|Mexican citizens: c. 132 million
Mexican ancestry: c. 24 million
|Regions with significant populations|
|United States||11,651,419 (citizens)Note A|
|Canada||69,695 (citizens)Note B|
|Spanish, English and minority languages (incl. 68 federally recognized indigenous languages)|
|Roman Catholicism 82.7% · Protestantism 9.7%
other faith 2.9% (incl.
Judaism · Islam · Buddhism · Hinduism · Folk religions)
|Related ethnic groups|
|other Latin Americans|
^ Note A: This is the number of Mexican citizens in the U.S. Including descendants, the enlarged Mexican-American community was estimated in July 2016 to be 36,255,589 amounting to 11.22% of total U.S. population
Note B: This is the number of Mexicans by birth in Canada, including ancestry the enlarged Mexican-Canadian community was recorded to be 97,055 in 2011.
Mexicans (Spanish: mexicanos) are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America. Mexicans can also be those who identify with the Mexican cultural or national identity.
The Mexica founded Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1325 as an altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. It became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City.
The modern nation of Mexico achieved independence from the Spanish Empire; this began the process of forging a national identity that fused the cultural traits of indigenous pre-Columbian origin with those of European, particularly Iberian, ancestry. This led to what has been termed "a peculiar form of multi-ethnic nationalism"
The most spoken language by Mexicans is Mexican Spanish, but some may also speak languages from 68 different indigenous linguistic groups and other languages brought to Mexico by recent immigration or learned by Mexican immigrants residing in other nations. In 2015, 21.5% of Mexico's population self-identified as being Indigenous or partially Indigenous. There are about 12 million Mexican nationals residing outside Mexico, with about 11.7 million living in the United States. The larger Mexican diaspora can also include individuals that trace ancestry to Mexico and self-identify as Mexican.
The Mexican people have varied origins and an identity that has evolved with the succession of conquests among Amerindian groups and later by Europeans. The area that is now modern-day Mexico has cradled many predecessor civilizations, going back as far as the Olmec which influenced the latter civilizations of Teotihuacan (200 B.C. to 700 A.D.) and the much debated Toltec people who flourished around the 10th and 12th centuries A.D., and ending with the last great indigenous civilization before the Spanish Conquest, the Aztecs (13 March 1325 to 13 August 1521). The Nahuatl language was a common tongue in the region of modern Central Mexico during the Aztec Empire, but after the arrival of Europeans the common language of the region became Spanish.
After the conquest of the Aztec empire, the Spanish re-administered the land and expanded their own empire beyond the former boundaries of the Aztec, adding more territory to the Mexican sphere of influence which remained under the Spanish Crown for 300 years. Cultural diffusion and intermixing among the Amerindian populations with the European created the modern Mexican identity which is a mixture of regional indigenous and European cultures that evolved into a national culture during the Spanish period. This new identity was defined as "Mexican" shortly after the Mexican War of Independence and was more invigorated and developed after the Mexican Revolution when the Constitution of 1917 officially established Mexico as an indivisible pluricultural nation founded on its indigenous roots.
It has been suggested that the name of the country is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexicas, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives". Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from the Nahuatl words for "Moon" (Mētztli) and navel (xīctli). This meaning ("Place at the Center of the Moon") might then refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon. Still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of maguey.
The term Mexicano as a word to describe the different peoples of the region of Mexico as a single group emerged in the 16th century. In that time the term did not apply to a nationality nor to the geographical limits of the modern Mexican Republic. The term was used for the first time in the first document printed in Barcelona in 1566 which documented the expedition which launched from the port in Acapulco to find the best route which would favor a return journey from the Spanish East Indies to New Spain. The document stated: "el venturoso descubrimiento que los Mexicanos han hecho" (the venturous discovery that the Mexicans have made). That discovery led to the Manila galleon trade route and those "Mexicans" referred to Criollos, Mestizos and Amerindians alluding to a plurality of persons who participated for a common end: the conquest of the Philippines in 1565. (Gómez M., et al. 56)
A large majority of Mexicans have been classified as "Mestizos", meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify fully neither with any indigenous culture nor with a Spanish cultural heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits incorporating elements from indigenous and Spanish traditions. By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje [mestiˈsahe]. Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje.
Since the Mestizo identity promoted by the government is more of a cultural identity than a biological one it has achieved a strong influence in the country, with a good number of biologically white people identifying with it, leading to being considered Mestizos in Mexico's demographic investigations and censuses due the ethnic criteria having its base on cultural traits rather than biological ones. A similar situation occurs regarding the distinctions between Indigenous peoples and Mestizos: while the term Mestizo is sometimes used in English with the meaning of a person with mixed indigenous and European blood, this usage does not conform to the Mexican social reality where a person of pure Indigenous genetic heritage would be considered Mestizo either by rejecting his indigenous culture or by not speaking an indigenous language, and a person with none or a very low percentage of indigenous genetic heritage would be considered fully indigenous either by speaking an indigenous language or by identifying with a particular indigenous cultural heritage. In the Yucatán peninsula the word Mestizo has a different meaning, with it being to refer to the Maya-speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the caste war of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as Mestizos. In Chiapas the word "Ladino" is used instead of mestizo.
Cultural policies in early post-revolutionary Mexico were paternalistic towards the indigenous people, with efforts designed to "help" indigenous peoples achieve the same level of progress as the rest of society, eventually assimilating indigenous peoples completely to Mestizo Mexican culture, working toward the goal of eventually solving the "Indian problem" by transforming indigenous communities into Mestizo communities.
Given that the word Mestizo has different meanings in Mexico, estimates of the Mexican Mestizo population vary widely. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, which uses a biology-based approach, between one half and two thirds of the Mexican population is Mestizo. A culture-based estimate gives the percentage of Mestizos as high as 90%. Paradoxically, the word Mestizo has long been dropped from popular Mexican vocabulary, with the word even having pejorative connotations, which further complicates attempts to quantify Mestizos via self-identification.
While for most of its history the concept of Mestizo and Mestizaje has been lauded by Mexico’s intellectual circles, in recent times the concept has been target of criticism, with its detractors claiming that it delegitimizes racist practices in Mexico under the idea of “(Racism) Not existing here (Mexico), as everybody is Mestizo” the Mestizo ideology thus, has cemented a terrain of resistance in regards to social, politic and academic mobility around the theme of race in Mexico. In general, the authors conclude that Mexico introducing a real racial classification and accepting itself as a multicultural country opposed to a monolithic Mestizo country would bring benefits to the Mexican society as a whole.
White Mexicans are Mexican citizens of full or majoritary European descent. Given that the Mexican government does not conduct racial censuses that quantify the country's Eurodescendant population, estimations of this ethnic group's percentage within Mexico's population vary depending of the source, ranging from one tenth or one fifth  to as high as 47%. The later figure, coming from a recent nationwide survey conducted by the Mexican government as a mean to address the problems of racism that Mexicans of mainly Indigenous or African ancestry suffer at hands of a society that favors light skinned, European looking Mexicans.
Europeans began arriving in Mexico during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire; and while during the colonial period most European immigration was Spanish, in the 19th and 20th centuries European and European-derived populations from North and South America did immigrate to the country. According to 20th and 21th century academics, large scale intermixing between the European immigrants and the native Indigenous peoples would produce a Mestizo group which would become the overwhelming majority of Mexico's population by the time of Independence. However according to church registers from the colonial times, the majority (73%) of Spanish men married with Spanish women. Said registers also put in question other narratives held by contemporary academics, such as European immigrants who arrived to Mexico being almost exclusively men or that "pure Spanish" people were all part of a small powerful elite, as Spaniards were often the most numerous ethnic group in the colonial cities and there were menial workers and people in poverty who were of complete Spanish origin.
Mexico’s northern and western regions have the highest percentages of European population, with the majority of the people not having native admixture or being of predominantly European ancestry, resembling in aspect that of northern Spaniards. In the north and west of Mexico, the indigenous tribes were substantially smaller than those found in central and southern Mexico, and also much less organized, thus they remained isolated from the rest of the population or even in some cases were hostile towards Mexican colonists. The northeast region, in which the indigenous population was eliminated by early European settlers, became the region with the highest proportion of whites during the Spanish colonial period. However, recent immigrants from southern Mexico have been changing, to some degree, its demographic trends.
The White population of central Mexico, despite not being as numerous as in the north due to higher mixing, is ethnically more diverse, as there are large numbers of other European and Middle Eastern ethnic groups, aside from Spaniards. This also results in non-Iberian surnames (mostly French, German, Italian and Arab) being more common in central Mexico, especially in the country's capital and in the state of Jalisco.
The 2003 General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages" which have the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken. The recognition of indigenous languages and the protection of indigenous cultures is granted not only to the ethnic groups indigenous to modern-day Mexican territory, but also to other North American indigenous groups that migrated to Mexico from the United States in the nineteenth century and those who immigrated from Guatemala in the 1980s.
The category of "indigena" (indigenous) in Mexico has been defined based on different criteria through history, this means that the percentage of the Mexican population defined as "indigenous" varies according to the definition applied. It can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only persons that speak an Indigenous language, based on this criteria approximately 5.4% of the population is Indigenous. Nonetheless, activists for the rights of indigenous peoples have referred to the usage of this criteria for census purposes as "statistical genocide"
Other surveys made by the Mexican government do count as Indigenous all persons who speak an indigenous language and people who do not speak indigenous languages nor live in indigenous communities but self-identifies as Indigenous. According to this criteria, the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, or CDI in Spanish) and the INEGI (Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography), state that there are 15.7 million indigenous people in Mexico of many different ethnic groups, which constitute 14.9% of the population in the country.
According to the latest intercensal survey carried out by the Mexican government on 2015, Indigenous people make up 21.5% of Mexico's population. In this occasion, people who self-identified as "Indigenous" and people who self-identified as "partially Indigenous" were classified in the "Indigenous" category altogether.
The absolute indigenous population is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population so that the percentage of indigenous peoples is nonetheless falling. The majority of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central-southern and south-eastern states, with the majority of the indigenous population living in rural areas. Some indigenous communities have a degree of autonomy under the legislation of "usos y costumbres", which allows them to regulate some internal issues under customary law.
According to the CDI, the states with the greatest percentage of indigenous population are Yucatán, with 62.7%, Quintana Roo with 33.8% and Campeche with 32% of the population being indigenous, most of them Maya; Oaxaca with 58% of the population, the most numerous groups being the Mixtec and Zapotec peoples; Chiapas has 32.7%, the majority being Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya; Hidalgo with 30.1%, the majority being Otomi; Puebla with 25.2%, and Guerrero with 22.6%, mostly Nahua people and the states of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz both home to a population of 19% indigenous people, mostly from the Totonac, Nahua and Teenek (Huastec) groups.
An Arab Mexican is a Mexican citizen of Arabic-speaking origin who can be of various ancestral origins. The vast majority of Mexico's 1.1 million Arabs are from either Lebanese, Syrian, Iraqi, or Palestinian background.
The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Mexico shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language. Today, the most common Arabic surnames in Mexico include Nader, Hayek, Ali, Haddad, Nasser, Malik, Abed, Mansoor, Harb and Elias.
Arab immigration to Mexico started in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Roughly 100,000 Arabic-speakers settled in Mexico during this time period. They came mostly from Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Iraq and settled in significant numbers in Nayarit, Puebla, Mexico City and the Northern part of the country (mainly in the states of Baja California, Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Durango, as well as the city of Tampico and Guadalajara. The term "Arab Mexican" may include ethnic groups that do not in fact identify as Arab.
During the Israel-Lebanon war in 1948 and during the Six-Day War, thousands of Lebanese left Lebanon and went to Mexico. They first arrived in Veracruz. Although Arabs made up less than 5% of the total immigrant population in Mexico during the 1930s, they constituted half of the immigrant economic activity.
Immigration of Arabs in Mexico has influenced Mexican culture, in particular food, where they have introduced Kibbeh, Tabbouleh and even created recipes such as Tacos Árabes. By 1765, Dates, which originated from the Middle East, were introduced into Mexico by the Spaniards. The fusion between Arab and Mexican food has highly influenced the Yucatecan cuisine.
Another concentration of Arab-Mexicans is in Baja California facing the U.S.-Mexican border, esp. in cities of Mexicali in the Imperial Valley U.S./Mexico, and Tijuana across from San Diego with a large Arab American community (about 280,000), some of whose families have relatives in Mexico. 45% of Arab Mexicans are of Lebanese descent.
The majority of Arab-Mexicans are Christians who belong to the Maronite Church, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches. A scant number are Muslims and Jews of Middle Eastern origins.
Afro-Mexicans are an ethnic group that predominate in certain areas of Mexico. Such as the Costa Chica of Oaxaca and the Costa Chica of Guerrero, Veracruz (e.g. Yanga) and in some towns in northern Mexico. The existence of blacks in Mexico is unknown, denied or diminished in both Mexico and abroad for a number of reasons: their small numbers, heavy intermarriage with other ethnic groups and Mexico's tradition of defining itself as a "mestizaje" or mixing of European and indigenous. Mexico did have an active slave trade since the early Spanish period but from the beginning, intermarriage and mixed race offspring created an elaborate caste system. This system broke down in the very late Spanish period and after Independence the legal notion of race was eliminated. The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past actively or passively eliminating its African one from popular consciousness.
The majority of Mexico's native Afro-descendants are Afromestizos, i.e. "mixed-race". Individuals with significantly high amounts of African ancestry make up a very low percentage of the total Mexican population, the majority being recent black immigrants from Africa, the Caribbean and elsewhere in the Americas. According to the Intercensal survey carried out by the Mexican government, Afro-Mexicans make up 1.2% of Mexico's population, the Afro-Mexican category in the Intercensal survey includes people who self-identified solely as African and people who self-identified as partially African. The survey also states that 64.9% (896,829) of Afro-Mexicans also identified as indigenous, with 9.3% being speakers of indigenous languages.
Asian Mexicans make up less than 1% of the total population of modern Mexico, nonetheless they are a notable minority. Due to the historical and contemporary perception in Mexican society of what constitutes Asian culture (associated with the Far East rather than the Near East), Asian Mexicans are of East, South and Southeast Asian descent and Mexicans of West Asian descent are not considered to be part of the group.
Asian immigration began with the arrival of Filipinos to Mexico during the Spanish period. For two and a half centuries, between 1565 and 1815, many Filipinos and Mexicans sailed to and from Mexico and the Philippines as sailors, crews, slaves, prisoners, adventurers and soldiers in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon assisting Spain in its trade between Asia and the Americas. Also on these voyages, thousands of Asian individuals (mostly males) were brought to Mexico as slaves and were called "Chino", which meant Chinese. Although in reality they were of diverse origins, including Japanese, Koreans, Malays, Filipinos, Javanese, Cambodians, Timorese, and people from Bengal, India, Ceylon, Makassar, Tidore, Terenate, and China. A notable example is the story of Catarina de San Juan (Mirra), an Indian girl captured by the Portuguese and sold into slavery in Manila. She arrived in New Spain and eventually she gave rise to the "China Poblana".
These early individuals are not very apparent in modern Mexico for two main reasons: the widespread mestizaje of Mexico during the Spanish period and the common practice of Chino slaves to "pass" as Indios (the indigenous people of Mexico) in order to attain freedom. As had occurred with a large portion of Mexico's black population, over generations the Asian populace was absorbed into the general Mestizo population. Facilitating this miscegenation was the assimilation of Asians into the indigenous population. The indigenous people were legally protected from chattel slavery, and by being recognized as part of this group, Asian slaves could claim they were wrongly enslaved.
Asians, predominantly Chinese, became Mexico's fastest-growing immigrant group from the 1880s to the 1920s, exploding from about 1,500 in 1895 to more than 20,000 in 1910.
Ethnic relations in modern Mexico have grown out of the historical context of the arrival of Europeans, the subsequent Spanish period of cultural and genetic miscegenation within the frame work of the castas system, the revolutionary periods focus on incorporating all ethnic and racial group into a common Mexican national identity and the indigenous revival of the late 20th century. The resulting picture has been called "a peculiar form of multi-ethnic nationalism".
Very generally speaking ethnic relations can be arranged on an axis between the two extremes of European and Amerindian cultural heritage, this is a remnant of the Spanish caste system which categorized individuals according to their perceived level of biological mixture between the two groups. Additionally the presence of considerable portions of the population with partly African and Asian heritage further complicates the situation. Even though it still arranges persons along the line between indigenous and European, in practice the classificatory system is no longer biologically based, but rather mixes socio-cultural traits with phenotypical traits, and classification is largely fluid, allowing individuals to move between categories and define their ethnic and racial identities situationally.
Historically, population studies and censuses have never been up to the standards that a population as diverse and numerous such as Mexico's require: the first racial census was made in 1793, being also Mexico's (then known as New Spain) first ever nationwide population census, of it, only part of the original datasets survive, thus most of what it's known of it comes from essays made by researchers who back in the day used the census' findings as reference for their own works. More than a century would pass until the Mexican government conducted a new racial census in 1921 (some sources assert that the census of 1895 included a comprehensive racial classification, however according to the historic archives of Mexico's National Institute of Statistics that was not the case). While the 1921 census was the last time the Mexican government conducted a census that included a comprehensive racial classification, in recent time it has conducted nationwide surveys to quantify most of the ethnic groups who inhabit the country as well as the social dynamics and inequalities between them.
Also known as the "Revillagigedo census" due to its creation being ordered by the Count of the same name, this census was Mexico's (then known as the Viceroyalty of New Spain) first ever nationwide population census. Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, thus most of what is now known about it comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt. Each author gives different estimations for each racial group in the country although they don't vary much, with Europeans ranging from 18% to 22% of New Spain's population, Mestizos ranging from 21% to 25%, Indians ranging from 51% to 61% and Africans being between 6,000 and 10,000, The estimations given for the total population range from 3,799,561 to 6,122,354. It is concluded then, that across nearly three centuries of colonization, the population growth trends of whites and mestizos were even, while the total percentage of the indigenous population decreased at a rate of 13%-17% per century. The authors assert that rather than whites and mestizos having higher birthrates, the reason for the indigenous population's numbers decreasing lies on them suffering of higher mortality rates, due living in remote locations rather than on cities and towns founded by the Spanish colonists or being at war with them. It is also for these reasons that the number of Indigenous Mexicans presents the greater variation range between publications, as in cases their numbers in a given location were estimated rather than counted, leading to possible overestimations in some provinces and possible underestimations in others.
|Intendecy/territory||European population (%)||Indigenous population (%)||Mestizo population (%)|
|San Luis Potosi||13.0%||51.2%||35.7%|
~Europeans are included within the Mestizo category.
Regardless of the possible imprecisions related to the counting of Indigenous peoples living outside the colonized areas, the effort that New Spain's authorities put on considering them as subjects is worth mentioning, as censuses made by other colonial or post-colonial countries did not consider American Indians to be citizens/subjects, as example the censuses made by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata would only count the inhabitants of the colonized settlements. Other example would be the censuses made by the United States, that did not include Indigenous peoples living among the general population until 1860, and indigenous peoples as a whole until 1900.
Made right after the consumation of the Mexican revolution, the social context on which this census was made makes it particularly unique, as the government of the time was in the process of rebuilding the country and was looking forward to unite all Mexicans under a single national identity. The 1921 census' final results in regards to race, which assert that 59.3% of the Mexican population self-identified as Mestizo, 29.1% as Indigenous and only 9.8% as White were then essential to cement the "mestizaje" ideology (that asserts that the Mexican population as a whole is product of the admixture of all races) which shaped Mexican identity and culture through the 20th century and remain prominent nowadays, with extraofficial international publications such as The World Factbook and Encyclopædia Britannica using them as a reference to estimate Mexico's racial composition up to this day.
Nonetheless in recent times the census' results have been subjected to scrutiny by historians, academics and social activists alike, who assert that such drastic alterations on demographic trends with respect to the 1793 census are not possible and cite, among other statistics, the relatively low frequency of marriages between people of different continental ancestries in colonial and early independent Mexico. It is claimed that the "mestizaje" process sponsored by the state was more "cultural than biological" which resulted on the numbers of the Mestizo Mexican group being inflated at the expense of the identity of other races. Controversies aside, this census constituted the last time the Mexican Government conducted a comprehensive racial census with the breakdown by states being the following (foreigners and people who answered "other" not included):
|Federative Units||Mestizo Population (%)||Amerindian Population (%)||White Population (%)|
|State of Mexico||47.71%||42.13%||10.02%|
|San Luis Potosí||61.88%||30.60%||05.41%|
When the 1921 census' results are compared with the results of Mexico's recent censuses as well as with modern genetic research, high consistence is found in regards to the distribution of Indigenous Mexicans across the country, with states located in south and south-eastern Mexico having both, the highest percentages of population that self-identifies as Indigenous and the highest percentages of Amerindian genetic ancestry. However this is not the case when it comes to European Mexicans, as there are instances on which states that have been shown to have a considerably high European ancestry per scientific research are reported to have very small white populations in the 1921 census, with the most extreme case being that of the state of Durango, where the aforementioned census asserts that only 0.01% of the state's population (33 persons) self-identified as "white" while modern scientific research shows that the population of Durango has similar genetic frequences to those found on European peoples (with the state's Indigenous population showing almost no foreign admixture either). Various authors theorize that the reason for these inconsistencies may lie in the Mestizo identity promoted by the Mexican government, which reportedly led to people who are not biologically Mestizos to identify as such.
The following table is a compilation of (when possible) official nationwide surveys conducted by the Mexican government who have attempted to quantify different Mexican ethnic groups. Given that for the most part each ethnic group was estimated by different surveys, with different methodologies and years apart rather than on a single comprehensive racial census, some groups could overlap with others and be overestimated or underestimated.
|Race or ethnicity||Population (est.)||Percentage (est.)||Year|
|Foreigners residing in Mexico (of any race)||1,010,000||<1.0%||2015|
|Unclassified (most likely Mestizos)||37,300,000||30.0%||-|
Of all the ethnic groups that have been surveyed Mestizos are notably absent, which is likely due to the label's fluid and subjective definition, which complicates its precise quantification. However, it can be safely assumed that Mestizos make up at least the remaining 30% unassessed percentage of Mexico's population with possibilities of increasing if the methodologies of the extant surveys are considered. As example the 2015 intercensal survey considered as Indigenous Mexicans and Afro-Mexicans altogether individuals who self-identified as "part Indigenous" or "part African" thus, said people technically would be Mestizos. Similarly, White Mexicans were quantified based on physical traits/appearance, thus technically a Mestizo with a percentage of Indigenous ancestry that was low enough to not affect his/her primarily European phenotype was considered to be white. Finally, the remaining ethnicities, for being of a rather low number or being faiths have more permissive classification criteria, therefore a Mestizo could claim to belong to one of them by practicing the faith, or by having an ancestor who belonged to said ethnicities.
Nonetheless, contemporary sociologists and historians agree that, given that the concept of "race" has a psychological foundation rather than a biological one and to society's eyes a Mestizo with a high percentage of European ancestry is considered "white" and a Mestizo with a high percentage of Indigenous ancestry is considered "Indian", a person that identifies with a given ethnic group should be allowed to, even if biologically he doesn't completely belong to that group.
A 2006 study conducted by Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), which genotyped 104 samples, reported that mestizo Mexicans are 58.96% European, 35.05% "Asian" (primarily Amerindian), and 5.03% Other. Of the six states that participated in the Study, the state of Sonora showed the highest European ancestry being approximately 70% while the State of Guerrero presented the lowest European ancestry, at around 50%.
According to a 2009 report by the Mexican Genome Project, which sampled 300 Mexicans who self-identified as Mestizos from six Mexican states and one indigenous group, the gene pool of the Mexican Mestizo population was calculated to be 55.2% percent indigenous, 41.8% European, 1.0% African, and 1.2% Asian.
An study made by the University College London which included multiple Latin American countries and was made with collaboration of each countries' anthropology and genetics institutes reported the genetic ancestry of Mexican Mestizos was 56% Native American, 37% European and 5% African making Mexico, after Peru, the country with the highest Amerindian ancestry. Additionally, different phenotypical traits were analyzed, with the study determining that that the frequency of blond hair and light eyes in Mexicans was of 18.5% and 28.5% respectively, making Mexico also the country with the second highest frequency of blond hair in the study, the reason behind such discrepancy between phenotypical trais and genetic ancestry may lie in the fact that the samples used in Mexico's case were highly unproportional, as the northern and western regions of Mexico contain 45% of Mexico's population, but no more than 10% of the samples used in the study came from the states located in these regions. For the most part, the rest of the samples hailed from Mexico City and southern Mexican states.
An autosomal DNA study from 2015 found a similar profile "After conducting the meta-analyses, the Mexican population has a pooled 31%, 6%, and 62% of European, African, and Amerindian ancestry proportions, respectively."
An autosomal study performed in Mestizos from Mexico's three largest cities reported that Mestizos from Mexico city had an average ancestry of 50% European, 1% African and 49% Amerindian whereas Mestizos from the cities of Monterrey and Guadalajara had both a European ancestry of 60% and an indigenous ancestry of 40% in average.
An autosomal study performed in Mexicans from the states of Nuevo Leon, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi found the average indigenous ancestry to be 22% while 78% of the genetic ancestry was of Spanish/European origin.
According to an autosomal DNA study from 2004, the Mexican population from the town of Tlapa in the state of Guerrero was characterized by a large proportion of Amerindian ancestry (94.5 +/- 1.0%), with small proportions of European (4.2 +/- 0.9%) and West African (1.3 +/- 0.4%) ancestry. The town is inhabited by an indigenous ethnic group known as Tlapanecos.
A 2008 autosomal DNA study that analyzed eight different Mexican indigenous language-speaking Amerindian groups (two groups of Otomies, Tzeltales and five Nahua groups from different states) found that Mexican indigenous peoples show traces of European and African admixture with significant variation depending of the region. Tzeltales from the state of Chiapas show the highest amerindian ancestry at 93.03% whereas Nahuas from the state of Veracruz exhibit the highest European and African contributions, of 44.03% and 26.98% respectively, the median genetic admixture of the remaining populations was 75.84% amerindian, 22.50% European and 1.66% African.
An autosomal genetic study performed in the town of Metztitlan in the state of Hidalgo reported that the average genetic ancestry of the town's autoctonous (indigenous) population was 64% Amerindian, 25% European and 11% African.
An autosomal study performed in Mexico city reported that Mexican mestizos' mean ancestry was 57% European, 40% Amerindian and 3% African.
Additional studies suggests a tendency relating a higher European admixture with a higher socioeconomic status and a higher Amerindian ancestry with a lower socioeconomic status: a study made exclusively on low income Mestizos residing in Mexico City found the mean admixture to be 0.590, 0.348, and 0.062 for Amerindian, European and African respectively whereas the European admixture increased to an average of around 70% on mestizos belonging to a higher socioeconomical level.
MtDna and y DNA studies
A 2012 study published by the Journal of Human Genetics Y chromosomes found the deep paternal ancestry of the Mexican mestizo population to be predominately European (64.9%), followed by Amerindian (30.8%) and Asian(1.2%). The European Y chromosome was more prevalent in the north and west (66.7-95%) and Native American ancestry increased in the center and southeast (37-50%), the African ancestry was low and relatively homogeneous (0-8.8%). The states that participated in this study where Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Veracruz and Yucatán. The largest amount of chromosomes found were identified as belonging to the haplogroups from Western Europe, East Europe and Eurasia, Siberia and the Americas and Northern Europe with relatively smaller traces of haplogroups from Central Asia, South-east Asia, South-central Asia, Western Asia, The Caucasus, North Africa, Near East, East Asia, North-east Asia, South-west Asia and the Middle East.
In 2011 a large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans revealed 85 to 90% of mtDNA lineages of Native American origin, with the remainder having European (5-7%) or African ancestry (3-5%). Thus the observed frequency of Native American mtDNA in Mexican/Mexican American Mestizos is higher than was expected on the basis of autosomal estimates of Native American admixture for these populations i.e. ~ 30-46% An autosomal ancestry study performed on Mexico city reported that the European ancestry of Mexicans was 52% with the rest being Amerindian and a small African contribution, additionally maternal ancestry was analyzed, with 47% being of European origin. The only criteria for sample selection was that the volunteers self-identified as Mexicans.
Mexicans are linguistically diverse, with many speaking European languages as well as various Indigenous Mexican Languages. Spanish is spoken by approximately 92.17% of Mexicans as their first language making them the largest Spanish speaking group in the world followed by Colombia (45,273,925), Spain (41,063,259) and Argentina (40,134,425). Although the great majority speak Spanish de facto the second most populous language among Mexicans is English due to the regional proximity of the United States which calls for a bilingual relationship in order to conduct business and trade as well as the migration of Mexicans into that country who adopt it as a second language.
Mexican Spanish is distinct in dialect, tone and syntax to the Peninsular Spanish spoken in Spain. It contains a large amount of loan words from indigenous languages, mostly from the Nahuatl language such as: "chocolate", "tomate", "mezquite", "chile", and "coyote".
Mexico has no official de jure language, but as of 2003 it recognizes 68 indigenous Amerindian languages as "national languages" along with Spanish which are protected under Mexican National law giving indigenous peoples the entitlement to request public services and documents in their native languages. The law also includes other Amerindian languages regardless of origin, that is, it includes the Amerindian languages of other ethnic groups that are non-native to the Mexican national territory. As such, Mexico's National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples recognizes the language of the Kickapoo who immigrated from the United States, and recognizes the languages of Guatemalan Amerindian refugees. The most numerous indigenous language spoken by Mexicans is Nahuatl which is spoken by 1.7% of the population in Mexico over the age of 5. Approximately 6,044,547 Mexicans (5.4%) speak an indigenous language according to the 2000 Census in Mexico. There are also Mexicans living abroad which speak indigenous languages mostly in the United States but their number is unknown.
Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain, imparted during Spain's 300-year colonization of Mexico. Exogenous cultural elements mainly from the United States have been incorporated into Mexican culture.
The Porfirian era (el Porfiriato), in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. After four decades of civil unrest and war, Mexico saw the development of philosophy and the arts, promoted by President Díaz himself. Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution, cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje, of which the indigenous (i.e. Amerindian) element is the core. In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races (thus extending the definition of the mestizo) not only biologically but culturally as well. This exalting of mestizaje was a revolutionary idea that sharply contrasted with the idea of a superior pure race prevalent in Europe at the time.
The literature of Mexico has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Outstanding writers and poets from the Spanish period include Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Juana Inés de la Cruz.
In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races, biologically as well as culturally.
Other writers include Alfonso Reyes, José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Carlos Fuentes, Octavio Paz (Nobel Laureate), Renato Leduc, Carlos Monsiváis, Elena Poniatowska, Mariano Azuela ("Los de abajo") and Juan Rulfo ("Pedro Páramo"). Bruno Traven wrote "Canasta de cuentos mexicanos", "El tesoro de la Sierra Madre."
The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in 1910, and the university become one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico. UNAM provides world class education in science, medicine, and engineering. Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936), were established during the first half of the 20th century. Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from 1929 to 1973. In 1959, the Mexican Academy of Sciences was created to coordinate scientific efforts between academics.
In 1995 the Mexican chemist Mario J. Molina shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Paul J. Crutzen and F. Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Molina, an alumnus of UNAM, became the first Mexican citizen to win the Nobel Prize in science.
In recent years, the largest scientific project being developed in Mexico was the construction of the Large Millimeter Telescope (Gran Telescopio Milimétrico, GMT), the world's largest and most sensitive single-aperture telescope in its frequency range. It was designed to observe regions of space obscured by stellar dust.
Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Traditional music includes Mariachi, Banda, Norteño, Ranchera and Corridos; on an everyday basis most Mexicans listen to contemporary music such as pop, rock, etc. in both English and Spanish. Mexico has the largest media industry in Hispanic America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.
Some well-known Mexican singers are Thalía, Luis Miguel, Alejandro Fernández, Julieta Venegas and Paulina Rubio. Mexican singers of traditional music are Lila Downs, Susana Harp, Jaramar, GEO Meneses and Alejandra Robles. Popular groups are Café Tacuba, Molotov and Maná, among others. Since the early years of the 2000s (decade), Mexican rock has seen widespread growth both domestically and internationally.
Mexican films from the Golden Age in the 1940s and 1950s are the greatest examples of Hispanic American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years. Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Hispanic America and Europe. Maria Candelaria (1944) by Emilio Fernández, was one of the first films awarded a Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1946, the first time the event was held after World War II. The famous Spanish-born director Luis Buñuel realized in Mexico, between 1947 and 1965 some of his master pieces like Los Olvidados (1949), Viridiana (1961) and El angel exterminador (1963). Famous actors and actresses from this period include María Félix, Pedro Infante, Dolores del Río, Jorge Negrete and the comedian Cantinflas.
More recently, films such as Como agua para chocolate (1992), Cronos (1993), Y tu mamá también (2001), and Pan's Labyrinth (2006) have been successful in creating universal stories about contemporary subjects, and were internationally recognised, as in the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Mexican directors Alejandro González Iñárritu (Amores perros, Babel, Birdman), Alfonso Cuarón (Children of Men, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Gravity), Guillermo del Toro (Pacific Rim), Carlos Carrera (The Crime of Father Amaro), and screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga are some of the most known present-day film makers.
Post-revolutionary art in Mexico had its expression in the works of renowned artists such as Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Rufino Tamayo, Federico Cantú Garza, David Alfaro Siqueiros and Juan O'Gorman. Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin. Some of Rivera's murals are displayed at the Mexican National Palace and the Palace of Fine Arts.
For the artistic relevance of many of Mexico's architectural structures, including entire sections of prehispanic and colonial cities, have been designated World Heritage. The country has the first place in number of sites declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the Americas.
Mexico has no official religion, and the Constitution of 1917 imposed limitations on the church and sometimes codified state intrusion into church matters. The government does not provide financial contributions to the church, nor does the church participate in public education. However, Christmas is a national holiday and every year during Easter and Christmas all schools in Mexico, public and private, send their students on vacation.
In 1992, Mexico lifted almost all restrictions on the religions, including granting all religious groups legal status, conceding them limited property, and lifting restrictions on the number of priests in the country. Until recently, priests did not have the right to vote, and even now they cannot be elected to public office.
The Catholic Church is the dominant religion in Mexico, with about 82.7% of the population as of 2010. In recent decades the number of Catholics has been declining, due to the growth of other Christian denominations (especially various Protestant churches and Mormonism), which now constitute 9.7% of the population, and non-Christian religions. Despite this, conversion to non-Catholic denominations has been considerably slower than in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Movements of return and revival of the indigenous Mesoamerican religions (Mexicayotl, Toltecayotl) have also appeared in recent decades. Islam and Buddhism have both made limited inroads, through immigration and conversion.
- List of Mexicans
- List of Mexican actors
- Latin peoples
- Immigration to Mexico
- Emigration from Mexico
- Mexican cuisine
- Mexican nobility
- Languages of Mexico
- Gómez M., et al. Historia de México: Texto de Consulta Para Educación Media Superior. Mexico: Limusa, 2006.
- Moot Rodriguez, Modern History of Mexico, Universidad de Chan, Mexico, 2002.
- Knight, Alan. 1990. "Racism, Revolution and indigenismo: Mexico 1910–1940". Chapter 4 in The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940. Richard Graham (ed.) pp. 71–113.
- Wade, Peter. 1997. Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. Pluto Press.
- Bartolomé, Miguel Alberto. (1996) "Pluralismo cultural y redefinicion del estado en México". in Coloquio sobre derechos indígenas, Oaxaca, IOC.
- Friedlander, Judith. 1975. Being Indian in Hueyapan: A Study of Forced Identity in Contemporary Mexico. New York: Saint Martin's Press.
- "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF). INEGI. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Mexicanos en el Mundo". Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior (IME). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- , National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
- Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior 2010 Archived 13 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Anzahl der Ausländer in Deutschland nach Herkunftsland (Stand: 31. Dezember 2014)".
- "Bolivia - Censo de Población y Vivienda 2001". Archived from the original on 14 October 2008.
- "Mexicans seek sanctuary in Australia". Sydney Morning Herald. 12 February 2011.
- Japan Statistics Bureau Archived 25 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "North America :: MEXICO". CIA The World Factbook.
- US Census Bureau 2016 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved September 14, 2017.
- "Tenochtitlán, la capital azteca". www.historiang.com. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Wimmer, Andreas, 2002. Nationalist exclusion and ethnic conflict: shadows of modernity, Cambridge University Press page 115
- "Encuesta Intercensal 2015", "INEGI", Mexico, December 2015. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2015-12-12.
- "Los mexicanos en Estados Unidos: La importancia de sus contribuciones" (PDF). Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Aguilar-Moreno, Manuel (2006). Handbook to Life in the Aztec World. Facts of Life. p. 19. ISBN 0-8160-5673-0.
- "Nombre del Estado de México" (in Spanish). Government of the State of Mexico. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2007.
- Wade (1981:32)
- Knight (1990:78–85)
- "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Academic investigation (in Spanish). university of the State of Mexico. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Bartolomé, Miguel Alberto (1996). "Pluralismo cultural y redefinicion del estado en México". in Coloquio sobre derechos indígenas" (PDF). Oaxaca: IOC. p. 2.
En primer lugar cabe destacar que en México la pertenencia racial no es un indicador relevante ni suficiente para denotar una adscripción étnica específica. [...] Por lo tanto es relativamente factible realizar el llamado tránsito étnico, es decir que un indígena puede llegar a incorporarse al sector mestizo a través de la renuncia a su cultura tradicional y si sus condiciones materiales se lo permiten.
- Knight, Alan (1 September 2010). "The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940". In Richard Graham. The Idea of Race in Latin America: 1870-1940. University of Texas Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-292-78888-6. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Schaefer, Richard T. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. Sage. p. 900. ISBN 978-1-4129-2694-2.
In New Spain, there was no strict idea of race (something that continued in Mexico). The Indians that had lost their connections with their communities and had adopted different cultural elements could "pass" and be considered mestizos. The same applied to Blacks and castas.
- Wade, Peter (20 May 1997). Race And Ethnicity In Latin America. Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-0987-3. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Bartolomé (1996:2)
- Wade (1997:44–47)
- Bartolomé (1996:5)
- "Mexico- Ethnic groups". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- en el censo de 1930 el gobierno mexicano dejó de clasificar a la población del país en tres categorías raciales, blanco, mestizo e indígena, y adoptó una nueva clasificación étnica que distinguía a los hablantes de lenguas indígenas del resto de la población, es decir de los hablantes de español. Archived 2013-08-23 at the Wayback Machine.
- "El archivo del estudio de racismo en Mexico".
- "El mestizaje en Mexico" (PDF).
- en el año de 1808 aproximadamente el 60% de la población de lo que sería México pertenecía a la categoría étnica de indígena, el 18% eran europeos o de origen europeo (de los cuales la inmensa mayoría eran criollos nacidos en México) Archived 23 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine..
- "Encyclopedia Britannica: Mexico Ethnic groups".
- "21 de Marzo Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial" pag.7, CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Encuesta Nacional Sobre Discriminación en Mexico", "CONAPRED", Mexico DF, June 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "DOCUMENTO INFORMATIVO SOBRE DISCRIMINACIÓN RACIAL EN MÉXICO", CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March 2011, retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- Sherburne Friend Cook; Woodrow Borah (1998). Ensayos sobre historia de la población. México y el Caribe 2. Siglo XXI. p. 223. ISBN 9789682301063. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- "Ser mestizo en la nueva España a fines del siglo XVIII. Acatzingo, 1792", Scielo, Jujuy, November 2000. Retrieved on 01 July 2017.
- Howard F. Cline (1963). THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO. Harvard University Press. p. 104. ISBN 9780674497061. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- http://www.elsiglodetorreon.com.mx/noticia/123878[permanent dead link]. Los-indios-barbaros-de.html
- Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas Archived 11 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas – México".
- "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas – México". Archived from the original on 26 September 2007.
- "Indicadores seleccionados sobre la población hablante de lengua indígena, 1950 a 2005". Inegi.gob.mx. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Knight (1990:73-74)
- Bartolomé (1996:3-4)
- "Síntesis de Resultados" (PDF). Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- Defined as persons who live in a household where an indigenous language is spoken by one of the adult family members, and or people who self identified as indigenous ("Criteria del hogar: De esta manera, se establece, que los hogares indígenas son aquellos en donde el jefe y/o el cónyuge y/o padre o madre del jefe y/o suegro o suegra del jefe hablan una lengua indígena y también aquellos que declararon pertenecer a un grupo indígena.")AND persons who speak an indigenous language but who do not live in such a household (Por lo antes mencionado, la Comisión Nacional Para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas de México (CDI) considera población indígena (PI) a todas las personas que forman parte de un hogar indígena, donde el jefe(a) del hogar, su cónyuge y/o alguno de los ascendientes (madre o padre, madrastra o padrastro, abuelo(a), bisabuelo(a), tatarabuelo(a), suegro(a)) declaro ser hablante de lengua indígena. Además, también incluye a personas que declararon hablar alguna lengua indígena y que no forman parte de estos hogares )
- "INEGI: Cada vez más mexicanos hablan una lengua indígena – Nacional – CNNMéxico.com". Mexico.cnn.com. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas – México".
- "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- [page needed]"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Arab Influence in Yucatecan Cuisine – Mexico Culture – Arab Influence in Yucatecan Cuisine, Culture". 16 March 2008. Archived from the original on 16 March 2008.
- Marin-Guzman, Roberto and Zidane Zeraoui. Arab Immigration in Mexico in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Assimilation and Arab Heritage. (Book Review) Industry & Business Article – Research, News, Information, Contacts, Divisions, Subsidiaries, Business Associations
- Tatiana Seijas (2014). Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico: From Chinos to Indian. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9781107063129.
- Leslie Bethell (1984). Leslie Bethell, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of Latin America: Colonial Latin America. I-II (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0521245168.
- Ignacio López-Calvo (2013). The Affinity of the Eye: Writing Nikkei in Peru. Fernando Iwasaki. University of Arizona Press. p. 134. ISBN 0816599874.
- Dirk Hoerder (2002). Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium. Andrew Gordon, Alexander Keyssar, Daniel James. Duke University Press. p. 200. ISBN 0822384078.
- Buchenau, Jürgen (Spring 2001). "Small Numbers, Great Impact: Mexico and Its Immigrants, 1821-1973" (PDF). Journal of American Ethnic History. 20 (3): 35.
- , pages 40-43.
- Frudakis, Tony Nick (2008). Molecular photofitting: predicting ancestry and phenotype using DNA. Elsevier. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-12-088492-6.
- Bartolomé (1996:2)" fundadores de una "nación mexicana"."
- Knight (1990:74)
- "censo General de la Republica Mexicana 1895", "INEGI", Mexico, Retrieved on 24 July 2017.
- "Consideraciones sobre la población de la Nueva España (1793-1810)", El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, Retrieved on 24 July 2017.
- Historical Dictionary of Argentina. London: Scarecrow Press, 1978. pp. 239–40.
- "American Indians in the Federal Decennial Census", Retrieved on 25 July 2017.
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). "North America: Mexico". The World Factbook. Ethnic groups:. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
- Cite error: The named reference
Britannicawas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "El mestizaje es un mito, la identidad cultural sí importa" Istmo, Mexico, Retrieved on 25 July 2017.
- "Más desindianización que mestizaje. Una relectura de los censos generales de población" INAH, Mexico, Retrieved on 25 July 2017.
- DEPARTAMENTO DE LA ESTADISTICA NACIONAL Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. CENSO GENERAL DE HABITANTES 1921 Census (Page: 62)
- "El impacto del mestizaje en México", "Investigación y Ciencia", Spain, October 2013. Retrieved on 01 June 2017.
- Sosa-Macías, Martha (2006). "CYP2D6Genotype and Phenotype in Amerindians of Tepehuano Origin and Mestizos of Durango, Mexico". The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 46: 527–536. doi:10.1177/0091270006287586.
- "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Academic investigation (in Spanish). university of the State of Mexico. 2005. p. 196. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- El mestizaje y las culturas regionales Archived 23 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine..
- "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF). INEGI. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "La Música de Guerrero (Del atabal a la flauta, el son y el zapateado)". Gobierno del Estado de Guerrero. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- [page needed]"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
- "Panorama de las religiones en México 2010" (PDF) (in Spanish). INEGI. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "El número de católicos en México v a la baja; aumentan los ateos y de otras religiones", "Animal político", Mexico, February 2016. Retrieved on 03 August 2017.
- "Mexico cuenta con 123.5 millones de habitantes", Retrieved on 26 July 2017.
- "El mestizaje en Mexico" (PDF).
- Wang, S; Ray, N; Rojas, W; et al. (21 March 2008). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos". PLOS Genetics. 4: e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. PMC . PMID 18369456. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- J.K. Estrada; A. Hidalgo-Miranda; I. Silva-Zolezzi; G. Jimenez-Sanchez. "Evaluation of Ancestry and Linkage Disequilibrium Sharing in Admixed Population in Mexico". ASHG. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico Silva-Zolezzi I, Hidalgo-Miranda A, Estrada-Gil J, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Uribe-Figueroa L, Contreras A, Balam-Ortiz E, del Bosque-Plata L, Velazquez Fernandez D, Lara C, Goya R, Hernandez-Lemus E, Davila C, Barrientos E, March S, Jimenez-Sanchez G. | National Institute of Genomic Medicine| 26 May 2009 "In this model, their mean ancestries (±Standard Deviation) were 0.552 ±0.154 for AMI, 0.418 ±0.155 for EUR, 0.018 ±0.035 for AFR, and 0.012 ±0.018 for EA"
- "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals" table 1, Plosgenetics, 25 September 2014. Retrieved on 9 May 2017.
- Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; De Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva De Cerqueira, Caio C.; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; De Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; et al. (2014). "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals". PLoS Genetics. 10 (9): e1004572. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004572. PMC . PMID 25254375.
- "Meta-analysis of Brazilian genetic admixture and comparison with other Latin America countries (PDF Download Available)".
- Cerda-Flores, RM; Villalobos-Torres, MC; Barrera-Saldaña, HA; Cortés-Prieto, LM; Barajas, LO; Rivas, F; Carracedo, A; Zhong, Y; Barton, SA; Chakraborty, R (2002). "Genetic admixture in three Mexican Mestizo populations based on D1S80 and HLA-DQA1 loci". Am J Hum Biol. 14 (2): 257–63. doi:10.1002/ajhb.10020. PMID 11891937.
- Cerda-Flores, RM; Kshatriya, GK; Barton, SA; Leal-Garza, CH; Garza-Chapa, R; Schull, WJ; Chakraborty, R (Jun 1991). "Genetic structure of the populations migrating from San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas to Nuevo León in Mexico". Hum Biol. 63: 309–27. PMID 2055589.
- Parra, E. J.; Kittles, R. A.; Shriver, M. D. (26 October 2004). "Implications of correlations between skin color and genetic ancestry for biomedical research". Nat Genet. 36: S54–S60. doi:10.1038/ng1440 – via www.nature.com.
- Buentello-Malo, L; Peñaloza-Espinosa, RI; Salamanca-Gómez, F; Cerda-Flores, RM (2008). "Genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations: based on five polymarker, HLA-DQA1, ABO, and RH loci". Am J Hum Biol. 20: 647–50. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20747. PMID 18770527.
- Gorostiza, A; González-Martín, A; Ramírez, CL; Sánchez, C; Barrot, C; Ortega, M; Huguet, E; Corbella, J; Gené, M (2007). "Allele frequencies of the 15 AmpF/Str Identifiler loci in the population of Metztitlán (Estado de Hidalgo), México". Forensic Sci Int. 166: 230–2. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.12.007. PMID 16436322.
- Wang, S; Ray, N; Rojas, W; et al. (21 March 2008). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos". PLOS Genetics. 4: e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. PMC . PMID 18369456. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Lisker, Rubén (27 May 2005). "Racial admixture in a Mestizo population from Mexico City". American Journal of Human Biology. 7: 213–216. doi:10.1002/ajhb.1310070210. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- In the total population sample, paternal ancestry was predominately European (64.9%), followed by Native American (30.8%) and African (4.2%). However, the European ancestry was prevalent in the north and west (66.7–95%) and, conversely, Native American ancestry increased in the center and southeast (37–50%), whereas the African ancestry was low and relatively homogeneous (0–8.8%), Journal of Human Genetics.
- Martínez-Cortés, G; Salazar-Flores, J; Fernández-Rodríguez, LG; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Rodríguez-Loya, C; Velarde-Félix, JS; Muñoz-Valle, JF; Parra-Rojas, I; Rangel-Villalobos, H (2012). "Journal of Human Genetics – Figure 3 for article: Admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on paternal lineages". J. Hum. Genet. 57: 568–74. doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.67. PMID 22832385.
- Martínez-Cortés, G; Salazar-Flores, J; Fernández-Rodríguez, LG; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Rodríguez-Loya, C; Velarde-Félix, JS; Muñoz-Valle, JF; Parra-Rojas, I; Rangel-Villalobos, H (2012). "Journal of Human Genetics – Figure 2 for article: Admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on paternal lineages". J. Hum. Genet. 57: 568–74. doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.67. PMID 22832385.
- "Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins". 7 October 2011.
- Price, AL; Patterson, N; Yu, F; Cox, DR; Waliszewska, A; McDonald, GJ; Tandon, A; Schirmer, C; Neubauer, J; Bedoya, G; Duque, C; Villegas, A; Bortolini, MC; Salzano, FM; Gallo, C; Mazzotti, G; Tello-Ruiz, M; Riba, L; Aguilar-Salinas, CA; Canizales-Quinteros, S; Menjivar, M; Klitz, W; Henderson, B; Haiman, CA; Winkler, C; Tusie-Luna, T; Ruiz-Linares, A; Reich, D (2007). "A genomewide admixture map for Latino populations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80: 1024–36. doi:10.1086/518313. PMC . PMID 17503322.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. "Spanish language – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "www.ine.es Spanish population 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- "Spanish Language History and Main Spanish-Speaking Countries". Todaytranslations.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "Constitución Política De Los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "Microsoft Word – 257" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "Kikapúes — Kikaapoa". CDI México. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- "Aguacatecos, cakchiqueles, ixiles, kekchíes, tecos y quichés". CDI México. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- "Perfil sociodemográfico de la población hablante de náhuatl" (PDF). Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "Can a Mother Lose Her Child Because She Doesn't Speak English?". Time. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- Vasconcelos, José (1997). La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race). Didier T. Jaén (trans.). The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-8018-5655-8.
- Coerver, Pasztor & Buffington (2004), p. 161
- Summerfield, Devine & Levi (1998), p. 285
- Summerfield, Devine & Levi (1998), p. 286
- Forest & Altbach (2006), p. 882
- Fortes & Lomnitz (1990), p. 18
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
- Thomson, Elizabeth A. (18 October 1995). "Molina wins Nobel Prize for ozone work". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
- [page needed]Unravelling unidentified γ-ray sources with the large millimeter telescope, Alberto Carramiñana and the LMT-GTM collaboration, in The Multi-Messenger Approach to High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources, Josep M. Paredes, Olaf Reimer, and Diego F. Torres, eds., Springer Netherlands, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4020-6117-2.
- "Rockefeller Controversy". Diego Rivera Prints. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- 2010 census.
- "Mexico". International Religious Report. U.S. Department of State. 2003. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- Yolotl González Torres. The Revival of Mexican Religions: The Impact of Nativism. Numen. Vol. 43, No. 1 (Jan. 1996), pp. 1-31
- Zotero Citlalcoatl. AMOXTLI YAOXOCHIMEH.
- Navarrete Linares, Federico (2008). Los pueblos indígenas de México (PDF online facsimile). Pueblos Indígenas del México Contemporáneo series (in Spanish). México, D.F.: Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. ISBN 978-970-753-157-4. OCLC 319215886.
- Satish Kumar, Claire Bellis, Mark Zlojutro, Phillip E Melton, John Blangero and Joanne E Curran (2011). Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins (PDF).