Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova (Russian: Мари́я Ильи́нична Улья́нова; 18 February [O.S. 6 February] 1878, Simbirsk – 12 June 1937, Moscow) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and politician and a younger sister of Vladimir Lenin and Anna Ulyanova.
Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova was born on 6 (18) February 1878 in Simbirsk and was the youngest child in the family of the director of public schools Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov and his wife Maria Alexandrovna. In her family she was called "Manyasha". She studied first in the Simbirsk gymnasium, then in Moscow, which she graduated in 1893. In 1895 she applied to the physico-chemical department of the mathematical faculty of the Higher (Bestuzhev) women's courses in St. Petersburg. But there she was not accepted, and she had to enroll in 1896 for a two-year course in Moscow. After her graduation she received a diploma as a home teacher.
Since 1898 - a member of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP). She conducted propaganda in workers' circles, delivered illegal literature, and acted as a liaison officer. She was arrested several times. In September 1899, after the arrests of members of the Moscow RSDLP, she was sent under police supervision to Nizhny Novgorod.
On the night of March 1, 1901, arrested and imprisoned in solitary confinement in the Taganskaya prison, after a seven-month sentence she was deported to Samara. The third time was arrested in January 1904, released on bail in June of the same year, after which she left for Switzerland.
In 1905, returned to St. Petersburg, where she worked as secretary of the Vasileostrovsky District Committee of the RSDLP.
May 2, 1907, was arrested. In 1908, after liberation, she moved to Moscow and worked in the Moscow Party organization.
In 1908-1909 she lived in Paris and studied at the Sorbonne, where she received a diploma of a teacher of French. In the summer of 1910, hiding from arrest, she worked as a home teacher in the village of Leppenino near the station Terijoki (Grand Duchy of Finland).
She was arrested again in May 1912, imprisoned. She was later deported to Vologda. From February to April 1915 in Moscow she studied at the courses of sisters of mercy. In the summer of 1915 she went to the Western Front with a medical-nutritious detachment.
Since 1915 in the Moscow organization of the RSDLP, correspondent with the Foreign Bureau of the Central Committee. After the February Revolution of 1917, she was co-opted into the Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP.
She took an active part in the development of the Social Democratic and then the Communist press in Russia. Since 1900 she worked for Iskra, in 1917-1929 she was a member of the editorial board of Pravda.
Since 1903 - in the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the RSDLP. Member of the Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP from 1917.
Member of the Central Control Commission of the CPSU in 1925-1934, a member of the Presidium of the CCC of the CPSU (1932-1934). Member of the Soviet Control Commission under the SNK of the USSR (since 1935). Member of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR since 1935.
In 1935 she was appointed to the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union.
Maria Ilinichna Ulyanova passed away on June 12, 1937 of heart disease in Moscow. The urn with her ashes is buried in the Kremlin wall.
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