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|Archduke of Austria|
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
|Archduke of Further Austria|
|Reign||26 June 1612 – 2 November 1618|
|King of Poland|
Grand Duke of Lithuania
|Reign||27 September 1587 – 9 March 1589|
|Successor||Sigismund III Vasa|
|Born||12 October 1558|
Wiener Neustadt, Austria
|Died||2 November 1618 (aged 60)|
|Father||Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Maria of Spain|
Maximilian III of Austria, briefly known as Maximilian of Poland during his claim for the Throne (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618) was the Archduke of Further Austria from 1612 until his death.
Born in Wiener Neustadt, Maximilian was the fourth son of the emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. He was a grandson of Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter and heiress of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, who himself was the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland from the Jagiellonian Dynasty.
In 1587 Maximilian stood as a candidate for the throne of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, following the death of the previous king, Stefan Batory. A portion of the Polish nobility elected Maximilian king, but, as a result of the rather chaotic nature of the election process, another candidate, Sigismund III Vasa, prince of Sweden, grandson of Sigismund I the Old, was also elected. Maximilian attempted to resolve the dispute by bringing a military force to Poland – thereby starting the war of the Polish Succession. His cause had considerable support in Poland, but fewer Poles flocked to his army than to that of his rival. After a failed attempt to storm Kraków in late 1587, he was defeated in January 1588, at Pitschen in Silesia (Battle of Byczyna) by the supporters of Sigismund III (who had since been formally crowned), under the command of Polish hetman Jan Zamojski. Maximilian was taken captive at the battle and was only released a year and half later after the intervention of Pope Sixtus V in the aftermath of the Treaty of Bytom and Będzin. In 1589, he formally renounced his claim to the Polish crown. The inactivity of his brother, the emperor Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor in this matter contributed to Rudolf's poor reputation.
From 1593 to 1595 Maximilian served as regent for his young cousin, Ferdinand, Archduke of Inner Austria. In 1595 he succeeded their uncle Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria in his territories, including Tyrol, where he proved to be a solid proponent of the Counter-Reformation. He also worked to depose Melchior Khlesl, and to ensure that Archduke Ferdinand of Inner Austria, his former charge, succeed as Holy Roman Emperor.
He died at Vienna in 1618, and is buried in the canopied tomb in Innsbruck Cathedral.
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- In fact, originally the titles Hochmeister ("Grandmaster") and Deutschmeister ("German Master") were different: while Grandmaster was the highest order dignitary, the German Master was the third highest and territorially restricted to area of the Holy Roman Empire (apart from Prussia and Livonia) where he administered its respective bailiwicks. But after 1561 those ranks were united and the Deutschmeister became Grandmaster.
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Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria
Archduke Mathias, his elder brother
| Governor of Tirol
Archduke of Further Austria
Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria
his first cousin
Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria
| Regent of Styria
Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria
Heinrich von Bobenhausen
| Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
Archduke Charles III of Austria