In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are neither legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like counties or separate entities such as states; as such, the precise definition of any given metropolitan area can vary with the source. A typical metropolitan area is centered on a single large city that wields substantial influence over the region (e.g., New York City or Philadelphia). However, some metropolitan areas contain more than one large city with no single municipality holding a substantially dominant position (e.g., Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Norfolk-Virginia Beach (Hampton Roads), Riverside–San Bernardino (Inland Empire) or Minneapolis–Saint Paul (Twin Cities)). MSAs are defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and used by the Census Bureau and other federal government agencies for statistical purposes.
U.S. Census statistics for metropolitan areas are reported according to the following definitions.
The U.S. Office of Management and Budget defines a set of core based statistical areas (CBSAs) throughout the country. CBSAs are delineated on the basis of a central urban area or urban cluster – in other words: a contiguous area of relatively high population density. CBSAs are composed of counties and county equivalents. The counties containing the core urban area are known as the central counties of the CBSA. A central county is a county in which 50% of its population lives in urban areas of at least 10,000 in population, or where a population of 5,000 are located in an urban of at least 10,000 in population. Additional surrounding counties, known as outlying counties, can be included in the CBSA if these counties have strong social and economic ties to the central counties as measured by commuting and employment. Outlying counties are included in the CBSA if the employment interchange measure (total of in- and out-commuting) is 25% or more, although these numbers are estimates and exceptions are made. Some areas within these outlying counties may be rural in nature. All counties in a CBSA must be contiguous, and a county can only be included within one CBSA. In New England, towns have precedence over counties, so statistically similar areas are defined in terms of town-based units known as New England city and town areas (NECTAs).
Adjacent CBSAs are merged into a single CBSA when the central county or counties of one CBSA qualify as an outlying county or counties to the other CBSAs. One or more CBSAs may be grouped together to form a larger statistical entity known as a combined statistical area (CSA) when the employment interchange measure reaches 15% or more.
As well as MSAs, CBSAs are also subdivided into micropolitan statistical areas (μSAs) for CBSAs built around an urban cluster of at least 10,000 in population but less than 50,000 in population. Previous terms that are no longer used include standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) and primary metropolitan statistical area (PMSA).
- United States of America
- Demographics of the United States
- United States Census Bureau
- United States Office of Management and Budget
- Nussle, Jim (Nov 20, 2008). "Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-04.
- Census Geographic Glossary, U.S. Census Bureau
- "Office of Management & Budget, 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas; Notice" (PDF). U.S. Government Publishing Office. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 February 2010.