|Maritime Southeast Asia|
The Malayic languages are a branch of the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian language family. The most prominent member is Standard Malay, which is the national language of Brunei and Malaysia, and which also serves as basis for Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia. The Malayic branch also includes the local languages spoken by ethnic Malays (e.g. Kutai Malay, Kedah Malay), further several languages spoken by various other ethnic groups of Sumatra (e.g. Minangkabau) and Borneo (e.g. Iban). The most probable candidate for the homeland of the Malayic languages is western Borneo.
The term "Malayic" was first coined by Dyen (1965) in his lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages. Dyen's "Malayic hesion" had a wider scope than the Malayic subgroup in its currently accepted form, and also included Acehnese, Lampung and Madurese. Nothofer (1988) narrowed down the range of Malayic, but included the non-Malayic languages Rejang and Embaloh:
The present scope of the Malayic subgroup, which is now universally accepted by experts in the field, was first proposed by K.A. Adelaar (1992, 1993), based on phonological, morphological and lexical evidence.
- Bamayo, Banjar, Berau, Brunei, Bukit, Kendayan, Keninjal, Kota Bangun Kutai, Tenggarong Kutai, Ibanic (Iban, Remun, Mualang, Seberuang, Sebuyau)
- Jakun, Kedah Malay, Perak Malay, Pahang Malay, Orang Kanaq, Kelantan-Pattani Malay, Temuan, Terengganu Malay
South China Sea/Strait of Malacca
While there is general consensus about which languages can be classified as Malayic, the internal subgrouping of the Malayic languages is still disputed.
Adelaar (1993) classifies the Malayic languages as follows.
Based on grammatical evidence, Ross (2004) divides the Malayic languages into two primary branches:
- Western Malayic Dayak (Kendayan, Salako)
- Nuclear Malayic (all other lects)
This classification is mirrored in the Glottolog (Version 3.4).
Following Tadmor (2002), Anderbeck (2012) makes a distinction between Malay and Malayic in his discussion about the dialects of the Sea Tribes in Riau Archipelago. He tentatively classifies all Malayic languages as belonging to a "Malay" subgroup, except Ibanic, Kendayan/Selako, Keninjal, Malayic Dayak (or "Dayak Malayic") and the "fairly divergent varieties" of Urak Lawoi' and Duano.[a]
- Malayic Dayak
- Urak Lawoi'
- Malay (including all other Malayic varieties)
In his dissertation on the languages of Borneo, Smith (2017) provides evidence for a subgroup comprising Malayic isolects in western Borneo and southern Sumatra, which he labels "West Bornean Malayic". However, he leaves other isolects unclassified.
- West Bornean Malayic
- Other Malayic (not a genetic subgroup)
Omar & Yahaya (2018) argue for the inclusion of various speech varieties of the Malayic Orang Asli (often labelled, misleadingly, as "Proto Malays") in the same subgroup with Malay,[d] except for Duano, which must have diverged far earlier.
Position within Austronesian
The inclusion of the Malayic languages within the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup is undisputed, and there is general consensus that the Chamic languages are closely related to Malayic. The wider affiliations of the Malayic languages are however controversial. There are two major proposals: Adelaar (2005) places Malayic within the Malayo-Sumbawan subgroup, which comprises the following languages:
- Greater North Borneo
The Malayo-Sumbawan hypothesis is mainly based on phonological evidence with a few shared lexical innovations, while the Greater North Borneo hypothesis is based on a large corpus of lexical evidence.
Proto-Malayic has a total of 19 consonants and 4 vowels.
|Close||i /i/||u /u/|
There are 2 diphthongs:
Proto-Malayic lexemes are mostly disyllabic, though some have one, three, or four syllables. Lexemes have the following syllable structure:
- [C V (N)] [C V (N)] [C V (N)] C V C
- Note: C = consonant, V = vowel, N = nasal
- As with Adelaar, Anderbeck reckons the difficulty in assigning absolute subgrouping within Malayic subfamily, and suggests an alternative approach which is "to dissolve the Malay node and keep everything in the Malayic group".
- This classification is still in use in the current 22th edition (2019).
- Alongside other various South Sumatran isolects which exhibit the *-R > *-ʔ innovation in a specific set of lexemes.
- Specifically, the Jakun, Temuan, Urak Lawoi', Kanak, and Seletar languages.
- /t/ is listed as dental by Adelaar (1992)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malayic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Adelaar 1993, p. 568.
- Ross 2004, pp. 106–108.
- Anderbeck 2012, p. 284.
- Eberhard, Simons & Fennig 2019.
- Smith 2017, p. 197.
- Omar & Yahaya 2018, pp. 462–463.
- Adelaar 2005, p. 358.
- Blust 2010.
- Smith 2017, pp. 364–365.
- Adelaar 1992, p. 102.
- Adelaar, K. Alexander (1992). Proto-Malayic: The Reconstruction of its Phonology and Parts of its Lexicon and Morphology. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, no. 119. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University.
- Adelaar, K. Alexander (1993). "The Internal Classification of the Malayic Subgroup". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London,. 56 (3): 566–581. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00007710. JSTOR 620695.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Adelaar, Alexander (2005). "Malayo-Sumbawan". Oceanic Linguistics. 44 (2): 357–388. doi:10.1353/ol.2005.0027. JSTOR 3623345.
- Anderbeck, Karl (2012). "The Malayic speaking Orang Laut: Dialects and directions for research". Wacana: Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia. 14 (2): 265–312. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James J.; Tryon, Darrell (2006). The Austronesians: historical and comparative perspectives. ANU E Press. ISBN 978-1-920942-85-4.
- Blust, Robert (2010). "The Greater North Borneo Hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics. 49 (1): 44–118. doi:10.1353/ol.0.0060. JSTOR 40783586.
- Dyen, Isidore (1965). "A Lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages". International Journal of American Linguistics (Memoir 19).
- Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Malayic". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22 ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
- Nothofer, Bernd. 1975. The reconstruction of Proto-Malayo-Javanic. (Verhandelingen van het KITLV, 73.) The Hague: Nijhoff.
- Nothofer, Bernd (1988). "A discussion of two Austronesian subgroups: Proto-Malay and Proto-Malayic". In Mohd. Thani Ahmad; Zaini Mohamed Zain (eds.). Rekonstruksi dan cabang-cabang Bahasa Melayu induk. Siri monograf sejarah bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. pp. 34–58.
- Omar, A. H.; Yahaya, S. R. (2018). "Malayic Aborigines of Malaysia: A Study in Subgrouping" (PDF). Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 5 (3): 452–465. doi:10.14738/assrj.53.3561.
- Ross, Malcolm D. (2004). "Notes on the prehistory and internal subgrouping of Malayic". In John Bowden; Nikolaus Himmelmann (eds.). Papers in Austronesian subgrouping and dialectology. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. pp. 97–109.
- Smith, Alexander (2017). The Languages of Borneo: A Comprehensive Classification (PDF) (Ph.D. Dissertation). University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Tadmor, Uri (2002). Language contact and the homeland of Malay. The Sixth International Symposium of Malay/Indonesian Linguistics (ISMIL 6). Bintan Island, 3-5 August 2002.