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Under Otto II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, several marches were created along the border with West Francia (this border coincided with the river Scheldt). Originally the mark was restricted to the borders of the Scheldt, in 994 Ansfried of Utrecht added Toxandria to the mark.
In the 11th century the mark of Antwerp was one of the fiefs of the duke of Lower Lorraine. Godfrey of Bouillon received the mark in 1076 from emperor Henry IV. After his death in the Crusader state of Jerusalem in 1100, Henry I of Limbourg was appointed as margrave.
In 1106 the duchy of Lower Lorraine and the margraviate were united. After the abolishment of the duchy in 1190 during the Diet of Schwäbisch Hall by emperor Henry VI only its titles remained and these were given to the Duke of Brabant.
Margraves of Antwerp
- 974–1002 Godfrey I, Count of Verdun
- 1005–1044 Gothelo I the Great
- 1044–1046 Gothelo II the Lazy
- 1046–1065 Frederick of Luxembourg
- 1065–1069 Godfrey III the Bearded
- 1069–1070 Baldwin VI, Count of Flanders
- 1070–1076 Godfrey IV the Hunchback
- 1076–1100 Godfrey of Bouillon
- 1101–1106 Henry I of Limbourg
- 1106–1139 Godfrey I, Count of Louvain
- 1139–1142 Godfrey II, Count of Louvain
- 1142–1190 Godfrey III, Count of Louvain