|Marvel Enterprises (1998–2005)|
Marvel Entertainment Group
|Founded||June 2, 1998|
Number of employees
|400–500 (2019)|
|Parent||The Walt Disney Company|
|Footnotes / references|
Marvel Entertainment, LLC (formerly Marvel Enterprises and Toy Biz, Inc., and marketed and stylized as MARVEL) is an American entertainment company founded in June 1998 and based in New York City, formed by the merger of Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. and ToyBiz. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company, and is mainly known for its comic books by Marvel Comics, as well as its forays into films with the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Entertainment for US$4 billion; it has been a limited liability company (LLC) since then. For financial reporting purposes, Marvel is primarily reported as part of Disney's Consumer Products segment ever since Marvel Studios' reorganization from Marvel Entertainment into Walt Disney Studios.
Over the years, Marvel Entertainment has entered into several partnerships and negotiations with other companies across a variety of businesses. As of 2019[update], Marvel has film licensing agreements with Sony Pictures (for Spider-Man films) and Universal Pictures (a right of first refusal to pick up the distribution rights to any future Hulk films produced by Marvel Studios), and theme park licensing agreements with IMG Worlds of Adventure and Universal Parks & Resorts (for specific Marvel character rights at Islands of Adventure and Universal Studios Japan). Aside from their contract with Universal Parks & Resorts, Marvel's characters and properties have also appeared at Disney Parks.
Marvel Entertainment Group
|Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.|
|Fate||Business operations merged with Toy Biz|
|Predecessor||Marvel Comics Group|
|Founded||December 2, 1986|
|Defunct||June 2, 1998|
|Footnotes / references|
Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. (Marvel or MEG), incorporated on December 2, 1986, and included Marvel Comics and Marvel Productions. That year, it was sold to New World Entertainment Ltd as part of the liquidation of Cadence Industries. On January 6, 1989, Ronald Perelman's MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings bought Marvel Entertainment Group from New World for $82.5 million. The deal did not include Marvel Productions, which was folded into New World's TV and movie business.
"It is a mini-Disney in terms of intellectual property," said Perelman. "Disney's got much more highly recognized characters and softer characters, whereas our characters are termed action heroes. But at Marvel we are now in the business of the creation and marketing of characters."
Public offering and acquisition
Marvel made an initial public offering of 40% of the stock (ticker symbol NYSE:MRV) on July 15, 1991, giving $40 million from the proceeds to Andrews Group, Marvel's then direct parent corporation within MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings.
In the early 1990s, Marvel Entertainment Group began expanding though acquisitions and the formation of new divisions. Marvel purchased the trading card company Fleer on July 24, 1992. On April 30, 1993, Marvel acquired 46% of ToyBiz, which gave the company the rights to make Marvel toys. The Andrews Group named Avi Arad of ToyBiz as the president and CEO of the Marvel Films division.
In 1993 and 1994, Marvel's holding companies, Marvel Holdings, Inc. and Marvel Parent Holdings, Inc., were formed between Andrews Group and MEG. The companies issued over half a billion dollars in bonds under the direction of Perelman, which was passed up in dividends to Perelman's group of companies. Marvel acquired Panini Group, an Italian sticker-maker, and Heroes World Distribution, a regional distributor to comic-book shops, in 1994. It acquired trading card company SkyBox International in 1995.
Marvel's attempt to distribute its products directly led to a decrease in sales and aggravated the losses which Marvel suffered when the comic book bubble popped, the 1994 Major League Baseball strike massacred the profits of the Fleer unit, and Panini, whose revenue depended largely on Disney licensing, was hobbled by poor Disney showings at the box office.
Bankruptcy and Marvel Studios
In late 1995, Marvel reported its first annual loss under Perelman, which was attributed mainly to the company's large size and a shrinking market. On January 4, 1996 Marvel laid off 275 employees.
In late 1996, Perelman proposed a plan to save Marvel in which the company would merge with Toy Biz after Perelman spent $350 million for the Toy Biz shares that he didn't already own. He would then receive newly issued Marvel shares to maintain his 80 percent stake.
Separately, in July 1996, Marvel filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to raise money to create a private entity called Marvel Studios. Much of the money to create Marvel Studios came from the sale of Toy Biz stock.
In December 1996, the Marvel group of companies filed for bankruptcy. At this time, Carl Icahn, an American businessman and investor, began buying Marvel's bonds at 20% of their value and moved to block Perelman's plan. In February 1997, Icahn won the bankruptcy court's approval to take control of the company's stock. Later, in June 1997, Icahn won the right to replace Marvel's board, including Perelman.
In December 1997, during the post-bankruptcy reorganization phase, Toy Biz came to an agreement to purchase Marvel from the banks. In December 1997, the bankruptcy court appointed a trustee to oversee the company in place of Icahn. In April 1998, while the legal battle continued, the NYSE delisted Marvel stock.
In August 2008, former company head Ronald Perelman paid $80 million to settle a lawsuit accusing him of helping divert $553.5 million in notes when he controlled the company.
ToyBiz and Marvel Entertainment Group were merged into Marvel Enterprises to bring it out of bankruptcy on June 2, 1998. In February 1999, Fleer/Skybox was sold to a corporation owned by Alex and Roger Grass, a father and son, for US$30 million.
Later, the rights to names like "Spider-Man" were being challenged. Toy Biz hired an attorney to review its license agreement. Los Angeles patent attorney Carole E. Handler found a legal loophole in the licensing of the Marvel name and was successful in reclaiming Marvel Enterprises' movie rights to its character Spider-Man.
Marvel Enterprise organized itself into four major units, Marvel Studios, Toy Biz, Licensing and Publishing, while in November 1999 adding Marvel Characters Group to manage Marvel's IP and oversee marketing. Marvel named its Marvel New Media president, Steve Milo, in November 2000 to oversee its website.
In 2003, Bill Stine purchased back Quest Aerospace, a 1995 Toy Biz acquisition, from Marvel. In summer 2003, Marvel placed an offer for Artisan Entertainment. A new unit, Marvel International, was set up in London under a president, Bruno Maglione, to extend the company's operation and presence in major overseas markets in November 2003. In December 2003, Marvel Entertainment acquired Cover Concepts from Hearst Communications, Inc. In November 2004, Marvel consolidated its children's sleepwear-apparel licensing business with American Marketing Enterprises, Inc.
In November 2004, the corporation sued South Korea-based NCSoft Corp. and San Jose, California-based Cryptic Studios Inc. over possible trademark infringement in their City of Heroes massive multiplayer online game. Marvel settled a film-royalties lawsuit in April 2005 with its former editor-in-chief, publisher and creator, Stan Lee, paying him $10 million and negotiating an end to his royalties.
In 2007, several Stan Lee Media related groups filed lawsuits against Marvel Entertainment for $1 billion and for Lee's Marvel creations in multiple states, most of which have been dismissed. Additionally, a lawsuit over ownership of the character Ghost Rider was filed on March 30, 2007, by Gary Friedrich and Gary Friedrich Enterprises, Inc.
Disney subsidiary (2009–present)
On August 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company announced a deal to acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4 billion, with Marvel shareholders to receive $30 and approximately 0.745 Disney shares for each share of Marvel they own. The voting occurred on December 31, 2009 and the merger was approved. The acquisition of Marvel was finalized hours after the shareholder vote, therefore giving Disney full ownership of Marvel Entertainment. The company was delisted from the New York Stock Exchange under its ticker symbol (MVL), due to the closing of the deal.
On June 2, 2010 Marvel announced that it promoted Joe Quesada to Chief Creative Officer of Marvel Entertainment. In June 2010, Marvel set up a television division headed by Jeph Loeb as executive vice president. Three months later, Smith & Tinker licensed from Marvel the character rights for a superhero digital collectible game for Facebook and Apple's mobile platform. On October 1, 2010, Marvel moved its offices to a 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) suite at 135 W. 50th Street, New York City, New York, under a nine-year sublease contract.
In March 2013, Feld Entertainment agreed with Marvel to produce a Marvel Character-based live arena show. Marvel was also launching a new pop culture and lifestyle web show, “Earth’s Mightiest Show”. On August 22, 2013, Marvel Entertainment announced that it was working with Hero Ventures on The Marvel Experience, a traveling production/attraction. In April 2014, Hong Kong Disneyland announced the construction of Iron Man Experience, the first Marvel ride at any Disney theme park. It opened in 2017 and was built on a location in the park's Tomorrowland.
On September 16, 2009, the Jack Kirby estate served notices of termination to Walt Disney Studios, 20th Century Fox, Universal Pictures, Paramount Pictures, and Sony Pictures to attempt to gain control of various Silver Age Marvel characters. Marvel sought to invalidate those claims. In mid-March 2010 Kirby's estate "sued Marvel to terminate copyrights and gain profits from [Kirby's] comic creations." In July 2011, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York issued a summary judgment in favor of Marvel, which was affirmed in August 2013 by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The Kirby estate filed a petition on March 21, 2014 for a review of the case by the Supreme Court of the United States, but a settlement was reached on September 26, 2014 and the family requested that the petition be dismissed.
Marvel president of TV, publishing and brand Dan Buckley was promoted to Marvel Entertainment president in January 2017 adding games, global brand management and the franchise groups to his current responsibilities. In October 2017, Ron Richards began working at Marvel Entertainment as vice president and Managing Editor of New Media. Marvel New Media expanded into a new field with the development of a scripted podcast series, Wolverine: The Long Night, announced on December 5, 2017. Marvel and SiriusXM announced on October 22, 2019 a multi-year deal for scripted and unscripted podcast series and themed live events.
Marvel Entertainment announced a new pre-school franchise, Marvel Super Hero Adventures, in September 2017 consisting of a short-form animated series along with publishing and merchandise during "Marvel Mania" October. On December 7, 2017, Marvel announced its Marvel Rising franchise focusing on new characters as youngsters starting with animation in 2018. Marvel Comics is expected to publish material for Marvel Rising, but delayed any announcement on their material.
In May 2018, The Walt Disney Company Australia purchased eight year naming rights to Docklands Stadium from Melbourne Stadiums Limited and selected the Marvel brand as part of the name. Since September 1, 2018, the stadium has been known commercially as Marvel Stadium. A Marvel retail store and other inclusion of Marvel would be added to the stadium.
In October 2019, Marvel Studios' Kevin Feige was named Marvel Chief Creative Officer, overseeing all the creative affairs within Marvel Entertainment in addition to Marvel Studios. Under the structure, Marvel Television and Marvel Family Entertainment (animation) moved to Marvel Studios, with Marvel Entertainment president Dan Buckley reporting to Feige. With the December 2019 announcement of folding of Marvel TV into Marvel Studios came the dismissal of executives of vice president level and above in TV and animation under Feige plus the removal of Brian Crosby as creative director of Themed Entertainment for Marvel Entertainment.
The company's operating units, as of 2015, include:
- Marvel Custom Solutions division, customized comic books
- Marvel Brands, LLC
- Marvel Games, the division utilized for video game promotion and licensing of Marvel intellectual properties to video game publishers.
- Cover Concepts, Inc.
- Marvel Worldwide, Inc., publisher of Marvel Comics
- Intellectual property holding companies
- Iron Works Productions LLC, movie rights subsidiary
- Incredible Productions LLC (Delaware), movie rights subsidiary
- Marvel Characters, Inc.: subsidiary holding general rights of all Marvel Comics characters
- Marvel Characters B.V. (The Netherlands)
- Marvel International Character Holdings LLC (Delaware)
- Marvel Property, Inc. (Delaware) incorporated 12/2/1986 (formerly Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.)
- Marvel Toys, formerly Toy Biz (1984–2007)
- Marvel Merchandising department/Heroes World Distribution Co. (early 1970s–1975/1994–1996)
- Malibu Comics (1994–1997)
- Marvel Books division (c.1985)
- Marvel Comics Ltd. (1972–1995; UK subsidiary)
- Marvel Studios, LLC (1996–2015) formerly Marvel Films (1993–1996), a film and television production company; now a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Studios
- Marvel Films Animation – animation subdivision (1994–1997)
- Marvel Film Productions LLC (Delaware)
- MVL Development LLC (Delaware) rights subsidiary
- Marvel Television, Inc. (2010-2019) now a division of Marvel Studios.
- Marvel Mania Restaurant (Marvel Restaurant Venture Corp.)
- Marvel Enterprise division
- Marvel Music Groups (1981–1989) music publishing subsidiary
- Marvel Productions (1981–1989)
- Mighty Marvel Music Corporation (1981–1989) music publishing subsidiary
- Spider-Man Merchandising, L.P. (2001–2013) A joint venture of Marvel and Sony Pictures Consumer Products Inc. that owned the rights to Spider-Man movie related licensed products.
- Welsh Publishing Group: children magazine publisher
Marvel New Media
New York City
Marvel New Media (also called Marvel Digital) unit consists of the company's website, online video series and podcast. Digital shows under New Media are THWIP! The Big Marvel Show, The Marvel Minute, Marvel LIVE! and Marvel Top 10.
In October 2017, Ron Richards began working at Marvel Entertainment as vice president and Managing Editor of New Media, while Marvel Digital freelance on-air host Lorraine Cink was hired as Senior Creative Producer. Marvel New Media expanded into a new field with the development of a scripted podcast series, Wolverine: The Long Night, announced on December 5, 2017.
On April 7, 2018 at the Chicago Comic and Entertainment Expo, Marvel New Media announced its new slate. Marvel named Shane Rahmani as senior vice president and general manager of new media in March 2019. On April 10, 2019, a slate of 10 unscripted series including two from Marvel New Media was revealed for Disney+.
Marvel and SiriusXM announced on October 22, 2019 a multi-year deal for multiple scripted and unscripted podcast series for 2020 debuts. The first four scripted series feature Black Widow, Hawkeye, Star-Lord and Wolverine, which is planned to lead to a fifth series featuring all four characters. The slate's unscripted podcasts would consist of talk shows, Marvel's history via a modern-day pop cultural view and popular Marvel franchises focused podcasts.
- Earth's Mightiest Show (March 2018–) A weekly variety web-series focusing on fandom and Marvel culture
- Eat the Universe
- Marvel LIVE!
- The Marvel Minute
- Marvel Top 10 (2017–)
- Marvel's Hero Project (November 12, 2019 – March 20, 2020) produced with Maggievision Productions for Disney+; documents youngsters effecting their local communities
- Marvel's 616 working title (TBA) produced with Supper Club for Disney+; anthology documentary series feature the intersection between Marvel's stories, characters and creators and the real world
- Marvel's Storyboards (TBA) for Disney+; is hosted by Joe Quesada, creative director of Marvel Entertainment, where he interviews guests from various backgrounds to get to know their story with an expected around a dozen 10 to 15 minutes long episodes.
- This Week in Marvel (relaunch)
- THWIP! The Big Marvel Show
- Women of Marvel (June 2014–?; relaunched February 2018–) a female point of view of the comic industry
- Marvel's Voices (April 2018–) bi-weekly as a podcast and set of video clips, cultural topic interviews
- Wolverine podcast (2018–) 2 seasons on Stitcher: The Long Night, The Lost Trail
- Marvels (fall 2019) 10 episode series adapting the comic book with and on Stitcher
- Black Widow (2020) SiriusXM/Pandora
- Hawkeye (2020) SiriusXM
- Star-Lord (2020) SiriusXM
- Wolverine (2020) SiriusXM
- Untitled team up series (TBD) SiriusXM
- Ronald O. Perelman (January 6, 1989 – October 23, 1996)
- Scott M. Sassa (October 23, 1996 – June 20, 1997)
- Morton E. Handel (October 1, 1998 – December 31, 2009)
- Isaac Perlmutter (April 1993 – March 1995; January 1, 2017 – present)
- Terry Stewart (March 1995 – December 1995)
- Isaac Perlmutter (November 30, 2001 – December 31, 2009)
- Peter Cuneo (June 17, 2003 – December 31, 2009)
- William C. Bevins (1991 – October 23, 1996)
- Scott M. Sassa (October 23, 1996 – June 20, 1997)
- Joseph Calamari (June 23, 1997 – October 1, 1998)
- Joseph Ahearn (October 1, 1998 – November 25, 1998)
- Eric Ellenbogen (November 25, 1998 – July 20, 1999)
- F. Peter Cuneo (July 20, 1999 – December 31, 2002)
- Allen S. Lipson (January 1, 2003 – December 31, 2004)
- Office of the Chief Executive
- Isaac Perlmutter (January 1, 2005 – December 31, 2016)
- Executive Vice Presidents:
- Stan Lee (1972–1973)
- Al Landau (1973–1975)
- Jim Galton (1975–1991)
- Terry Stewart (1992–1993)
- Rick Ungar (? – November 1993)
- Avi Arad (November 1993 – ?)
- Bruce Stein (? – November 1994)
- William Bevins Jr. (November 1994 – ?)
- Terry Stewart (May 1995)
- Jerry Calabrese (May 1995 – mid 1996; October 1998 – November 1998)
- Scott C. Marden (interim) (Mid 1996 – September 1996)
- David Schreff (September 1996 – ?)
- Joseph Calamari (? – October 1998)
- Eric Ellenbogen (November 1998 – July 1999)
- F. Peter Cuneo (July 1999 – January 1, 2003)
- Allen Lipson (January 1, 2003 – January 1, 2005)
- Alan Fine, President (2009–) also, chair of Marvel's Creative Committee
- Dan Buckley (January 2017 – present)
- See subsidiaries' articles for their executives.
- Bill Jemas (February 2000 – October 2010) President of Publishing and Consumer Products
- Bruno Maglione, President of Marvel International, November 2003
- Joe Quesada (2010–2019) Chief Creative Officer (2019-present) Creative director
- Kevin Feige (2019–present) Chief Creative Officer, Marvel
- Bill Jemas
- Guy Karyo (October 2010) Executive Vice President of Operations and Chief Information Officer
|Blade: The Series||June 28, 2006 – September 13, 2006||Phantom Four
New Line Television
|Warner Bros. Television Distribution||Spike||12|
|Spider-Man: The New Animated Series||July 11 – September 12, 2003||Sony Pictures Television||MTV||13|
|The Spectacular Spider-Man||March 8, 2008 - November 18, 2009||
||Sony Pictures Television||The CW
|Marvel Anime: Iron Man||2010–11 (Japan)
|Madhouse / Marvel Entertainment||Sony Pictures Home Entertainment||G4 (U.S.)
Sci Fi Channel (Australia)
|Each anime series consisted of 12 episodes|
|Marvel Anime: Wolverine|
|Marvel Anime: X-Men|
|Marvel Anime: Blade|
|Marvel Disk Wars: The Avengers||2014–15 (Japan)
|Toei Animation / Marvel Entertainment / The Walt Disney Company Japan||TX Network (Japan)
Disney XD (Malaysia)
|Marvel Future Avengers||2017–present||Madhouse / Marvel Entertainment / The Walt Disney Company Japan||Sony Pictures Home Entertainment||Dlife|
|Year||Film||Directed by||Written by||Produced / Distributed by||Budget||Gross|
|1998||Blade||Stephen Norrington||David S. Goyer||New Line Cinema||$40 million||$131.2 million|
|2000||X-Men||Bryan Singer||Story by Tom DeSanto & Bryan Singer
Screenplay by David Hayter
|20th Century Fox||$75 million||$296.3 million|
|2002||Blade II||Guillermo del Toro||David S. Goyer||New Line Cinema||$54 million||$155 million|
|Spider-Man||Sam Raimi||David Koepp||Columbia Pictures||$139 million||$821.7 million|
|2003||Daredevil||Mark Steven Johnson||20th Century Fox||$78 million||$179.2 million|
|X2||Bryan Singer||Story by Zak Penn and David Hayter & Bryan Singer
Screenplay by Michael Dougherty & Dan Harris and David Hayter
|$110 million||$407.7 million|
|Hulk||Ang Lee||Story by James Schamus
Screenplay by John Turman and Michael France and James Schamus
|Universal Pictures||$137 million||$245.4 million|
|2004||The Punisher||Jonathan Hensleigh||Jonathan Hensleigh and Michael France||Lionsgate Films / Artisan Entertainment / Columbia Pictures||$33 million||$54.7 million|
|Spider-Man 2||Sam Raimi||Story by Alfred Gough & Miles Millar and Michael Chabon
Screenplay by Alvin Sargent
|Columbia Pictures||$200 million||$783.8 million|
|Blade: Trinity||David S. Goyer||New Line Cinema||$65 million||$128.9 million|
|2005||Elektra||Rob Bowman||Zak Penn and Stuart Zicherman & Raven Metzner||20th Century Fox||$43 million||$56.7 million|
|Man-Thing||Brett Leonard||Han Rodionoff||Lionsgate Films / Artisan Entertainment||$30 million||$1.1 million|
|Fantastic Four||Tim Story||Mark Frost and Michael France||20th Century Fox||$100 million||$330.6 million|
|2006||X-Men: The Last Stand||Brett Ratner||Simon Kinberg & Zak Penn||$210 million||$459.4 million|
|2007||Ghost Rider||Mark Steven Johnson||Columbia Pictures||$110 million||$228.7 million|
|Spider-Man 3||Sam Raimi||Screenplay by Sam Raimi & Ivan Raimi and Alvin Sargent
Story by Sam Raimi & Ivan Raimi
|$258 million||$890.9 million|
|Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer||Tim Story||Screenplay by Don Payne and Mark Frost
Story by John Turman and Mark Frost
|20th Century Fox||$130 million||$289 million|
|2008||Punisher: War Zone||Lexi Alexander||Nick Santora and Art Marcum & Matt Holloway||Lionsgate Films||$35 million||$10.1 million|
|2009||X-Men Origins: Wolverine||Gavin Hood||David Benioff and Skip Woods||20th Century Fox||$150 million||$373.1 million|
|2011||X-Men: First Class||Matthew Vaughn||Screenplay by Ashley Edward Miller, Zack Stentz and Jane Goldman & Matthew Vaughn
Story by Sheldon Turner and Bryan Singer
|$140–$160 million||$353.6 million|
|2012||Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance||Mark Neveldine and Brian Taylor||Screenplay by Scott M. Gimple and Seth Hoffman & David S. Goyer
Story by David S. Goyer
|Columbia Pictures||$57 million||$132.6 million|
|The Amazing Spider-Man||Marc Webb||Screenplay by James Vanderbilt, Alvin Sargent and Steve Kloves
Story by James Vanderbilt
|$230 million||$757.9 million|
|2013||The Wolverine||James Mangold||Scott Frank and Mark Bomback||20th Century Fox||$120 million||$414.8 million|
|2014||The Amazing Spider-Man 2||Mark Webb||Alex Kurtzman, Roberto Orci, Jeff Pinkner, James Vanderbilt||Columbia Pictures||$200–293 million||$709 million|
|X-Men: Days of Future Past||Bryan Singer||Screenplay by Simon Kinberg
Story by Matthew Vaughn, Jane Goldman & Simon Kinberg
|20th Century Fox||$200 million||$747.9 million|
|2015||Fantastic Four||Josh Trank||Jeremy Slater, Seth Grahame-Smith, T.S. Nowlin & Simon Kinberg||$120 million||$168 million|
|2016||Deadpool||Tim Miller||Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick||$58 million||$783.1 million|
|X-Men: Apocalypse||Bryan Singer||Simon Kinberg, Dan Harris and Michael Dougherty||$178 million||$534.5 million|
|2017||Logan||James Mangold||Screenplay by Michael Green, Scott Frank and James Mangold
Story by James Mangold
|$97 million||$619 million|
|2018||Deadpool 2||David Leitch||Rhett Reese, Paul Wernick and Ryan Reynolds||$110 million||$785 million|
|Venom||Ruben Fleischer||Scott Rosenberg, Jeff Pinkner, Kelly Marcel and Will Beall||Columbia Pictures||$100 million||$855 million|
|Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse||Bob Persichetti, Peter Ramsey and Rodney Rothman||Screenplay by Phil Lord and Rodney Rothman
Story by Phil Lord
|Columbia Pictures / Sony Pictures Animation||$90
|2019||Dark Phoenix||Simon Kinberg||20th Century Fox||$200 million||$252.4 million|
|2020||The New Mutants||Josh Boone||Josh Boone and Knate Lee||20th Century Studios||$80 million||$720,000|
|2021||Morbius||Daniel Espinosa||Matt Sazama and Burk Sharpless||Columbia Pictures|
|Venom: Let There Be Carnage||Andy Serkis||Kelly Marcel|
|2022||Untitled Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse sequel||Joaquim Dos Santos||David Callaham||Columbia Pictures / Sony Pictures Animation|
- Raviv, Dan (April 2002). Comic Wars. Broadway Books, Random House, Heroes Books. ISBN 0-7679-0830-9. Archived from the original on 2006-12-31.
- Fritz, Ben (September 23, 2009). "Disney tells details of Marvel Entertainment acquisition in a regulatory filing". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Part I: Page 1: ITEM 1. Business. Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Financial Report And Shareholder Letter Archived 2014-06-11 at the Wayback Machine. The Walt Disney Company. Retrieved December 27, 2013. "Marvel businesses are reported primarily in our Studio Entertainment and Consumer Products segments."
- Gaudette, Emily (November 6, 2017). "What a Disney/Fox deal could mean for Deadpool, the X-Men". Newsweek. Archived from the original on December 4, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
Fox has the rights to the X-Men, including Wolverine, Deadpool and the Fantastic Four.
- Chu, Karen (8 October 2013). "Hong Kong Disneyland to Open 'Iron Man' Experience in 2016". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Marvel Entertainment Group, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Apr 15, 1998". secdatabase.com. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
- "Marvel Entertainment FORM 8-K". RealDealDocs. 29 September 2006. p. 6. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
Sec.3 (d) a fully-executed assignment agreement, in substantially the form of the Assignment Agreement dated as of August 30, 2005 by and among MEI, Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. and MCI, assigning MEI’s, Marvel Property, Inc.’s (formerly known as Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.) and MVL Development LLC’s rights in the Unencumbered Characters to MCI;
- Hicks, Jonathan P. (1988-11-08). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Marvel Comic Book Unit Being Sold for $82.5 Million". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- Bryant, Adam (1998-05-24). "Pow! The Punches That Left Marvel Reeling". The New York Times. p. 4. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- "MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc.". International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 28. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale / St. James Press, via FundingUniverse.com. 1999. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
- Savage, Mark (2015-04-23). "Marvel Avenged: From financial ruin to the biggest film franchise in history". Retrieved 2019-02-11.
- "Perelman Agrees to Settle Marvel Lawsuit". The New York Times. Bloomberg News. 2008-08-07. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
- A minority of dissidents maintain no bubble existed. Rozanski, Chuck. "The Vicious Downward Spiral of the 1990s". Tales from the Database. Mile High comics. Archived from the original on May 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-27.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Lott, Jeremy (2002). "Smash! Pow! Bam!". Reason. Archived from the original on May 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-27.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Raviv, pp. 38–39
- Leonhardt, David (22 January 1996). "What Evil Lurks in the Heart of Ron?". Business Week. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- Hass, Nancy (1996-07-28). "INVESTING IT;Marvel Superheroes Take Aim at Hollywood". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- "Toy Biz, Inc. Prospectus". New York Stock Exchange. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Taylor, Ted (February 4, 1999). "Fleer/skybox Sale Finally Goes Through". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Knight Ridder. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Shprintz, Janet (August 19, 1998). "Spider-Man's legal web may finally be unraveled, Judge tying up Marvel's loose ends". Variety. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- The Guardian, Court web snares Spider-Man, April 27, 2003 Archived October 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Bing, Jonathan. "Inside Move: Rights snares had Spidey suitors weaving" Archived 2018-01-14 at the Wayback Machine, Variety, May 19, 2002: "Marvel lawyer Carole Handler found a legal loophole: The original sale to Cannon hadn't been registered with the U.S. Copyright Office, so rights reverted to Marvel."
- "Marvel Enterprises, Inc. Announces Organizational Changes". Write News. November 1, 1999. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- DeMott, Rick (November 3, 2000). "Marvel Names Milo President Of New Media". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on March 31, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- "NARCON 2011 Presentations". NARCON. Washington Aerospace Club. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Farrow, Boyd (16 April 2004). "New York-Based Marvel Enterprises Launches London-Based International Division". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Publishing Industry Soundbytes: People". The Write News. November 21, 2003. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- DeMott, Rick (December 18, 2003). "Marvel Acquires Cover Concepts". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- "Marvel Consolidates Sleepwear Licensing Business with Industry Leader American Marketing Enterprises". Business Wire. Marvel Enterprises, Inc. November 15, 2004. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- "Marvel sues over online role-playing game". NBC News. 12 November 2004. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- "Marvel Settles Suit With Lee". Los Angeles Times. Bloomberg News. April 29, 2005. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Vincent, Roger (September 6, 2005). "Marvel to Make Movies Based on Comic Books". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "Marvel Entertainment, LLC: Private Company Information - Bloomberg". www.bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 2018-01-26. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
- Gardner, Eriq. "Marvel Dodges Bullet as $1 Billion Lawsuit over Stan Lee Company Is Dismissed" Archived 2011-03-09 at the Wayback Machine, The Hollywood Reporter, February 9, 2011.
- "'Ghost Rider' creator sues over copyright". Reuters. 2007-04-10.
- Wilkerson, David B. "Disney to acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4B". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
- Donley, Michelle (December 31, 2009). "Marvel Shareholders OK Disney Acquisition". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on November 2, 2014.
- Disney Completes Marvel Acquisition[permanent dead link], Fox Business, December 31, 2009
- "Marvel's Joe Quesada Promoted to Chief Creative Officer" Archived 2011-05-01 at the Wayback Machine, Newsarama, June 2, 2010
- Andreeva, Nellie (June 28, 2010). "Marvel Entertainment Launches TV Division". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- "Smith & Tinker to Unleash Marvel Collectible Game Online". Market Wire. FindArticles.com. 04 March 2011.
- "Marvel Signs 60,000 S/F Sublease". Real Estate Weekly via FindArticles.com. September 22, 2010. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Graser, Marc (2013-09-06). "Disney Wins Dismissal of Stan Lee Media's Claim for Marvel's Superheroes". Variety. Archived from the original on 2018-02-28. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
- "Marvel, circus company join forces for superhero arena show". Los Angeles Times. March 13, 2013. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
- Truitt, Brian (August 22, 2013). "Heroes hit the road for 'The Marvel Experience' in 2014". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
- MacDonald, Brady (24 April 2014). "Hong Kong Disneyland set to debut first Iron Man ride". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.
- Marvel Worldwide, Inc., Marvel Characters, Inc. and MVL Rights, LLC, against Lisa R. Kirby, Barbara J. Kirby, Neal L. Kirby and Susan M. Kirby, 777 F.Supp.2d 720 (S.D.N.Y. 2011).
- Fritz, Ben (September 21, 2009). "Heirs File Claims to Marvel Heroes". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010.
- Kit, Borys and Matthew Belloni (September 21, 2009). "Kirby Heirs Seeking Bigger Chunk of Marvel Universe". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
- Melrose, Kevin (January 8, 2010). "Marvel Sues to Invalidate Copyright Claims by Jack Kirby's Heirs". Robot 6. Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010.
- "Marvel Sues for Rights to Superheroes". Associated Press via The Hollywood Reporter. January 8, 2010. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010.
- Gardner, Eriq (December 21, 2010). "It's on! Kirby estate sues Marvel; copyrights to Iron Man, Spider-Man at stake". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
- Finke, Nikki (July 28, 2011). "Marvel Wins Summary Judgments In Jack Kirby Estate Rights Lawsuits". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on August 1, 2011.
- Marvel Characters Inc. v. Kirby, 726 F.3d 119 (2d. Cir. 2013).
- Patten, Dominic (April 2, 2014). "Marvel & Disney Rights Case For Supreme Court To Decide Says Jack Kirby Estate". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 5, 2014.
- "Kirby v. Marvel Characters, Inc". SCOTUSblog. Archived from the original on 2014-07-27.
- Patten, Dominic (September 26, 2014). "Marvel & Jack Kirby Heirs Settle Legal Battle Ahead Of Supreme Court Showdown". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 26, 2014.
- Kit, Borys (January 18, 2017). "Dan Buckley Named President of Marvel Entertainment". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Arrant, Chris (November 13, 2017). "Marvel Hires Ron Richards as VP/Managing Editor of New Media". Newsarama. Archived from the original on December 13, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- Rubin, Rebecca (December 5, 2017). "Marvel to Launch Wolverine Podcast 'The Long Night'". Variety. Archived from the original on December 5, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- Romo, Vanessa (October 22, 2019). "It's Superhero Time On Podcasts: Star-Lord And Black Widow To Step Up To The Mic". NPR.org. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- McMillan, Graeme (September 7, 2017). "Marvel Launches Multiplatform 'Super Hero Adventures' Preschooler Program (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- Whyte, Alexandra (September 8, 2017). "Marvel swings into preschool content". Kidscreen. Brunico Communications Ltd. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- McMillan, Graeme (December 7, 2017). "Marvel Launching Animated Property 'Marvel Rising' in 2018". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 7, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- "Marvel-lous: Disney wins naming rights to Melbourne's Etihad Stadium in eight-year deal". Stuff. May 24, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Otterson, Joe (October 15, 2019). "Kevin Feige Named Chief Creative Officer of Marvel". Variety. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- Otterson, Joe (December 11, 2019). "Marvel to Shutter Television Division". Variety. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- Kim, Susanna (June 8, 2013). "Captain America Comic Pitches Skin Care Products". ABC News. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- "Form 8-K SEC File 1-13638". SEC Info, Fran Finnegan & Company. Archived from the original on 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- "EXCLUSIVE LICENSE AGREEMENT BETWEEN MVL RIGHTS LLC AND MARVEL CHARACTERS, INC". RealDealDocs. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Schmuckler, Eric (February 11–22, 1985). "Clash of the Comic Book Giants". New York City Business. New York, NY. p. 28. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Keppel, Bruce (November 21, 1986). "Cadence Selling Comic-Book, Animation Unit : New World Pictures to Acquire Marvel". Los Angeles Times. Times Mirror Company. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
- Masters, Kim; Belloni, Matthew (August 31, 2015). "Marvel Shake-Up: Film Chief Kevin Feige Breaks Free of CEO Ike Perlmutter (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Eldridge Industries. Archived from the original on September 2, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Moody, Annemarie (April 21, 2008). "Marvel Promotes Eric Rollman To President, Marvel Animation". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Marvel Animation Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine Entity Information. Corporation & Business Entity Database. Division of Corporations, State Records and Uniform Commercial Code. New York State Department of State. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- DeMott, Rick (December 3, 2007). "Ratatouille Cooks Up Most Annie Nominations". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- "Marvel Animation: The Future". ComicsContinuum.com. January 23, 2007. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- "New World Entertainment Inc. Completes Sale of Marvel for $82.5 Million; Company Begins 1989 With Busy Schedule and Further Debt Reduction". PR Newswire. January 25, 1989. Retrieved 4 October 2011.[dead link]
- "NWCG [New World Communications Group] Holdings Corp. Form 10-K405". SEC Info, Fran Finnegan & Company. Archived from the original on 2012-05-16. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- Arrant, Chris (October 31, 2017). "Hirings & Promotions At Marvel, Archie, Dynamite, Boom!, Avery Hill". Newsarama. Purch. Archived from the original on December 13, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- Clark, Travis (April 7, 2018). "An exec who helped start ESPN Films wants to use Marvel's digital content to tell real-world stories". Business Insider. Insider Inc. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
- Low, Elaine; Low, Elaine (March 5, 2019). "Marvel Entertainment Taps Shane Rahmani as New Media Senior VP". Variety. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
- Goldberg, Lesley (April 10, 2019). "Disney+ Unveils Robust Unscripted Slate Featuring Pair of Marvel Docuseries". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
- Spangler, Todd (October 22, 2019). "Marvel Creating 'Substantial' Number of Exclusive Podcasts for SiriusXM". Variety. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- McLauchlin, Jim (July 15, 2019). "Storyboards, Marvel's Parts Unknown, Is Coming to Disney+". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
- McMillan, Graeme (August 14, 2019). "Marvel and Stitcher Partner for 'Marvels' Podcast". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
- Rhoades, Shirrel (2008). A Complete History of American Comic Books. New York City, New York: Peter Lang Publishing. pp. X–XI. ISBN 978-1-4331-0107-6. Archived from the original on 2013-05-27. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- "Scott Sassa | Official Website". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- "Marvel Enterprises Announces New Board of Directors and Search for New CEO". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Marvel gets new CEO". Money. November 24, 1998. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Marvel Enterprises Names New CEO". Bloomberg News. September 17, 2002. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Weiland, Jonah (2004-10-15). "Isaac Perlmutter New CEO Marvel Enterprises". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on March 22, 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- Gardner, Eriq (May 30, 2017). "Marvel's Ike Perlmutter, a Trump Friend, Hopes Homeland Security Helped Solve Bizarre Mystery". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- "Marvel Entertainment CEO IKE PERLMUTTER Gets New Title". Newsarama. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
- "Marvel Promotes Alan Fine". ICV2. 2009-04-28. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Szalai, Georg. "Marvel GC Upped to Shared Executive Post". AllBusiness.com. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- "Marvel Studios' David Maisel to step down after Disney deal". Los Angeles Times. December 7, 2009. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Ro, Ronin (2004). Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee and the American Comic Book Revolution. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-58234-566-6. Archived from the original on 2017-02-07.
- Lee, Stan, and Mair, George. Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee (Fireside, 2002), p.5. ISBN 0-684-87305-2
- Foerster, Jonathan (May 30, 2010). "Business Monday: Marvel Comics' miracle man set up business' success". Naples Daily News. Naples, Florida. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- Credited as President in 1992 Marvel Comics issues' indicia)
- "Marvel, Toy Biz & Avi Arad Form New Toy Company". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Freeman, Mike. New world of animation: former Marvel Entertainment chief Rick Ungar will head new division concentrating on original animated series, including upcoming 'Stealth Warriors.' Archived 2014-06-29 at the Wayback Machine November 1, 1993. Broadcasting & Cable.
- "Company Town Annex: Marvel Entertainment President Quits". Los Angeles Times. October 20, 1994. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
- Blake, Meredith (February 26, 2014). "Netflix, Disney, Marvel to bring superheroes series to New York". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "Marvel Entertainment, LLC: Private Company Information - Bloomberg". www.bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 2018-01-26. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
- Weiland, Jonah (October 15, 2003). "Marvel confirms Buckley as new Publisher". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Langshaw, Mark (Oct 25, 2011). "Wizard Comics joins forces with ex-Marvel president Bill Jemas". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2012.