN 0-8317-5137-1.
- Francillon, Ph.D., René J. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 2nd edition 1979. ISBN 0-370-30251-6.
- Thorpe, Donald W. Japanese Naval Air Force Camouflage and Markings World War II. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1977. ISBN 0-8168-6583-3. (hc.) ISBN 0-8168-6587-6 (pbk.)
- Unknown authors. Famous Airplanes of the World: Nakajima Shinzan / Renzan (Volume 11, no.146). Japan: Bunrin-Do, Nov. 1984.