Mobile phone overuse, also known smartphone addiction, cell phone addiction, problematic mobile phone use, or mobile phone dependency, is a proposed form of psychological or behavioural dependence on cell phones, closely related to other forms of digital media overuse such as social media addiction or internet addiction disorder. Some mobile phone users exhibit problematic behaviours related to substance use disorders. These behaviors can include preoccupation with mobile communication, excessive money or time spent on mobile phones, use of mobile phones in socially or physically inappropriate situations such as driving an automobile. Increased use can also lead to increased time on mobile communication, adverse effects on relationships, and anxiety if separated from a mobile phone or sufficient signal.
History and terminology
Founded in current research on the adverse consequences of overusing technology, "mobile phone overuse" has been proposed as a subset of forms of "digital addiction", or "digital dependence", reflecting increasing trends of compulsive behaviour amongst users of technological devices. Researchers have variously termed these behaviours "smartphone addiction", "problematic smartphone use", as well as referring to mobile phones (cell phones) rather than solely smartphones. Forms of technology addiction have been considered as diagnoses since the mid 1990s.
Unrestrained use of technological devices may affect developmental, social, mental and physical well-being and result in symptoms akin to other behavioural addictions. However, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has not formally codified the smartphone overuse as a diagnosis. Gaming disorder has been recognised in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Varied, changing recommendations are in part due to the lack of well established evidence or expert consensus, the differing emphasis of the classification manuals, as well as difficulties utilising animal models for behavioural addictions.
Whilst published studies have shown associations between digital media use and mental health symptoms or diagnoses, causality has not been established, with nuances and caveats of researchers often misunderstood by the general public, or misrepresented by the media. A systematic review of reviews published in 2019 concluded that evidence, although of mainly low to moderate quality, showed an association of screen time with poorer psychological health including symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, low self esteem, and behavioural issues in childhood and adolescence. Several studies have shown that females are more likely to overuse social media, and males video games. This has led experts to suggest that digital media overuse may not be a unified phenomenon, with some calling to delineate proposed disorders based on individual online activity.
Due to the lack of recognition and consensus on the concepts, diagnoses and treatments are difficult to standardise or recommend, especially considering that "new media has been subject to such moral panic."
Prevalence of mobile phone overuse depends largely on definition and thus the scales used to quantify a subject's behaviors. Two scales are in use, the 20-item self-reported Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP) scale, and the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which have been used both with adult and adolescent populations. There are variations in the age, gender, and percentage of the population affected problematically according to the scales and definitions used. The prevalence among British adolescents aged 11–14 was 10%. In India, addiction is stated at 39-44% for this age group. Under different diagnostic criteria, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0 to 38%, with self-attribution of mobile phone addiction exceeding the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves. The prevalence of the related problem of Internet addiction was 4.9-10.7% in Korea, and is now regarded as a serious public health issue.
Behaviors associated with mobile-phone addiction differ between genders. Older people are less likely to develop addictive mobile phone behavior because of different social usage, stress, and greater self-regulation.
Overuse of mobile phones can affect social and psychological well-being and health.
Some people are replacing face-to-face conversations with cybernetic ones. Clinical psychologist Lisa Merlo says, "Some patients pretend to talk on the phone or fiddle with apps to avoid eye contact or other interactions at a party." In a survey made by Gazelle, "More than 25% of respondents reported that they 'almost always' use their smartphone while in a social setting such as during a meal or during a party. In addition, 58% said they use it 'usually' or 'occasionally' during these settings." Furthermore,
- 70% check their phones in the morning within an hour of getting up.
- 56% check their phones before going to bed.
- 48% check their phones over the weekend.
- 51% constantly check their phones during vacation.
- 44% reported they would feel very anxious and irritable if they did not interact with their phones within a week.
This change in style from face-to-face to text-based conversation has also been observed by Sherry Turkle. Her work cites connectivity as an important trigger of social behavior change regarding communication; therefore, this adaptation of communicating is not caused only by the phone itself. In her book, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other, Turkle argues that we now find ourselves in a state of "continual co-presence." This means that digital communication allows the occurrence of two or more realities in the same place and time. Subsequently, we also live in a "world of continual partial attention," the process of paying simultaneous attention to a number of sources of incoming information, but at a superficial level. Bombarded with an abundance of emails, texts, messages, we not only find ourselves divesting people of their human characteristics or individuality, but also increasingly treating them as digital units. This is often referred to as depersonalization.
According to Elliot Berkman, a psychology professor at the University of Oregon, the constant checking of our phones is caused by reward learning and the fear of missing out. Berkman explains that, “Habits are a product of reinforcement learning, one of our brain's most ancient and reliable systems,” and we tend, thus, to develop habits of completing behaviors that have rewarded us in the past. For many, using our mobile phone has been enjoyable in the past, leading us to feel excited and positive when we receive a notification from our phones. Berkman also iterates that we often check our smartphones to relieve the social pressure we place upon ourselves to never miss out on exciting things. As Berkman says, “Smartphones can be an escape from boredom because they are a window into many worlds other than the one right in front of you,” helping us feel included and involved in society. When we do not check our mobile phones, we are unable to satisfy this “check habit” or suppress the fear of missing out, leading us to feel anxious and irritable. A survey conducted by Hejab M. Al Fawareh and Shaidah Jusoh also found that people also often feel incomplete without their smartphones. Of the 66 respondents, 61.41% strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, “I feel incomplete when my smartphone is not with me.”
Other implications of cell phone use in mental health symptoms were observed by Thomée et al. in Sweden. This study found a relationship between report of mental health and perceived stress of participants' accessibility, which is defined as the possibility to be disturbed at any moment of day or night.
There is some evidence supporting the claim that excessive mobile phone use can cause or worsen health problems.
Germs are everywhere, and considering the number of times people interact with their cellphone under different circumstances and places, germs are very likely to transfer from one place to another. Research from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine at Queen Mary in 2011 indicated that one in six cell phones is contaminated with fecal matter. Under further inspection, some of the phones with the fecal matter were also harboring lethal bacteria such as E. coli, which can result in fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
According to the article Mobile Phones and Nosocomial Infections, written by researchers at Mansoura University of Egypt, it states that the risk of transmitting the bacteria by the medical staff (who carry their cellphones during their shift) is much higher because cellphones act as a reservoir where the bacteria can thrive.
Cancer, specifically brain cancer, and its correlation with phone use, is under ongoing investigation. Many variables affect the likelihood of hosting cancerous cells, including how long and how frequently people use their phones. There has been no definitive evidence linking cancer and phone use if used moderately, but the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization said in 2011 that radio frequency is a possible human carcinogen, based on heavy usage increasing the risk of developing glioma tumors. Although a relationship has not been fully established, research is continuing based on leads from changing patterns of mobile phone use over time and habits of phone users. Low level radio frequency radiation has also been confirmed as a promoter of tumors in mice. Minor acute immediate effects of radio frequency exposure have long been known such as the Microwave auditory effect which was discovered in 1962.
Studies show that users often associate using a mobile phone with headaches, impaired memory and concentration, fatigue, dizziness and disturbed sleep. There are also concerns that some people may develop electrosensitivity from excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields, although these symptoms may be primarily psychological in origin due to the nocebo effect.
Using a cell phone before bed can cause insomnia, according to a study by scientists from the Karolinska Institute and Uppsala University in Sweden and from Wayne State University in Michigan. The study showed that this is due to the radiation received by the user as stated, "The study indicates that during laboratory exposure to 884 MHz wireless signals, components of sleep believed to be important for recovery from daily wear and tear are adversely affected." Additional adverse health effects attributable to smartphone usage include a diminished quantity and quality of sleep due to an inhibited secretion of melatonin.
In 2014, 58% of World Health Organization states advised the general population to reduce radio frequency exposure below heating guidelines. The most common advice is to use hands-free kits (69%), to reduce call time (44%), use text messaging (36%), avoid calling with low signals (24%) or use phones with low specific absorption rate (SAR) (22%). In 2015 Taiwan banned toddlers under the age of two from using mobile phones or any similar electronic devices, and France banned WiFi from toddlers' nurseries.
As the market increases to grow, more light is being shed upon the accompanying behavioural health issues and how mobile phones can be problematic. Mobile phones continue to become increasingly multifunctional and sophisticated, which this in turn worsens the problem.
According to optician Andy Hepworth, blue violet light, a light that is transmitted from the cell phone into the eye is potentially hazardous and can be "toxic" to the back of the eye. He states that an over exposure to blue violet light can lead to a greater risk of macular degeneration which is a leading cause of blindness.
There are concerns that some mobile phone users incur considerable debt, and that mobile phones are being used to violate privacy and harass others. In particular, there is increasing evidence that mobile phones are being used as a tool by children to bully other children.
There is a large amount of research on mobile phone use, and its positive and negative influence on the human's psychological mind and social communication. Mobile phone users may encounter stress, sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression, especially young adults. Consistent phone use can cause a chain reaction, affecting one aspect of a user's life and expanding to contaminate the rest. It usually starts with social disorders, which can lead to depression and stress and ultimately affect lifestyle habits such as sleeping right and eating right.
According to research done by Jean M. Twenge, a professor of psychology at San Diego State University, there is a correlation between mobile phone overuse and depression. According to Twenge and her colleagues, at the same time that smartphones were on the rise, there was also an increase seen in depressive symptoms and even suicides among adolescents in 2010. The theory behind this research is that adolescents who are being raised as a generation of avid smartphone users are spending so much time on these devices that they forgo actual human interaction which is seen as essential to mental health, “The more time teens spend looking at screens, the more likely they are to report symptoms of depression.” While children used to spend their free time outdoors with others, with the advancement of technology, this free time is seemingly now being spent more on mobile devices.
Psychologist Nancy Colier makes the point that we all have lost sight of what is truly important to us in life. She says that people have become “disconnected from what really matters, from what makes us feel nourished and grounded as human beings.”  Our addiction to technology has deterred neurological and relationship development because tech is being introduced to people at a very young age. People have become so addicted to their phones that they are almost dependent on them. Our bodies are not meant to be constantly staring at a screen as we need time to relax our eyes and more importantly our minds. Colier states, “Without open spaces and downtime, the nervous system never shuts down — it's in constant fight-or-flight mode. “We’re wired and tired all the time. Even computers reboot, but we’re not doing it.”
The amount of time spent on screens appears to have a correlation with happiness levels. A nationally representative study of American 12th graders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse titled Monitoring the Future Survey found that “teens who spent more time than average on screen activities are more likely to be unhappy, and those who spend more time than average on non screen activities are more likely to be happy.” One of the most important findings of this study is how the amount of time spent on non screen activities versus on screen activities affects the happiness levels of teenagers.
However, while it is easy to see a correlation between cell phone overuse and these symptoms of depression, anxiety, and isolation, it is much harder to prove that cell phones themselves cause these issues. Studies of correlations cannot prove causation because there are multiple other factors that increase depression in people today. Although parents and other figures share these concerns, according to Peter Etchells, a psychologist at Bath Spa University in England, other possible variables must be reviewed as well. Etchells proposes two possible alternative theories: depression could cause teens to use iPhones more or teens could be more open to discussing the topic of depression in this day and age.
A survey done by a group of independent opticians reviled that 43% of people under the age of 25 experienced anxiety or even irritation when they were not able to access their phone whenever they wanted. This survey shows the psychological effect that cell phones have on people, specifically young people. Checking a cell phone has become a normal daily event for many people over the years just as getting dressed in the morning is, people don't feel right when they don't do it.
Research has found that there is a direct relationship between mobile phone overuse and mobile phone use while driving. Mobile phone overuse can be especially dangerous in certain situations such as texting/browsing and driving or talking on the phone while driving. Over 8 people are killed and 1,161 are injured daily because of distracted driving. At any given daylight moment across America, approximately 660,000 drivers are using cell phones or electronic devices while driving. The significant number of injuries and accidents from distracted driving can be contributed at least partially to mobile phone overuse. There is currently no national ban on texting while driving, but many states have implemented laws to try to prevent these accidents.
Tools to prevent or treat mobile phone overuse
The following tools or interventions can be used to prevent or treat mobile phone overuse.
Many studies have found relationships between psychological or mental health issues and smartphone addiction. Hence, behavioral interventions such as individual or family psychotherapy for these issues may help. In fact, studies have found that psychotherapeutic approaches such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing are able to successfully treat Internet Addiction and may be useful for mobile phone overuse too. Further, support groups and family therapy may also help prevent and treat internet and smartphone addiction.
Further, complete abstinence from mobile phone use or abstinence from certain apps can also help treat mobile phone overuse. Other behavioral interventions include practicing the opposite (e.g. disrupt their normal routine and re-adapt to new time patterns of use), goal-setting, reminder cards (e.g. listing 5 problems resulting from mobile phone overuse and 5 benefits of limiting overuse), and creating a personal inventory of alternative activities (e.g. exercise, music, art).
In 2019 the World Health Organization issued recommendation about active lifestyle, sleep and screen time for children at age 0-5. The recommendation are:
For children in age less than one year: 30 minute physical activity, 0 hours screen time and 14 – 17 hours of sleep time per day.
For children in age 1 year: 180 minutes physical activity, 0 hours screen time, 11–14 hours of sleep time per day.
For children in age 2 year: 180 minutes physical activity, 1 hour screen time, 11–14 hours of sleep time per day.
For children in age3-4 year: 180 minutes physical activity, 1 hour screen time, 10–13 hours of sleep time per day.
Many smartphone addiction activists (such as Tristan Harris) recommend turning one's phone screen to grayscale mode, which helps reduce time spent on mobile phones by making them boring to look at. Other phone settings alterations for mobile phone non-use included turning on airplane mode, turning off cellular data and/ or WiFi, turning off the phone, removing specific apps, and factory resetting.
German psychotherapist and online addiction expert Bert te Wildt recommends using apps such as Offtime and Menthal to help prevent mobile phone overuse. In fact, there are many apps available on Android and iOS stores which help track mobile usage. For example, in iOS 12 Apple added a function called "Screen Time" that allows users to see how much time they have spent on the phone. These apps usually work by doing one of two things: increasing awareness by sending user usage summaries, or notifying the user when he/ she has exceeded some user-defined time-limit for each app or app category.
Studying and developing interventions for temporary mobile phone non-use is a growing area of research.
Hiniker et al. generated 100 different design ideas for mobile phone non-use belonging to eight organic categories: information (i.e. agnostically providing information to the user about his or her behavior), reward (i.e. rewarding the user for engaging in behaviors that are consistent with his or her self-defined goals), punishment (i.e. punishing the user for engaging in behaviors that are inconsistent with his or her self-defined goals), disruption (i.e. a temporary barrier momentarily prevents the user from engaging in a specific behavior), limit (i.e. certain behaviors are time or context-bound or otherwise constrained within defined parameters), mindfulness (i.e. the user is asked to reflect on his or her choices, before, during or after making them), appeal to values (i.e. reminding the user about the underlying values that shaped his or her decisions about de- sired use and non-use), social support (i.e. opportunities for including other individuals into the intervention). Users found interventions related to information, limit, and mindfulness to be the most useful. The researchers implement an Android app that combined these 3 intervention types and found that users reduced their time with the apps they feel are a poor use of time by 21% while their use of the apps they feel are a good use of time remained unchanged.
AppDetox allows users to define rules that limit their usage of specific apps. PreventDark detects and prevents problematic usage of smartphones in the dark. Using vibrations instead of notifications to limit app usage has also been found to be effective.
Further, researchers have found group-based interventions that rely on users sharing their limiting behaviors with others to be effective.
Mobile Phone use ban
- Digital media use and mental health
- Television addiction
- Underearners Anonymous
- Computer addiction
- Internet addiction disorder
- Nomophobia, a proposed name for the fear of being out of cellular phone contact
- Video game overuse
- Mobile phones and driving safety
- De Quervain syndrome
- Mobile phone radiation and health
- Digital detox, a period of time during which a person refrains from using electronic connecting devices
- Smartphone zombie
- Mobile phone § Health effects
- Rubio, Gabriel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; De-Sola Gutiérrez, José (2016). "Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 7: 175. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00175. ISSN 1664-0640. PMC 5076301. PMID 27822187.
- Elhai, Jon D.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Levine, Jason C.; Hall, Brian J. (January 2017). "Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology". Journal of Affective Disorders. 207: 251–259. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.030. PMID 27736736.
- Young, Kimberly (27 February 1998). Caught in the net : how to recognize the signs of Internet addiction--and a winning strategy for recovery. New York, New York. ISBN 978-0471191599. OCLC 38130573.
- Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Grant, Jon E. (August 2016). "Expanding the definition of addiction: DSM-5 vs. ICD-11". CNS Spectrums. 21 (4): 300–303. doi:10.1017/S1092852916000183. ISSN 2165-6509. PMC 5328289. PMID 27151528.
- "Internet Gaming". www.psychiatry.org. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- "Gaming disorder". Gaming disorder. World Health Organisation. 1 September 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2019. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name ":1" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "ICD-11 - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Grant, Jon E.; Chamberlain, Samuel R. (1 August 2016). "Expanding the definition of addiction: DSM-5 vs. ICD-11". CNS Spectrums. 21 (4): 300–303. doi:10.1017/S1092852916000183. ISSN 1092-8529. PMC 5328289. PMID 27151528.
- Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel (1 February 2017). "How does the time children spend using digital technology impact their mental well-being, social relationships and physical activity? - An evidence-focused literature review" (PDF). UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
- Viner, Russell M.; Stiglic, Neza (1 January 2019). "Effects of screentime on the health and well-being of children and adolescents: a systematic review of reviews". BMJ Open. 9 (1): e023191. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023191. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 6326346. PMID 30606703.
- Hawi, Nazir; Samaha, Maya (30 August 2019). "Identifying commonalities and differences in personality characteristics of Internet and social media addiction profiles: traits, self-esteem, and self-construal". Behaviour & Information Technology. 38 (2): 110–119. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2018.1515984. ISSN 0144-929X.
- Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J. (17 March 2017). "Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (3): 311. doi:10.3390/ijerph14030311. PMC 5369147. PMID 28304359.
- Ryding, Francesca C.; Kaye, Linda K. (2018). ""Internet Addiction": a Conceptual Minefield". International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 16 (1): 225–232. doi:10.1007/s11469-017-9811-6. ISSN 1557-1874. PMC 5814538. PMID 29491771.
- De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel (24 October 2016). "Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 7: 175. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00175. PMC 5076301. PMID 27822187.
- Cheng, Cecilia; Li, Angel Yee-lam (1 December 2014). "Internet Addiction Prevalence and Quality of (Real) Life: A Meta-Analysis of 31 Nations Across Seven World Regions". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 17 (12): 755–760. doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0317. ISSN 2152-2715. PMC 4267764. PMID 25489876.
- Merlo LJ, Stone AM, Bibbey A (2013). "Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale". J Addict. 2013: 1–7. doi:10.1155/2013/912807. PMC 4008508. PMID 24826371.
- Lopez-Fernandez O, Honrubia-Serrano L, Freixa-Blanxart M, Gibson W (2014). "Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents" (PDF). Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 17 (2): 91–98. doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0260. PMID 23981147.
- Davey S, Davey A (2014). "Assessment of Smartphone Addiction in Indian Adolescents: A Mixed Method Study by Systematic-review and Meta-analysis Approach". J Prev Med. 5 (12): 1500–1511. PMC 4336980. PMID 25709785.
- Pedrero Pérez EJ, Rodríguez Monje MT, Ruiz Sánchez De León JM (2012). "Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature". Adicciones. 24 (2): 139–152. PMID 22648317.
- Koo HJ, Kwon JH (2014). "Risk and protective factors of internet addiction: a meta-analysis of empirical studies in Korea". Yonsei Med J. 55 (6): 1691–1711. doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.6.1691. PMC 4205713. PMID 25323910.
- Roberts JA, Yaya LH, Manolis C (2014). "The invisible addiction: cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students". J Behav Addict. 3 (4): 254–265. doi:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.015. PMC 4291831. PMID 25595966.
- van Deursen AJAM; Bolle CL; Hegner SM; Kommers PAM (2015). "Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behaviour: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender". Computers in Human Behavior. 45: 411–420. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.039.
- Effects of Smartphone addiction and how to deal with it website : http://www.gadgetspider.com/deal-with-smartphone-addiction/
- Gibson, E. (27 July 2011). Smartphone dependency: a growing obsession with gadgets. Retrieved 27 September 2013 from USA Today website: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/medical/health/medical/mentalhealth/story/2011/07/Smartphone-dependency-a-growing-obsession-to-gadgets/49661286/1
- Belardi, B. (Ed.). (18 June 2012). Consumers Crave iPhone More Than Facebook, Sex. Retrieved 15 October 2013 from PR Newswire website: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/consumers-crave-iphone-more-than-facebook-sex-according-to-gazelle-159430685.html
- Perlow, Leslie A. (2012). Sleeping with your smartphone : how to break the 24/7 habit and change the way you work. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press. ISBN 9781422144046.[page needed]
- Turkle, Sherry (2011). Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from each Other. New York: Basic Books. p. 241. ISBN 9780465010219.
- Turkle, Sherry (2011). Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books. p. 161. ISBN 9780465010219.
- "the definition of depersonalize". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Baral, Susmita (4 January 2017). "How to Break the Habit of Checking your Phone all the Time". Mic. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Al Fawareh, Hejab M. (6 November 2017). "The Use and Effects of Smartphones in Higher Education". International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies. 11: 103–111 – via EBSCO.
- Thomée, Sara; Härenstam, Annika; Hagberg, Mats (2011). "Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults - a prospective cohort study". BMC Public Health. 11 (1): 66. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-66. PMC 3042390. PMID 21281471.
- Britt, Darice (June 2013). "Health Risks of Using Mobile Phones". South Carolina University. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Mobile phones and nosocomial infections". International Journal of Infection Control. 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- Badr, Rawia Ibrahim; Badr, Hatem ibrahim; Ali, Nabil Mansour (26 March 2012). "Mobile phones and nosocomial infections". International Journal of Infection Control. 8 (2). doi:10.3396/ijic.v8i2.014.12.
- World Health Organization: International Agency for Research on Cancer (2011). "IARC Classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans" (PDF). Press Release No. 208.
- Sinhna, Kounteya (18 May 2010). "Cell overuse can cause brain cancer". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Lerchl A, Klose M, Grote K, Wilhelm AF, Spathmann O, Fiedler T, Streckert J, Hansen V, Clemens M (April 2015). "Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 459 (4): 585–90. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.151. PMID 25749340.
- Frey AH (1962). "Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy". J Appl Physiol. 17 (4): 689–692. doi:10.1152/jappl.1918.104.22.1689. PMID 13895081.
- Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA (2004). "Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population". Saudi Med J. 25 (6): 732–736. PMID 15195201.
- Carpenter DO (2014). "Excessive Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields May Cause the Development of Electrohypersensitivity". Altern Ther Health Med. 20 (6): 40–42. PMID 25478802.
- Rubin, G. James; Hahn, Gareth; Everitt, Brian S.; Cleare, Anthony J.; Wessely, Simon (13 April 2006). "Are some people sensitive to mobile phone signals? Within participants double blind randomised provocation study". BMJ. 332 (7546): 886–891. doi:10.1136/bmj.38765.519850.55. PMC 1440612. PMID 16520326.
- Arnetz, Bengt B.; Hillert, Lena; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Lowden, Arne; Kuster, Niels; Ebert, Sven; Boutry, Clementine; Moffat, Scott D.; Berg, Mats; Wiholm, Clairy. Effects from 884 MHz mobile phone radiofrequency on brain electrophysiology, sleep, cognition, and well-being, Referierte Publikationen, Chicago, 2008.
- Janssen, D. (22 January 2016). "Smartphone-induced sleep deprivation and its implications for public health". Europeanpublichealth.com. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Dhungel A, Zmirou-Navier D, van Deventer E (2015). "Risk management policies and practices regarding radio frequency electromagnetic fields: results from a WHO survey". Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 164 (1–2): 22–27. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncu324. PMC 4401037. PMID 25394650.
- Pierre Le Hir (2015). "Une loi pour encadrer l'exposition aux ondes". Le Monde (29 January 2015).
- Leung, L. and Liang, J., 2015. Mobile Phone Addiction. In Encyclopedia of Mobile Phone Behavior (pp. 640-647). IGI Global
- "Smartphone overuse may 'damage' eyes, say opticians - BBC Newsbeat". BBC Newsbeat. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G. (2005). "Psychological Predictors of Problem Mobile Phone Use". Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 8 (1): 39–51. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.563.385. doi:10.1089/cpb.2005.8.39. PMID 15738692.
- Osborne, Charlie. "Cyberbullying increases in line with mobile phone usage? (infographic)". ZDNet. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Are Smartphones Bad For Our Youth?". The Perspective. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- Twenge, Jean. "Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?". The Atlantic.
- Twenge, Jean M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Rogers, Megan L.; Martin, Gabrielle N. (14 November 2017). "Increases in Depressive Symptoms, Suicide-Related Outcomes, and Suicide Rates Among U.S. Adolescents After 2010 and Links to Increased New Media Screen Time". Clinical Psychological Science. 6 (1): 3–17. doi:10.1177/2167702617723376.
- Twenge, Jean M. (September 2017). "Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Turk, Victoria (11 January 2018). "Apple investors say iPhones cause teen depression. Science doesn't". Wired UK.
- Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Sonali, Nandavar; Newton, James David Albert; Demant, Daniel; Phillips, James G (12 March 2019). "Problematic Use of Mobile Phones in Australia…Is It Getting Worse?". Front. Psychiatry. 10: 105. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00105. PMC 6422909. PMID 30914975.
- Oviedo-Trespalacios, O; King, M; Haque, MM; Washington, S (2017). "Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies". PLOS ONE. 12 (9): e0183361. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1283361O. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0183361. PMC 5587103. PMID 28877200.
- Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Haque, Md. Mazharul; King, Mark; Washington, Simon (October 2018). "Should I Text or Call Here? A Situation-Based Analysis of Drivers' Perceived Likelihood of Engaging in Mobile Phone Multitasking". Risk Analysis. 38 (10): 2144–2160. doi:10.1111/risa.13119. PMID 29813176.
- Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Haque, Md. Mazharul; King, Mark; Washington, Simon (November 2016). "Understanding the impacts of mobile phone distraction on driving performance: A systematic review". Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. 72: 360–380. doi:10.1016/j.trc.2016.10.006.
- "The Dangers of Distracted Driving". Federal Communications Commission. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- Samaha, Maya; Hawi, Nazir S. (2016). "Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life". Computers in Human Behavior. 57: 321–325. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.045.
- Bian, Mengwei; Leung, Louis (8 April 2014). "Linking Loneliness, Shyness, Smartphone Addiction Symptoms, and Patterns of Smartphone Use to Social Capital". Social Science Computer Review. 33 (1): 61–79. doi:10.1177/0894439314528779.
- Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Po-Hsien; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Ren; Tseng, Hsien-Wei; Yen, Liang-Yu; Yang, Cheryl C.H. (2015). "Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: Identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application (App)". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 65: 139–145. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.04.003. PMID 25935253.
- Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah (2015). "Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 4 (2): 85–92. doi:10.1556/2006.4.2015.010. PMC 4500888. PMID 26132913.
- Kim, Hyunna (31 December 2013). "Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction". Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 9 (6): 500–505. doi:10.12965/jer.130080. PMC 3884868. PMID 24409425.
- Young, Kimberly S. (2007). "Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Internet Addicts: Treatment Outcomes and Implications". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 10 (5): 671–679. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9971. PMID 17927535.
- Young, Kimberly S.; Yue, Xiao Dong; Ying, Li (9 October 2012), "Prevalence Estimates and Etiologic Models of Internet Addiction", Internet Addiction, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1–17, doi:10.1002/9781118013991.ch1, ISBN 9781118013991
- Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan (2016). "Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction". Medicine. 95 (28): e4068. doi:10.1097/md.0000000000004068. PMC 4956785. PMID 27428191.
- "WHO guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age" (PDF). World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- "Drop your Smartphone Addiction | Go Gray". 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Baumer, Eric P.S.; Ames, Morgan G.; Brubaker, Jed R.; Burrell, Jenna; Dourish, Paul (2014). "Refusing, limiting, departing". Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI EA '14. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 65–68. doi:10.1145/2559206.2559224. ISBN 9781450324748.
- ZDF. "Einfach mal abschalten -Suchtfaktor Smartphone".
- "iOS 12: Getting to know Screen Time and stronger parental controls". CNET. 17 September 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Hiniker, Alexis; Hong, Sungsoo (Ray); Kohno, Tadayoshi; Kientz, Julie A. (2016). "MyTime". Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '16. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 4746–4757. doi:10.1145/2858036.2858403. ISBN 9781450333627.
- Löchtefeld, Markus; Böhmer, Matthias; Ganev, Lyubomir (2013). "AppDetox". Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia - MUM '13. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 1–2. doi:10.1145/2541831.2541870. ISBN 9781450326483.
- Ruan, Wenjie; Sheng, Quan Z.; Yao, Lina; Tran, Nguyen Khoi; Yang, Yu Chieh (2016). "PreventDark: Automatically detecting and preventing problematic use of smartphones in darkness". 2016 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communication Workshops (PerCom Workshops). IEEE: 1–3. doi:10.1109/percomw.2016.7457071. ISBN 9781509019410.
- Okeke, Fabian; Sobolev, Michael; Dell, Nicola; Estrin, Deborah (2018). "Good vibrations". Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - MobileHCI '18. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 1–12. doi:10.1145/3229434.3229463. ISBN 9781450358989.
- Ko, Minsam; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Yang, Subin; Lee, Joonwon; Heizmann, Christian; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Uichin; Shin, Daehee; Yatani, Koji (2015). "NUGU". Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing - CSCW '15. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 1235–1245. doi:10.1145/2675133.2675244. ISBN 9781450329224.
- Jones, Allison (12 March 2019). "Ontario to ban cellphones in classrooms next school year". The Canadian Press. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Smith, Rory (31 July 2018). "France bans smartphones from schools". CNN. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Roberts, James A. (2015). TOO MUCH OF A GOOD THING: Are You Addicted to Your Smartphone?. Sentia Publishing. ISBN 978-0996300476.
- Richtel, Matt (22 April 2007). "It Don't Mean a Thing if You Ain't Got That Ping". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Takao, Motoharu; Takahashi, Susumu; Kitamura, Masayoshi (October 2009). "Addictive Personality and Problematic Mobile Phone Use". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 12 (5): 501–507. doi:10.1089/cpb.2009.0022. PMID 19817562.
- Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Otero, Angel (April 2009). "Factors Associated with Cell Phone Use in Adolescents in the Community of Madrid (Spain)". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 12 (2): 131–137. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0164. PMID 19072078.
- Griffiths, Mark (April 2000). "Does Internet and Computer 'Addiction' Exist? Some Case Study Evidence". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 3 (2): 211–218. doi:10.1089/109493100316067.
- Krajewska-Kulak, E., et al. Problematic mobile phone using among the Polish and Belarusian University students, a comparative study. Progress in Health Sciences 2.1 (2012): 45+. Academic OneFile database. 4 December 2012.
- Gil Brand, Making Smart Use of the Smartphone, 14 February 2017.