|Alternative names||Manty, mantu, manta|
|Region or state||Central Asia, Afghanistan, East Asia|
|Main ingredients||Spiced meat (lamb or ground beef)|
|Ingredients generally used||Yogurt, garlic|
Manti (Kazakh: мәнті, mänti, مأنتى, Turkish: mantı, Uzbek: manti, monti, Armenian: մանթի), also manty (Kyrgyz: манты; Russian: манты; Tatar: манты), mantu (Pashto, Dari, Persian, Arabic: منتو; Tajik: манту) or manta (Uyghur: مانتا, manta, monta, манта, монта), is a type of dumpling popular in most Turkic cuisines, as well as in the cuisines of the South Caucasus, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Balkans, Bukharian Jews and Chinese Muslims. Mantu has also become popular in Peshawar due to Afghans living in the city and opening many food businesses since the 1990s. However, as of the 2010s, the number of restaurants that authentically prepare and serve the meal have decreased. Manti are also consumed throughout Russia and other post-Soviet countries, where the dish spread from the Central Asian republics. The dumplings typically consist of a spiced meat mixture, usually lamb or ground beef in a thin dough wrapper and either boiled or steamed. Size and shape vary significantly depending on the geographical location. Manti resemble the Chinese jiaozi and baozi, Korean mandu, Mongolian buuz and the Tibetan momo and the dish's name is cognate with the Korean mandu, Chinese mantou and Japanese manjū, although the modern Chinese and Japanese counterparts refer to different dishes.
The name, depending on the language, can refer to a single dumpling or to more than one dumpling at a time; in English, it is often used as both a singular and plural form.
The origin is somewhat uncertain. While the Chinese word mantou has been suggested as the origin for the word manti, different Chinese characters have been used to address same food in the past which indicates the Chinese attempted to adapt a foreign word to their writing system. However, the term mantou (饅頭) already appears in early records of Jin dynasty (266CE-420CE), and similar foods were already produced and consumed in earlier periods. Different Chinese synonyms of the same foods such as manshou (饅首)" and zhengbing (蒸餅) were also already in use. Originally, mantou was meat-filled. Mantou still retains its old meaning of stuffed bun in Wu Chinese as moedeu. But in Mandarin and many other varieties of Chinese, mantou refers to plain steamed buns, while baozi resembles the ancient mantou stuffed with meat.
The dish may have originated in the territories of the Mongol Empire. Some variations may be traced back to the Uyghur people of northwest China. One of the earliest mentions of manta is found in the 1330 manuscript Yinshan Zhengyao by Hu Sihui, a court therapist in service of the Yuan Dynasty Emperor, Buyantu Khan.
In general, there is agreement that the recipe was carried across Central Asia along the Silk Road to Anatolia by Turkic and Mongol peoples. According to Holly Chase, "Turkic and Mongol horsemen on the move are supposed to have carried frozen or dried manti, which could be quickly boiled over a camp-fire". According to an Armenian researcher, manti first reached Cilician Armenia as a result of the cultural interaction between Armenians and Mongols during their alliance in the 13th century.[self-published source?] Migrating Turkic-speaking peoples brought the dumpling with them to Anatolia, where it evolved into the Turkish mantı. When the Tatars settled into the Kayseri region of modern-day Turkey, the area became known for its manti.
Korean mandu is also said to have arrived in Korea through the Mongols in the 14th century. However, some researchers do not discount the possibility that manti may have originated in the Middle East and spread eastward to China and Korea through the Silk Road.:290
The earliest written Ottoman mantı recipe appears in a 15th-century cookbook written by Muhammed bin Mahmud Shirvani. The version in Shirvani's book is a steamed dumpling with a minced lamb and crushed chickpeas filling spiced with cinnamon and flavored with vinegar. The dish was garnished with sumac and like most contemporary mantı variations, it was served with a garlic-yoghurt sauce.
Many early Turkish cookbooks do not mention a dish called mantı. The first printed recipe book, Melceüt`t Tabâhhin, was published in 1844. It includes a recipe for a dish called Tatar böreği, which is similar to mantı but is not served with garlic yoghurt sauce. The first English-language Ottoman cookbook and a third cookbook printed in 1880 includes this same recipe. Another 1880 cookbook does have a recipe for mantı, but instead of a dumpling, it is a dish composed of layered dough served with mincemeat and garlic yogurt. This book also includes a recipe of piruhi, a cheese filled version of the Tatar böreği recipe.
In Central Asian cuisines
Manti in Central Asian cuisines are usually larger in size. They are steamed in a multi-level metal steamer called mantovarka, mantyshnitsa (Russian terms for manti cooker), manti-kazan or manti-kaskan (manti pot). It consists of layered pans with holes that are placed over a stock pot filled with water. Steaming is the main method of cooking manti; if boiled or fried, they are considered another type of dumpling, such as pelmeni.
In Kazakh cuisine, the manti filling is normally ground lamb (sometimes beef or horse meat), spiced with black pepper, sometimes with the addition of chopped pumpkin or squash. This is considered to be a traditional Uyghur recipe. Manti are served topped with butter, sour cream or an onion sauce or garlic sauce. When sold as street food in Kazakhstan, manti are typically presented sprinkled with hot red pepper powder.
In Uzbek, Tajik and Kyrgyz cuisines, manti are usually made of one (or a combination) of the following ingredients: lamb, beef, cabbage, potato or pumpkin, with fat often added to meat manti. Manti are usually topped with butter and may be served with sour cream, different types of ketchup, or freshly sliced onions (sprinkled with vinegar and black pepper). A sauce made by mixing vinegar and chilli powder is also common. In Uzbekistan, manti are also called kaskoni.
The same style of cooking manti is traditional for Tatar, Bashkir and other cuisines of the Turkic peoples living in the vast area from Idel-Ural to the Far East. It is nowadays widespread throughout Russia and other post-Soviet countries.
In Afghan cuisine
In Afghan cuisine, the thinly rolled out dough of the mantu are filled with beef or lamb mixed with minced onions and spices, steamed and then topped with a yoghurt-based sauce. The sauce (seer mosst, lit. "garlic yoghurt") is made with chaka (thick, creamy, strained and salted yoghurt), lemon juice, dried and fresh mint, green and red chili powder, and pressed garlic. The mantu can also be topped with a tomato-based sauce which can include split peas or red kidney beans and/or sautéed ground meat. This depends on the meat that was used for the filling of the mantu. The amount of yoghurt sauce is typically more than the tomato and ground meat sauce; the sauce is meant to be dotted on top as to not cover the entire dish. However, separate dishes containing more of the ground meat, split peas and tomato sauce and the yoghurt sauce may also be kept at the table or dastarkhān. Some Afghans also like to serve mantu with a carrot qorma or stew, instead of a tomato-based sauce. Now it is also famous in some areas of Pakistan due to Afghan refugees. The authentic Afghan mantu dumplings are supposed to be small and bite-sized. The dough is supposed to be thinned out so that it isn't chewy to bite on nor should one feel like they're eating more dough than filling. There's a specific pattern in which the dough of each dumpling is twisted and closed around the filling. There's a variation of this dish in Afghanistan known as Aushak, in which the filling is different and it's made by boiling the dumplings instead of steaming them.
Afghan dish of mantu
In Armenian and Turkish cuisines
In contrast to the Central Asian varieties, manti in Anatolia and Transcaucasia are usually boiled or baked rather than steamed and tend to be small in size. In modern Turkish cuisine, manti are typically served topped with yoghurt and garlic, and spiced with red pepper powder and melted butter, and topped with ground sumac and/or dried mint by the consumer.
Similarly, the Armenian manti, also sometimes referred to as monta, are usually served with yoghurt (matzoon) or sour cream (ttvaser) and garlic, accompanied by clear soup (mantapour). Manti are more common among western (Cilician) Armenians, while among eastern Armenians, Georgians and Azerbaijanis, similar dumplings called khinkali are more prevalent.
A popular type of Turkish manti is known as Kayseri mantısı, originally from Kayseri, an Anatolian city. Kayseri mantısı is tiny and served with yoghurt, melted butter (flavored with Aleppo pepper) and seasoning including dry mint and Aleppo pepper flakes. It can also be served with the water or chicken broth it was boiled in, and often in Kayseri it is consumed as a soup prior to the main dish. In Kayseri, when a couple is engaged to be married, the mother of the groom visits the bride's house and during this visit the bride should prepare manti for her prospective mother-in-law. The smaller the manti dumplings are, the more skillful the bride is considered to be in the kitchen. Traditionally the dumplings prepared for the prospective mother-in law are supposed to be so small that 40 of them can be fit into one spoon. Manti may be made from shredded meat of quail, chicken or goose in some regions of Turkey, while boş mantı ("empty dumpling") lack filling entirely.
Baked Armenian manti
In Bosnian cuisine
In Bosnian cuisine, the name klepe or kulaci is used. These are made of minced meat with onions. It is served in a sauce consisting of yogurt and garlic. There is also a separate dish called mantije, which is made of the same ingredients, but the pastry balls are put together with no free space in between and baked. After the baking yogurt is poured on top. This second type is considered to be a pita or burek rather than manti, and is primarily made in the region of Sandžak.
- Manjū, a Japanese confection which also originated from Chinese mantou
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