This is a list of wrongful convictions in the United States. This list includes people who have been legally exonerated, including people whose convictions have been overturned or vacated, and who have not been retried because the charges were dismissed by the states.
It also includes some historic cases of people who have not been formally exonerated (by a formal process such as has existed in the United States since the mid 20th century), but who historians believe are factually innocent. Generally, research by historians has revealed original conditions of bias or extrajudicial actions that related to their convictions and/or executions.
Crime descriptions marked with an asterisk (*) indicate that the events were later determined not to be criminal acts. Also people who were wrongfully accused some times don't ever get released.
In February 2020 a total of 2,551 exonerations are mentioned in the National Registry of Exonerations. The total years of these exonerated people spent in jails sums up to 22,540 years. Detailed data from 1989 regarding every known exoneration in the United States is listed. Data prior to 1989 is however limited. 20 individuals have been exonerated while on death row due to DNA evidence.
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1805, November 12||Dominic Daley and James Halligan||Murder of Marcus Lyon||Boston, Massachusetts||Death||Executed||Yes|
|In November 1805, the body of a young farmer, Marcus Lyon, was found on the open road near the town of Wilbraham, Massachusetts. Irish immigrants Dominic Daley and James Halligan were traveling in the area, heading for New Haven, Connecticut, when they were arrested for the murder on November 12, 1805. Their captor received a reward of $500. They had a lengthy confinement, and were not granted defense attorneys until 48 hours before their trial. Once the trial began, they were convicted within minutes. One of the defense attorneys said that the evidence was so flimsy it was obvious their conviction was based on outright bigotry. They were executed the next day. On St. Patrick's Day 1984, Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts issued a proclamation exonerating Daley and Halligan.|
|1843, December 31||John Gordon||Murder of Amasa Sprague||Knightsville, Rhode Island||Death||Executed||Yes|
|In 1843 Gordon was the last person executed by Rhode Island. His conviction and execution have been ascribed by researchers to anti-Roman Catholic and anti-Irish immigrant bias. He was convicted for the murder of Amasa Sprague, a Cranston textile factory owner. The court justices, who included Justice Job Durfee, were involved in all three trials as both trial judges and the court of final appeal. Durfee "told the jurors to give greater weight to Yankee witnesses than Irish witnesses." Rhode Island Governor Lincoln Chafee pardoned Gordon on June 29, 2011.|
|1855||Chief Leschi||Murder of Abram Benton Moses and Joseph Miles (or Miller)||Olympia, Washington||Death by hanging||Executed||Yes|
|Leschi was a Nisqually chief when the United States government attempted to relocate the tribe to reservations. Leschi protested the move, claiming the reservation designated for the Nisqually was a rocky piece of high ground unsuited to growing food and cut off from access to the river that provided salmon, the mainstay of their livelihood. Leschi traveled to the territorial capital at Olympia to protest the terms of the treaty. He became war chief, in command of around 300 men, and led a small number of raids. Early in the conflict, Territorial militiamen Abram Benton Moses and Joseph Miles (or Miller) were killed. Leschi maintained his innocence. He was convicted and executed. In 2004, he was posthumously exonerated by the state.|
|1863||Chipita Rodriguez||Murder of John Savage||San Patricio, Texas||Death by hanging||Executed||Yes|
|Rodriguez was convicted of murdering John Savage with an axe and executed. She was posthumously exonerated in 1985.|
|1872, May 5||William Jackson Marion||Murder of John Cameron*||Liberty, Nebraska||Death by hanging||Executed||Yes|
|Marion was convicted of killing John Cameron, who left with him to work on the railroad in 1872. In 1891, four years after Marion's execution by hanging, Cameron turned up alive, explaining that he had vanished by his own volition. He had spent twenty years traveling across Mexico, Alaska, and Colorado. On March 25, 1987, Marion was pardoned posthumously by the State of Nebraska on the 100th anniversary of his hanging.|
|1886, May 4||Oscar Neebe||Haymarket affair||Chicago, Illinois||15 years in prison||7 years||Yes|
|Neebe was not present at the Haymarket Square on the day of the bombing, and stated that he was not aware it had happened until he was told about it the following day. He was arrested because of his association with the defendants. At trial, the evidence against Neebe was particularly weak, mostly based on his political views, his having attended socialist meetings, being associated with the newspaper, Arbeiter-Zeitung, and the fact that a shotgun, a pistol and red flag were found in his home. On June 26, 1893, Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld pardoned Neebe and two of his co-defendants, having concluded that they were innocent.|
|1887||Charles Hudspeth||Murder of George Watkins*||Marion County, Arkansas||Death by hanging||Executed|
|Hudspeth and George Watkins' wife Rebecca were arrested. After lengthy interrogation, Rebecca allegedly made a statement accusing Hudspeth of murdering Watkins to get him out of the way so they could be married. Based on Rebecca's testimony, Hudspeth was convicted and sentenced to death. He was hanged at Harrison, Arkansas, on December 30, 1892. In 1893, Hudspeth's lawyer located the alleged victim, George Watkins, alive and well in Kansas.|
|1894, August 9||George Washington Davis||Sabotage of Locomotive 213, resulting in 11 deaths||Lincoln, Nebraska||10 years||Yes|
|Davis was convicted of causing the 1894 Rock Island railroad wreck, which killed eleven of thirty-three people on a passenger train traveling from Fairbury, Nebraska, to Lincoln. Some survivors claimed to have seen him holding a lantern at the site of the crash; however, there was no evidence that Davis had anything to do with the incident. In 1905, Davis was paroled by Nebraska governor John Mickey, citing "grave doubts" as to his involvement in the crash.|
|1896||Jack Davis||Murder of Daniel Cummings and John Wilson||Silver City, Idaho||Death by hanging||6 years||Yes|
|Davis was convicted of the Deep Creek murders. He was later pardoned following confessions by James Bower and Jeff Gray.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1900||Caleb Powers||Murder of William Goebel||Frankfort, Kentucky||8 years||Yes|
|Powers was convicted of complicity in the assassination of Governor William Goebel in 1900. The prosecution charged that Powers was the mastermind, having a political opponent killed so that his boss, Governor William S. Taylor, could stay in office. He was sentenced to prison. An appeals court overturned Powers' conviction, though Powers was tried three more times, resulting in two convictions and a hung jury. Governor Augustus E. Willson pardoned Powers in 1908. Powers had served eight years in prison. While in prison, Powers wrote a memoir, My Own Story (1905).|
|February 11, 1906||Ed Johnson||Rape of Nevada Taylor||Chattanooga, Tennessee||Hanging||Lynched prior to execution||Posthumously exonerated|
|Ed Johnson, a black man, was convicted in Chattanooga, TN of the rape of Nevada Taylor, a white woman, and sentenced to death. Taylor's initial description of her assailant was very vague. She told police she did not get a good look at him, and was unsure if he was black or white. After the reward was increased to $375, another man in town told police he saw Johnson at the scene. Taylor subsequently identified Johnson as her rapist. Johnson was beaten by sheriff Joseph Shipp to extract a confession, but maintained his innocence. On March 3, 1906, Johnson appealed the conviction, alleging that his constitutional rights had been violated. Specifically, he said that all blacks had been excluded from the jury considering his case, and that he should have been granted a change of venue, and a continuance. He was granted a stay of execution and an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.
When Sheriff Shipp learned of the court's decision, he moved most prisoners to other floors of the jail and sent home all but one deputy. Johnson was pulled from his cell by a mob of white men and hanged in the courthouse square. Following the lynching, Shipp publicly blamed the Supreme Court's interference with local courts for Johnson's death.
The Supreme Court charged Shipp, his chief jailer, and several members of the lynch mob with contempt of court on the basis that Sheriff Shipp, with full knowledge of the court's ruling, willfully ignored his duties to protect a prisoner in his care and allowed Johnson to be lynched. United States v. Shipp is the only criminal trial of the Supreme Court in its entire history. It is considered an important decision in that it affirmed the right of the US Supreme Court to intervene in state criminal cases.
Shipp and several of his co-defendants were convicted and sentenced to terms from 2–3 months in federal prison.
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1912||Bill Wilson||Murder of his wife Jenny Wilson and their one-year-old daughter*||Blount County, Alabama||Life in prison||6 years||Yes|
|Wilson was convicted of murdering his wife and their 19-month-old daughter. Bones presented by the prosecution in court were later discovered to be those of at least four or five people and likely of indigenous ethnicity. Wilson received a formal pardon from the Alabama governor after his wife and daughter were discovered to be living in Vincennes, Indiana.|
|1913||Thomas Griffin and Meeks Griffin||Murder of John Q. Lewis||Chester County, South Carolina||Death||Executed||Yes|
|The brothers were prominent black farmers in Chester County, South Carolina, believed to be the wealthiest blacks in the area. They were convicted and executed via the electric chair in 1915 for the murder in 1913 of 74-year-old John Q. Lewis. The Griffin brothers were convicted based on the accusations of another black man, John "Monk" Stevenson, who was known to be a small-time thief. Stevenson, who was found in possession of the victim's pistol, was sentenced to life in prison in exchange for testifying against the brothers. Two other African Americans, Nelson Brice and John Crosby, were executed with the brothers for the same crime. Some in the community believed that Lewis may have been murdered because of his suspected consensual sexual relationship with 22-year-old Anna Davis, a white married woman. Davis and her husband were never tried for the murder of Lewis, possibly for fear of a "mixed race relationship" scandal.
Over 100 people petitioned Gov. Richard Manning to commute the brothers' sentence. The signatories included prominent white people, including Blackstock's mayor, a sheriff, two trial jurors, and the grand jury foreman. But the governor allowed the brothers to be executed.
In October 2009, the governor of South Carolina pardoned Thomas and Meeks Griffin. Their great-nephew Tom Joyner had achieved the pardons after investigating the case and presenting evidence to the state of the injustice, after learning about his relatives' executions.
|1913||Leo Frank||Murder of Mary Phagan||Marietta, Georgia||Death, later commuted||2 years; killed by lynch mob||Posthumously pardoned|
|Frank was a Jewish-American factory superintendent who was convicted in 1913 of the murder of a 13-year-old, female employee. Originally sentenced to death, he was the subject of protests against an unjust trial. After the Georgia governor commuted Frank's sentence to life in prison, the young businessman was taken from prison and lynched by a local white group who had secretly organized his abduction. In the late 20th century, Frank was posthumously pardoned by the state.|
|1916||Thomas Mooney||Preparedness Day Bombing||San Francisco, California||Death||22 years||Yes|
|After being convicted and imprisoned for a 1916 bombing in San Francisco, Mooney appealed his case. He filed a writ of habeas corpus that was heard by the United States Supreme Court in 1937. Although he presented evidence that his conviction was obtained through the use of perjured testimony and that the prosecution had suppressed favorable evidence, his writ was denied because he had not first filed a writ in state court. His case was important for helping to establish that a conviction based upon false evidence violates due process. Mooney was pardoned in 1939 by Governor Culbert Olson.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1920||Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti||Murders of Alessandro Berardelli and Frederick Parmenter during an armed robbery||Braintree, Massachusetts||Death||Executed||No|
|In 1977, as the 50th anniversary of the executions approached, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis asked the Office of the Governor's Legal Counsel to report on "whether there are substantial grounds for believing—at least in the light of the legal standards of today—that Sacco and Vanzetti were unfairly convicted and executed" and to recommend appropriate action. The resulting "Report to the Governor in the Matter of Sacco and Vanzetti" detailed grounds for doubting that the trial was conducted fairly in the first instance, and argued as well that such doubts were reinforced by "later-discovered or later-disclosed evidence." The report questioned prejudicial cross-examination that the trial judge allowed, the judge's hostility, the fragmentary nature of the evidence, and eyewitness testimony that came to light after the trial. It found the judge's charge to the jury troubling because it emphasized the defendants' behavior at the time of their arrest and highlighted certain physical evidence that was later called into question.|
The report dismissed the argument that the trial had been subject to judicial review, noting, "the system for reviewing murder cases at the time ... failed to provide the safeguards now present." Based on recommendations of the Office of Legal Counsel, Dukakis declared August 23, 1977, the 50th anniversary of their execution, as Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Memorial Day. His proclamation, issued in English and Italian, stated that Sacco and Vanzetti had been unfairly tried and convicted, and that "any disgrace should be forever removed from their names."
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1931, March 24||Scottsboro Boys||Rape of Ruby Bates and Victoria Price||Paint Rock, Alabama||Varied, 8 were sentenced to death||Varied||Yes|
|Following an altercation with a group of white teens, nine black teenagers were accused of rape by two women. Eventually, one of the women admitted to fabricating the story. The Scottsboro case is considered a landmark case, leading to the prohibition of all-white juries.|
|1932, December 9||Joseph Majczek and Theodore Marcinkiewicz||Murder of Chicago police officer William D. Lundy||Chicago, Illinois||99 years each||11 years||Yes|
|1936, August 26||Joe Arridy||Murder of Dorothy Drain||Pueblo, Colorado||Death||Executed||Yes|
|Arridy was convicted and executed for the 1936 killing of 15-year-old Dorothy Drain with a hatchet. In 2011, Gov. Bill Ritter posthumously pardoned Arridy. Ritter said an overwhelming amount of evidence suggests Arridy did not commit the crime and was likely not in Pueblo at the time of the crime.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|March 23, 1944||George Stinney||Murder of Betty June Binnicker, age 11, and Mary Emma Thames, age 8||Alcolu, South Carolina||Death by electric chair||Executed||Yes|
|Stinney, was convicted of the first-degree murder of two pre-teen white girls. No physical evidence existed in the case, and the sole evidence against Stinney was the circumstantial fact that the girls had spoken with Stinney and his sister shortly before their murder. Three police officers claimed that Stinney had confessed to the murders. At age 14, he was the second youngest person to be sentenced to death and executed in the United States, behind Hannah Ocuish. On December 17, 2014, Stinney's conviction was vacated by circuit court judge Carmen Mullen, effectively clearing his name.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1957, June 3||Jack McCullough||Murder of Maria Ridulph||Sycamore, Illinois||5 years in prison||1 year||Yes|
|After investigation of a cold case, in 2012 Jack McCullogh was exonerated of murder, as it was decided his prosecution had been based on hearsay evidence and exculpatory evidence, FBI files proving he was nowhere near the scene at the time, were excluded by the prosecution from evidence.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1961, June 3||Clarence Earl Gideon||Breaking and Entering, Petty Theft||Bay Harbor, Florida||5 years in prison||2 years||Yes|
|Gideon had been denied an attorney at the time of his first trial. At the time, the state of Florida did not have public defenders in all judicial circuits and the law did not require the court to appoint an attorney to the indigent. After conviction, he handwrote a petition for writ of certiorari to the U.S. Supreme Court. The justices considered the matter as Gideon v. Wainwright and ruled unanimously that Gideon's rights had been violated. When he was retried with a defense attorney, it was determined that the primary prosecution witness had committed the crime. The case inspired the book Gideon's Trumpet and a film adaptation by the same name.|
|1966, June 17||Rubin Carter||Murder of James Oliver, Fred Nauyoks, and Hazel Tanis||Paterson, New Jersey||Life in prison||19 years||No|
|Carter was a professional boxer who was twice convicted of this triple murder, along with his friend and fellow defendant John Artis. Carter's second conviction was overturned in 1985. Carter inspired the 1975 Bob Dylan song "Hurricane", and the film The Hurricane (1999) was based on his case.|
|1967, October 25||James Joseph Richardson||Murder of his seven children by pesticide poisoning||Arcadia, Florida||Death||21 years||Yes|
|James Richardson was convicted of poisoning his children and received the death penalty. Authorities believe that it is likely that a neighbor, Bessie Reece, committed the murders. After she developed Alzheimer's disease, she confessed more than 100 times to the murders of these children to her caregivers at the nursing home. At the time of the crime, Reece was on parole after being convicted of the poisoning death of her late husband. Reece was not investigated thoroughly at the time, although she was the last known person to see the children alive, and the last to feed them. She had at first denied going into their apartment.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1971||Richard Phillips||Murder||Detroit, Michigan||Life without parole||45.7 years||Yes|
|Richard Phillips was 25-years old when he was imprisoned for a fatal shooting in Detroit in 1971-a case prosecutors now say was "based entirely" on false testimony from one witness. He was sentenced to life without parole. He was released in 2017 and exonerated in 2018 after the University of Michigan's innocence project took up his case, declaring him the longest-serving innocent man in the United States.|
|1972||Wilbert Jones||Sexual Assault||Baton Rouge, Louisiana||Life Imprisonment||44.7 years||Yes|
|A Louisiana jury found Jones guilty of aggravated rape based solely on the victim's testimony. The victim expressed some uncertainty about her identification of Jones in a lineup, e.g., "[the victim] described her attacker variously as 5 feet 8 inches tall, 5 five feet 9 inches tall, and 6 feet 3 inches tall. She said he had a single gap between his front teeth and a smooth, soft voice. ... [After identifying Jones as the perpetrator] she expressed concern because Jones’s voice was “rougher” than her attacker's, and because Jones was only 5 feet 3 inches tall ...." The prosecution did not tell the defense about a serial rapist who had been arrested recently and fit the victim's [in Wilbert Jones' case] description. Louisiana incarcerated Jones for nearly 45 years before Innocence Project New Orleans helped him petition for a new trial. A district judge vacated Jones' conviction and ordered a new trial. The prosecution appealed to the Louisiana Supreme Court, but the state's highest court rejected the appeal. The prosecution dismissed the charges on October 11, 2018. Jones' nearly 45 years in prison is the second longest time spent incarcerated after a known wrongful conviction in U.S. history.|
|1974||Gregory Bright||Murder||New Orleans, Louisiana||Life imprisonment||27.5 years|
|Bright was convicted of second-degree murder in 1974 at the age of 20. After several years of appeals, Bright was granted a new trial in 2001 on the grounds that the prosecution had withheld evidence from the defense in his previous trial. On June 24, 2003, after 27½ years in prison for a crime they did not commit, Bright and Earl Truvia were both released after the Orleans Parish district attorney dismissed all charges.|
|1974, February 3||Delbert Tibbs||Murder of Terry Milroy||Fort Myers, Florida||Death||3 years||No|
|Teenager Cynthia Nadeau was raped and her boyfriend, Terry Milroy, was murdered by a man who picked them up while hitchhiking. Despite an alibi, Tibbs was convicted on the basis of a false eyewitness identification and an alleged confession to a fellow inmate. In 2011, Tibbs was instrumental in the decision of Governor Pat Quinn to repeal the death penalty in Illinois.|
|1974, May 15||Michael Lloyd Self||Murders of Rhonda Johnson and Sharon Shaw||Galveston, Texas||Life imprisonment||Life||No|
|Teenagers Rhonda Johnson and Sharon Shaw disappeared while at a beach in Galveston, Texas, on August 4, 1971; their remains were found in a marsh in January 1972. Though Michael Lloyd Self, a local sex offender, wrote a confession, he contended that police officers forced him to do so at gunpoint. Self was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1975. In 1976, two of the officers who took his confession were arrested for numerous bank robberies and sentenced to 30–50 years. In 1998, Edward Harold Bell, a convicted serial killer, admitted to the murders of Johnson and Shaw, though no direct connection could be made. Self died in prison in 2000 of cancer. Numerous investigators, a Galveston police officer, and a former Harris County prosecutor all protested Self's conviction.|
|1975 March 29||David Bryant||Murder||Bronx, New York||25 to Life||40 years and 9 months||Yes|
|September 6-October 21, 1975||Ledura Watkins||Murder||Detroit and Highland Park, Michigan||Life without Parole||41 years and 3 months||Yes|
|1975||Ricky Jackson, Ronnie Bridgeman, and Wiley Bridgeman||Murder of Harold Franks||Cleveland, Ohio||Death||Varies||Yes|
|Jackson and both the Bridgeman brothers were convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of Harold Franks, a money order salesman, based on the evidence of a 12-year-old boy, Eddie Vernon, who claimed to have seen them attack Franks. There were no other witnesses nor evidence linking the accused to the crime. In a signed affidavit in 2014, Vernon recanted, saying he had been coerced by the police. Jackson had escaped the death sentence because of a paperwork error. The sentences of the Bridgemans had been commuted to life. Jackson and Wiley Bridgeman were held in prison longer than any other persons who had been exonerated. Ronnie Bridgeman had been paroled after serving 28 years. All three men received compensation and settlements from the state for their wrongful convictions and imprisonment.|
|May 2, 1976||Clifford WIlliams, Jr.||Murder, Attempted Murder||Jacksonville, Florida||Death||42 years, 7 months||Yes|
|July 1976||Charles Ray Finch||Murder||Wilson, North Carolina||Death||42 years, 11 months||Yes|
|July 1976||Lewis Fogle||Rape and murder of Deann Katherine Long||Indiana County, Pennsylvania||Life without parole||34 years||No|
|Fogle was convicted in 1982 of raping and killing 15-year-old Deann Katherine Long, who had died in 1976. DNA tests on the semen in the girl's body proved he was not the rapist. In August 2015, a senior judge vacated his conviction. The local district attorney joined in the motion to vacate his conviction, and Fogle was released.|
|1976, November 27||Randall Dale Adams||Murder of Robert W. Wood||Dallas, Texas||Death||12 years||No|
|Adams was convicted of killing Dallas police officer Robert Wood. In 1988, the film The Thin Blue Line, which was based on the case, was released. Public outcry over the film prompted officials to re-examine the case. Adams was released in 1989.|
|1977||Dewey Bozella||Murder of Emma Kapser||Poughkeepsie, New York||20 years to life||26 years||No|
|Bozella was accused of killing 92-year-old Emma Kapser. He was convicted on the basis of testimony from two jailhouse informants. DNA testing was not available because evidence from the crime had been destroyed post-conviction. Bozella's first conviction was overturned because the prosecutor removed all African Americans from the jury. He was tried again in December 1990. At the second trial, one witness recanted his prior statements, but Bozella was convicted a second time. The other witness later recanted. In addition, the defense later learned that the prosecution failed to turn over exculpatory evidence to the defense, including a fingerprint recovered from the scene that was linked to a felon. In 2009, Bozella's conviction was overturned and all charges were dropped.|
|March 14, 1977||Brian Baldwin||Murder of Naomi Rolin||Monroe, Alabama||Death||Executed||No|
|Naomi Rolin was a white girl of 16 who was raped and murdered. Ed Horsely confessed to the murder, which he said he alone had committed, and was executed. But the police charged Baldwin with the murder based on his confession, which Baldwin said was extracted under beatings and an electric cattle prod. No forensic evidence connected Baldwin with the crime. The murder was committed by a left-handed person whereas Baldwin was right-handed. All evidence was lost or destroyed after the execution.|
|1977, July 9||Gary Dotson||Rape of Cathleen Webb||Chicago, Illinois||25 to 50 years' imprisonment for rape, 25 to 50 aggravated kidnapping to be served concurrently||approximately 6 years||Yes|
|Sixteen-year-old Cathleen Crowell Webb made up a rape allegation to explain to her foster parents her pregnancy concerns after having had consensual sex with her boyfriend the previous day. After a religious conversion, Webb confessed to her pastor that she had wrongly accused Dotson and began efforts to get him released. The prosecution refused to take any action, so they went to the media. The resulting public sympathy led the authorities to review the case. Eventually Dotson was cleared via DNA testing and released.|
|1978, May 11||The Ford Heights Four, Verneal Jimerson, Dennis Williams, Kenneth Adams and Willie Rainge||Rape of Carol Schmal and murder of Schmal and Lawrence Lionberg||Ford Heights, Illinois||Death for Jimerson and Williams, 75 years for Adams, and life for Rainge||18 years for Williams, Adams and Rainge. 11 years for Jimerson||Yes|
|The Ford Heights Four were convicted based on false forensic testimony, coercion of a prosecution witness, perjury by another witness who had an incentive to lie, and prosecution and police misconduct. Witness and DNA evidence uncovered in an investigation by three female journalism students at Northwestern University cleared the Ford Heights Four and led to the arrest and conviction of the real killers.|
|1978, May 11||Paula Gray||Rape of Carol Schmal and murder of Schmal and Lawrence Lionberg||Ford Heights, Illinois||50 years||9 years||Yes|
|Paula Gray was an additional suspect in the Ford Heights Four case. Gray, an intellectually-disabled teenager, was interrogated for two days before confessing to her involvement in the crime. However, Gray soon recanted her confession, stating that she had been drugged and coached by the police. Upon her recantation, Gray was charged with rape and murder and with perjury. She was ultimately found guilty and sentenced to 50 years in prison. In 1982, after two of the Ford Heights Four won new trials, prosecutors offered to release Gray in exchange for her testimony against the two men. Gray accepted the offer and was released in 1987. Following the exoneration of the Ford Heights Four, Gray's conviction was overturned, and in 2002, the Governor issued her a pardon.|
|1978, August 31||Joseph Sledge||Murder of Josephine and Aileen Davis||Elizabethtown, North Carolina||Two consecutive life sentences||36 years||Yes|
|Sledge escaped from prison during a four-year sentence for misdemeanor larceny and was recaptured days later. During this time, two women were killed in their home in Elizabethtown, North Carolina. Sledge was convicted of murdering the two women based on the testimony of two inmates who claimed that Sledge had admitted to the crime while in prison the next year. One of the informants later recanted his testimony, saying that he had lied due to police coercion and a reward of early parole and $3,000 prize money. The other informant received similar special treatment. Mitochondrial DNA testing of hairs found at the crime scene believed to be from the killer did not match Sledge, and he was declared innocent in January 2015. He had served more than 36 years for the crime.|
|1978, August 31||Bobby Joe Maxwell||Murder of 2 homeless people||Elizabethtown, North Carolina||Life without parole||39 years||Yes|
|1978, November 11||Craig Coley||Murder of Rhonda and Donald Wicht||Simi Valley, California||Life without parole||39 years||Yes|
|Coley was convicted of the murder of 24-year-old Rhonda Wicht and her 4-year-old son Donald Wicht in 1978. DNA tests not available at the time of his trial later showed Coley could not have done the murders, and DNA from others was present. Police officers testified that the original investigating officer had mishandled the investigation. Coley was pardoned in 2017 after serving 39 years.|
|1979, November 23||Cornelius Dupree||Aggravated robbery and rape of a 26-year-old woman during a carjacking (not charged for the rape)||Dallas, Texas||75 years||30 years||Yes|
|Dupree was convicted on the basis of eyewitness identification. He was later exonerated by the Innocence Project via DNA testing of pubic hair from the rape.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1980, May 6||Joyce Ann Brown||Murder and aggravated robbery||Dallas, Texas||25 years to life in prison||9 years, 5 months, 24 days||Texas Court of Criminal Appeals set aside her conviction because of prosecutorial misconduct. Her record was expunged in 1994.|
|Brown was convicted of robbery in 1980, although the rental car used in the crime had been leased to a different Joyce Ann Brown, who lived in Denver, Colorado. The defendant had a strong alibi, as she was at work at the time of the crime. The conviction was based on eyewitness identification and on testimony of a cellmate that she had confessed. Following investigations by 60 Minutes, The Dallas Morning News, and Centurion Ministries, an appeal was filed. The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals set aside Brown's conviction because of prosecutorial misconduct: they had not revealed that the prosecution witness had been convicted of perjury, and it was not revealed that she received a reduced sentence after testifying.|
|May 21, 1980||Kenneth Waters||Murder of Katherina Reitz Brow||Ayer, Massachusetts||Life in Prison||18 years||Yes|
|Kenneth Waters was convicted on May 11, 1983 for the 1980 murder of Katherina Brow and was sentenced to life in prison until he was exonerated, with the help of his sister Betty Anne, on March 15, 2001 when DNA test results proved he was not the perpetrator. Waters died in an accident six months later on September 19, 2001. His case became the subject of a 2010 film titled Conviction.|
|1980, October 12||Steve Titus||Rape of Nancy Von Roper||Seattle, Washington||N/A||Exonerated following conviction, but prior to sentencing||Yes|
|Titus was convicted of the 1980 rape of a hitchhiking teenager. Seattle Times reporter Paul Henderson began investigating the case after a similar rape was committed a few months after Titus's conviction. His investigation of the case led to Titus's conviction being overturned, and the charges dropped. Henderson won the Pulitzer Prize for his articles on the case. Titus lost his job as a reuslt of the case and died of a heart attack in 1985, shortly before being awarded compensation.|
|1980, August 23||Clarence Brandley||Murder of 16-year-old Cheryl Dee Fergeson at school following a volleyball game||Conroe, Texas||Death||9 years||No|
|Brandley was working as a janitor at Conroe High School when 16-year-old Fergeson was raped and murdered in the loft above the auditorium. A foreign blood sample was found on Fergeson's shirt that did not match either Fergeson's or Brandley's blood type. Following conviction, Brandley's defense team discovered that several pieces of exculpatory evidence were not disclosed by the prosecution. Semen had been found at the scene, but was destroyed without being tested. A Caucasian pubic hair was found on the body; Brandley is African American. Also missing were photographs taken of Brandley on the day of the crime showing that he was not wearing the belt that the prosecution claimed had been the murder weapon. The prosecution received statements implicating two other men in the crime, but failed to disclose them. One of the janitors went to police following Brandley's arrest. He told police he saw another janitor leading the victim up the stairs. He alleged that he was threatened with arrest if he didn't implicate Brandley at trial.|
|1980s||Kern County child abuse cases||Satanic ritual sex abuse||Kern County, California||Varied||Varied|
|The Kern County child abuse cases are a notable example of day-care sex-abuse hysteria of the 1980s. The cases involved claims that a pedophile sex ring performed Satanic ritual abuse: as many as 60 young children testified they had been abused. At least 36 people were convicted and most of them spent years imprisoned. 34 convictions were overturned on appeal. Two convicts died in prison. A documentary titled Witch Hunt was produced and released in 2007. MSNBC also did a documentary on John Stoll and the Kern County cases. In 2009, John Stoll sued Kern County and was awarded $5 million in compensation.|
Prior to the start of the Kern County child abuse cases, several local social workers had attended a training seminar that foregrounded satanic ritual abuse as a major element in child sexual abuse, and had used the now-debunked memoir Michelle Remembers as training material.
|1980s||Cathy Woods||Murder||Reno, Nevada||Life without Parole||35 years in prison||Yes|
|1980, December 21||Claus von Bülow||Attempted murder of his wife Sunny von Bülow||Newport, Rhode Island||30 years in prison||3 years||No|
|Von Bulow was convicted of attempted murder on the theory that he injected his wife with insulin, sending her into a coma. She was comatose for 28 years until her death in 2008. His conviction was overturned and he was retried. His defense team hired a number of world-class experts who argued that Sunny's coma was caused by a combination of oral medications, alcohol, and chronic health conditions. Also entered into evidence was a hospital admission only three weeks prior to her irreversible coma where she ingested at least 73 aspirin tablets. The defense argued that this act demonstrated Sunny's mental state was such that she once again ingested an overdose of drugs. They also argued that the presence of insulin on the tip of the needle found near Sunny suggested that it had been dipped in the insulin, but not injected, as injecting it would've wiped the needle clean. He was acquitted.|
|1981, Summer||Thomas Martin Thompson||Rape and murder of Ginger Fleischli||Laguna Beach, California||Death||Executed||No|
|Thompson was convicted and executed for the rape and murder of Ginger Fleischli, a crime for which he is widely believed to be innocent. He was mainly convicted on the evidence of two notorious informants who claimed Thompson had admitted committing the crime in jail. The prosecution did not inform the judge or the defense that they had also charged and later convicted another person of the crime.|
|1981, September 7||Grover Thompson||Stabbing of 72-year-old Ida White||Mt. Vernon, Illinois||40 years in prison||Died in prison in 1996||Yes|
|Serial killer Timothy Krajcir broke into the apartment of Ida White and stabbed her in her shower. Thompson, who was sleeping in a post office across the street from White's apartment building, was arrested for the crime; the victim misidentified Krajcir as a black man, as did a man who witnessed the killer fleeing. Thompson's possession of a pocket knife with a speck of dried blood was used as evidence against him.
While confessing to other crimes in return for avoiding the death penalty, Krajcir said he attacked a woman in Mt. Vernon and that a "black guy" had been arrested for the crime. Reporter Carly O'Keefe linked the crime to White's stabbing; after work from the Illinois Innocence Project and unsuccessful appeals, Gov. Bruce Rauner granted Thompson posthumous executive clemency based on actual innocence.
|1981, September 18||Raymond Towler||Assault of a 12-year-old boy and rape of 11-year-old girl in a wooded area||Cleveland, Ohio||Multiple: 12 years to life in prison, 7 to 25 years, and 5 to 25 years||27 years||Yes|
|Towler was exonerated by DNA testing.|
|1981, December||Gloria Killian||First-degree murder, attempted murder, burglary, robbery, and conspiracy||Rosemont, California||32-years-to-life||20 years||Yes|
|In December 1981, Gary Masse and Stephen DeSantis, disguised as telephone repairmen, entered the home of an elderly couple in Rosemont, California, shot both occupants and stole six suitcases of silver. Masse's wife told the police that a woman named Gloria masterminded the robbery, prompting the police to arrest 35-year-old Gloria Killian, a former law student with no criminal record. After a preliminary hearing, the charges against Killian were dismissed. Masse was sentenced to life in prison without parole. However, after striking a deal with the Sacramento Sheriff's Department to reduce his sentence in exchange for testimony against others involved, Masse implicated Killian. Killian was re-arrested, and based solely on Masse's testimony, a jury convicted her of first-degree murder, attempted murder, burglary, robbery and conspiracy and sentenced her to 32-years-to-life in prison. Masse's sentence was reduced to 25 years. Ten years later, defense investigators discovered the deal struck between Masse and prosecutors, including a letter where Masse wrote to the prosecutors, "I lied my ass off for you people." Masse later admitted that his testimony against Killian was false. In March 2002, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed Killian's conviction, and in August 2002, Killian was released. The prosecutor, Christopher Cleland, was admonished by the California State Bar for his conduct in the case.|
|1981, August 14||Arthur Lee Whitfield||Rape||Norfolk, Virginia||63 years||22 years||Yes|
|In less than one hour on the night of August 14, 1981, two women in Norfolk, Virginia, were raped. Both victims eventually identified Arthur Whitfield as the assailant. In 1982, he was convicted of one of the crimes and pled guilty to the second in order to receive a lighter sentence and have some of the charges dropped. DNA testing in 2004 proved that he was innocent of both crimes. The first victim was accosted as she got out of her car. The assailant threatened her with a knife, stole her money, and ordered her to undress. The perpetrator raped her and left her there. She then drove to a friend's house and reported the rape. At trial, she testified that she had several opportunities to view the perpetrator by the light of a streetlight and a spotlight on a nearby house. At the police station, she picked out seven photographs. One of the pictures was Whitfield's. She subsequently identified him from a live lineup. The second victim was attacked not long after the first. She had exited her car and was accosted, threatened with a knife, and raped. At trial, the defense argued that Whitfield had been misidentified. Both victims described their attacker as having no facial hair, but Whitfield wore a beard at the time. Whitfield's family testified that he was with them the entire evening. The jury convicted and Whitfield was sentenced to 45 years. He pled guilty to the second crime and received 18 years, to run consecutively to the first sentence, a total of 63 years. In October 2003, Whitfield filed pro-se under the Virginia statute that governs postconviction DNA testing (passed in 2001). It appeared that the evidence had been destroyed. In December 2003, however, the state crime laboratory found pieces of evidence taped inside a notebook of the serologist who had originally tested the evidence. Mary Jane Burton had, against laboratory protocol, saved samples from some of the cases she had worked on. In 2001, evidence located in a similar manner exonerated Marvin Anderson. In 2003, the evidence Burton saved in Julius Ruffin's case was tested and exonerated him. In 2004, the evidence in Whitfield's case was subjected to DNA testing. Whitfield was excluded from the rape kit samples of both victims. The profile obtained from testing indicated that another inmate, already serving life for another sexual assault, was the true perpetrator. Whitfield had served over 22 years in prison for crimes he did not commit.|
|1981, December 6||Julius Ruffin||Rape, sodomy, robbery||Virginia||Life||21 years||Yes|
|On December 6, 1981, Julius Ruffin was accused of raping, sodomizing, and robbing a woman in her home. The victim looked for a black male and identified Ruffin as her attacker, though the description did not match up (Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project). Ruffin is 6'1" (187 cm), with light skin, and two distinguishable gold teeth and facial hair. She identified her attacker as 5'8" (174 cm) with dark skin. On October 1, 1982, he ended being sentenced to Life. Although the real criminal has been convicted, only one of the 'convicts' has had his name totally cleared. Julius Ruffin received $1.5 million in compensation and has had his name completely erased from the registered sex offender list and his record has been cleared of the crimes (Makron). However, Arthur Lee Whitfield is still on the registered sex offender list, has yet to receive a pardon from the Governor of Virginia, and no verdict or decision has been made (Makron). Once the actual rapist was found, both Ruffin and Whitfield were exonerated. Aaron Doxie III, the real perpetrator was convicted for unrelated rapes, and will not be tried for the Virginia rapes because the cases are too cold and much of the evidence has been destroyed (Washington). Also, both of the women insist that Ruffin and Whitfield, respectively, are their attackers.|
|1982||Anthony Porter||Murder of Marilyn Green and her fiancé Jerry Hillard||Chicago, Illinois||Death||17 years||Yes|
|In 1998, students in a journalism course taught by Northwestern University professor David Protess investigated the crime as part of a class assignment for the Medill Innocence Project. The students gathered evidence exposing serious flaws in the prosecution. A witness recanted, saying that Chicago police had "threatened, harassed and intimidated" him into accusing Porter. Another student noted that the shot had been fired by a left-handed shooter; Porter was right-handed. Inez Jackson, the estranged wife of Alstory Simon, came forward and said that she had been with Simon when he killed Hilliard in retaliation for "skimming money from drug deals". Four days later, Simon himself confessed to the crime on videotape. Protess and the students came forward with the information. Porter was released. Simon and his wife later recanted.
In October 2014, Illinois State's Attorney Anita Alvarez decided to release Simon, stating that David Protess, a former Northwestern University journalism professor whose students initially investigated the murders and private investigator Paul Ciolino had used coercive tactics that were "unacceptable by law enforcement standards". Among the charges that Alvarez made was that Ciolino used an actor to falsely implicate Simon. She also criticized Simon's attorney, Jack Rimland, who represented Simon at the suggestion of Ciolino.
|1982||Ron Williamson and Dennis Fritz||Murder of Debra Carter||Ada, Oklahoma||Death for Williamson; life in prison for Fritz||11 years||Yes|
|Carter was murdered in her apartment following a night out with friends at a local bar. Evidence against the men included expert testimony in hair analysis, which is now regarded as unreliable. Ada resident Glen Gore testified against both Williamson and Fritz that Carter had complained to a friend that Williamson "made her nervous". Gore was later connected to the murder by DNA testing and convicted. He is serving life without parole. The case served as the inspiration for John Grisham's The Innocent Man: Murder and Injustice in a Small Town.|
|1982, June||Earl Washington Jr.||Murder of Rebecca Lynn Williams||Culpeper, Virginia||Death||17 Years||Yes|
|Washington, a farmworker who is mildly mentally retarded, was exonerated in 2000 by DNA tests. He was convicted solely on the basis of coerced confessions during which he seemed to have little knowledge of the crime, the victim's appearance, or the location of the crime.|
|1982, October 21||Johnny Briscoe||Rape and robbery||St. Louis, Missouri||45 years||23 years||Yes|
|Briscoe was tried for a 1983 rape and robbery. After the rape, the perpetrator smoked a cigarette, leaving the butt behind. While at the crime scene, the victim asked the perpetrator for his name. He told her his name was John Briscoe. Briscoe's photo was shown to the victim. A week later, she picked him out of a lineup in which he was the only one wearing a prison jumpsuit; the other men were wearing civilian clothing. Briscoe was convicted on the basis of a cross-racial eyewitness identification and hair analysis of hairs found at the crime scene, both of which are known to have a high degree of unreliability. In 2004, the cigarette butt was found from the crime scene matching another man named Larry Smith. Prior to the identification of Smith via DNA, Briscoe and Smith were serving time together in the same prison. Briscoe had heard rumors that Smith was the perpetrator and confronted him about it. Smith denied that he was involved. It is unknown why Smith used Briscoe's name during the crime, although he may have done it in order to frame Briscoe.|
|1983, August||Willie Earl Green||Murder of Denise Walker during a home invasion||Los Angeles, California||33 years to life||25 years||No|
|Denise Walker was killed during a robbery at the home of her boyfriend, Willie Finley. One burglar struck Finley on the head as he was returning from a store, and then brought him into the house where he ordered Walker to let in a second burglar. Walker's mother told police that Willie Green had robbed Denise a year earlier. Finley identified Green in a lineup and he was convicted. Green sought help from Centurion Ministries, a New Jersey-based wrongful conviction advocacy group. In 2004, during their reinvestigation, Finley recanted his testimony. He said that he was high on crack at the time of the attack and that his eyesight had been impaired by the blow to the head. He told investigators that he did not identify Green until police suggested Green as the attacker and told him of the earlier robbery. Based on Finley's recantation, his conviction was vacated in March 2008, and prosecutors decided not to retry him.|
|1983, September 13||Juan Roberto Melendez-Colon||Murder of Delbert Baker||Auburndale, Florida||Death||17 years||No|
|Melendez had an alibi and was convicted largely on testimony of David Falcon, who had a longstanding grudge against Melendez. Witnesses said Falcon had threatened to kill Melendez at some point prior to Melendez allegedly confessing to him. His appeal was denied three times when defense lawyers discovered a taped confession made by Vernon James. In light of the new evidence, Justice Barbara Fleischer determined that Melendez was entitled to a new trial. The state of Florida declined to prosecute a second time since the key witness at the original trial, David Falcon, was now dead and another witness for the prosecution had since recanted his testimony.|
|1983, November||John Gordon Purvis||Murder of Susan Hamwi||Fort Lauderdale, Florida||life in prison||10 years|
|Police received a tip that a man named Robert Wayne Beckett Sr. may have been involved in the murder. Eventually a new set of detectives investigated Beckett, who admitted to the murder for hire of Susan Hamwi on the instruction of Paul Hamwi, her ex-husband. He named Paul Serio as an accomplice.|
|1983, November||Glenn Ford||Murder of Isadore Rozeman||Shreveport, Louisiana||Death By Electrocution||30 years||Yes|
|An all-white jury delivered a guilty verdict without any physical evidence directly linking Ford to the crime, with the inexperienced public defenders unable to secure any witnesses. Evidentiary hearings in 2004 and 2005 found the state failed to disclose exculpatory evidence. The state actively suppressed evidence from before the trial that showed two confidential witnesses corroborating Ford's story that he became involved in the crime after the murders, and that another man was in possession of the murder weapon after the crime. In 2013, the state notified Ford's counsel that a confidential informant for the Caddo Parish Sheriff's Office stated that another man confessed to the murder. Ford was exonerated and released in 2014.|
|1983–1984||Anthony Capozzi||Rape of two women along a bike path||Buffalo, New York||11–35 years in prison||21 years||Yes|
|Capozzi spent 21 years in prison maintaining his innocence when in 2006, a woman was killed along a bike path in a Buffalo suburb. Investigators noticed similarities to a number of other rapes and murders in the area and believed they were committed by one individual. DNA testing implicated Altemio Sanchez, who would eventually plead guilty to the 2006 murder and two others. At least eight crimes were eventually linked to Sanchez via DNA analysis. During the investigation, a detective noticed that one of Capozzi's alleged victims testified that she saw her rapist driving several days later and she copied down his license plate information. When the police initially investigated the tip, they found the owner of the vehicle, but he had an alibi. He was reinterviewed in 2006 and admitted that he had lent the car to his nephew, Altemio Sanchez, that day.
Authorities subpoenaed the hospital where the rape victims were initially treated for evidence from the rape kits. It was believed that the evidence had been lost or destroyed, but eventually it was found and tested, excluding Capozzi and implicating Sanchez.
|1984||Employees of Fells Acres Day Care||Satanic ritual sex abuse||Malden, Massachusetts||Varied|
|Day-care sex-abuse hysteria: Gerald Amirault, a worker at Fells Acres Day Care Center, was charged with molesting more children, and charges were brought against his mother, Violet Amirault, founder of the school and sister, Cheryl Amirault LeFave. In 1986, Gerald Amirault was convicted of assaulting and raping nine children and sentenced to 30 to 40 years in prison. In 1987, at a separate trial, his mother and sister were convicted of similar crimes against four children and sentenced to jail for eight to 20 years. Much of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts' case depended on the information obtained in the interviews of the children who were allegedly sexually abused by the Amiraults. The interviews claimed that the children were raped with knives, sticks, forks, and magic wands; were assaulted by a clown (allegedly Gerald) in a "secret room" and a "magic room"; were forced to drink urine; were tied naked to a tree; and many other acts. The main criticism of this case was directed to reliability of the information obtained from the children. The bulk of the evidence was developed through videotaped interviews conducted by Susan J. Kelley, a pediatric nurse. The children repeatedly told interviewers, including Kelley, that nothing happened to them. However, the questioning continued and eventually the children claimed all these things happened.|
|1984||Bernard Baran||Sexual abuse of children||Pittsfield, Massachusetts||Three life sentences||21 years||No|
|Baran's conviction is cited as an example of the day-care sex-abuse hysteria of the 1980s and 1990s as well as a case of homophobia. The Baran case is the subject of the documentary film Freeing Bernie Baran.|
|1984||Alfred Chestnut, Ransom Watkins, and Andrew Stewart Jr||Murder, Robbery, Illegal Use of a Weapon||Baltimore, Maryland||life||35 years||Yes|
|1984||Leroy Orange||Murder of Ricardo Pedro, Michelle Jointer, Renee Coleman, and Coleman's 10-year-old son, Tony||Chicago, Illinois||Death||19 years||Yes|
|Leroy Orange was arrested along with his half-brother Leonard Kidd. He was convicted of killing his ex-girlfriend, Renee Coleman, and four other people on the basis of a confession allegedly obtained through torture methods such as beating, suffocation, and electroshock. He was pardoned in 2006. Kidd's death sentence was commuted to life in prison. He maintains his innocence and contends that his confession was elicited through torture as well.|
|1984||Kirk Bloodsworth||Murder of Dawn Hamilton||Baltimore, Maryland||Death||8 years||Yes|
|On July 25, 1984, a 9-year-old girl was found dead in a wooded area. She had been beaten with a rock, sexually assaulted, and strangled. Kirk Bloodsworth was convicted on March 8, 1985, of sexual assault, rape, and first-degree premeditated murder. A Baltimore County judge sentenced Bloodsworth to death. He was exonerated almost nine years later after DNA testing excluded him. Bloodsworth became the first person in the U.S. exonerated with DNA evidence. The Innocence Project established the Kirk Bloodsworth Post-Conviction DNA Testing Program, a program that helps states defray the costs of post-conviction DNA testing.|
|1984||Darryl Hunt||Murder of Deborah Sykes||Winston-Salem, North Carolina||Life in prison||19.5 years|
|Hunt was convicted on the basis of eyewitness testimony. He was later cleared by DNA testing.|
|1984, January 3||Thomas Haynesworth||Series of rapes||Richmond, Virginia||84 years||27 years||Yes|
|Haynesworth was arrested at the age of 18 in 1984 after a woman identified him as her attacker. He was convicted of a series of violent rapes in Richmond, Virginia, now believed to have been committed by a neighbor who resembled Haynesworth. In 2009, new state laws and procedures allowed for DNA testing, which was not available in the 1980s, and semen collected from the first attack implicated the neighbor.
The case, which The Washington Post called "one of the state's most extraordinary legal cases", utilized DNA testing and new state laws that allowed possibly innocent convicts to present new evidence.
|1984, December 6||John Thompson||Murder and carjacking||New Orleans, Louisiana||Life plus 49 years||18 years||Yes|
|1985, February 5||"Beatrice Six"||Murder of Helen Wilson||Beatrice, Nebraska||Varies||Varies||Yes|
|Thomas Winslow, Joseph White, Ada JoAnn Taylor, Kathy Gonzalez, James Dean and Debra Shelden were pardoned in 2008 after DNA evidence from the crime scene identified Bruce Allen Smith. Smith died in 1992.|
|1985, February 25||Anthony Ray Hinton||Murder and robbery of John Davidson and Thomas Wayne Vason||Birmingham, Alabama||Death||Nearly 30 years||Yes|
|Hinton was sentenced to death in 1985 for two murders he did not commit. The US Supreme Court ruled in 2014 that his defense lawyer had been deficient. Prosecutors admitted that the bullets found at the scene did not match Hinton's gun; Hinton's conviction was thrown out by a circuit court judge in April 2015 and he was freed.|
|1985, April||Wee Care Nursery School employee Margaret Kelly Michaels||Satanic ritual sexual abuse||Maplewood, New Jersey||47 years in prison||5 years||No|
|Day-care sex-abuse hysteria: In April 1985, a nurse taking a rectal temperature from a 4-year-old boy reported to authorities that he said, "That's what my teacher does to me at nap time at school." Social workers and therapists collected testimony from 51 children from the day care center. During the interviews, children made accusations such as that Michaels forced them to lick peanut butter off her genitals, that she penetrated their rectums and vaginas with knives, forks and other objects, that she forced them to eat cakes made from human excrement and that she made them play duck, duck, goose while naked. Michaels was convicted of 115 counts of sexual abuse.|
In March 1993, Michaels' conviction was overturned. The New Jersey Supreme Court overturned the lower court's decision and declared "the interviews of the children were highly improper and utilized coercive and unduly suggestive methods." A three-judge panel ruled she had been denied a fair trial because "the prosecution of the case had relied on testimony that should have been excluded because it improperly used an expert's theory, called the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome, to establish guilt."
|1985, July 29||Steven Avery||Rape of 36-year-old Penny Ann Beerntsen||Two Rivers, Wisconsin||32 years||18 years||Yes|
|Penny Ann Beerntsen was jogging along Lake Michigan when she was grabbed from behind, dragged into a wooded area and raped. Despite having alibis, Avery was convicted on the basis of a visual identification by the victim and visual hair analysis. In April 2002, DNA testing of 13 pubic hairs recovered from Beerntsen excluded Avery. The DNA matched a man named Gregory Allen, who bore a striking resemblance to Avery. Avery was exonerated and released. As a result of the case, Wisconsin made changes to their eyewitness protocol. Avery also filed a civil suit for wrongful conviction against Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, and some county officials, seeking $36 million in damages. Avery settled the lawsuit for $400,000, used for his defense of the 2005 murder of Theresa Halbach, for which he and nephew Brendan Dassey were convicted.|
|1985||Tim Cole||Rape of a classmate, Michele Mallin||Lubbock, Texas||25 years in prison||14 years (died in prison)||Yes|
|Cole was convicted of rape on basis of a visual identification by the victim. Among other things, Mallin told police that the rapist smoked during the rape. However, Cole never smoked because of his severe asthma. He died in prison on December 2, 1999, from an asthma attack. Another man, Jerry Wayne Johnson, confessed to the rape in 2007. DNA evidence later confirmed that the rape was committed by Johnson. Cole was posthumously exonerated; it was the first posthumous DNA exoneration in the history of the state of Texas.|
Johnson confirmed in court that he was the rapist and asked the victim and Cole's family to forgive him. "It's been on my heart to express my sincerest sorrow and regret and ask to be forgiven," said Johnson, who is serving life in prison for two other 1985 rapes. However, Johnson cannot be charged in the Mallin case because the statute of limitations has expired.
|1986, April 13||Johnny Lee Wilson||Murder of seventy-nine-year-old Pauline Martz||Aurora, Missouri||Life in prison||8 years||Wilson was officially pardoned by the governor of Missouri in 1995.|
|In 1995, Wilson was pardoned by the governor of Missouri, Mel Carnahan. He had been sentenced to life in prison without parole for the 1986 murder of an elderly woman. Wilson confessed to the crime, but Carnahan concluded in his investigation that Wilson, a mentally challenged twenty-year-old, was coerced by the authorities. Carnahan also concluded that there was no evidence linking Wilson to the murder.|
|1986||Michael Morton||Murder of his wife Christine Morton||Williamson County, Texas||Life in prison||25 years||Yes|
|Morton was exonerated in 2011 after DNA tests linked another man, Mark Alan Norwood, to the murder. Norwood was subsequently convicted of Christine's murder. He also is a suspect in the 1988 murder of Debra Baker in her Austin home. Both women were beaten to death in their beds. The prosecutor in the case was charged with contempt after it was discovered that he withheld evidence from the defense team. He gave up his law license and served five days in jail as part of a plea bargain.|
|1986||Santiago Ventura Morales||Murder of Ramiro Lopez Fidel||Sandy, Oregon||10 years to life||5 years||No|
|At trial, he was provided a Spanish interpreter, though his native language is Mixtec. He maintained his innocence and several jurors later had second thoughts about the conviction and began advocating that he be released from prison. The lack of an appropriate interpreter and other deficiencies in his trial led to his conviction being overturned as well as evidence that pointed to another person. In 1995, the state of Oregon passed a law that requires testing and certification of court interpreters as a result of the Morales case.|
|1986, June 30||Kenny Richey||Murder of Cynthia Collins*||Columbus Grove, Ohio||Death||21 years||No|
|Two-year-old Cynthia Collins perished in an apartment fire while her mother was away. Her mother told police that Richey was babysitting. After partying with Cynthia's mother, Richey agreed to keep an eye on the girl in exchange for a place to sleep for the night. Richey was able to escape when the fire broke out, but Cynthia died from smoke inhalation. He was convicted on a number of charges related to starting the fire. The scientific evidence presented at trial to prove this was not accidental was highly disputed, and his conviction was eventually overturned. In lieu of taking the case to trial again, prosecutors had offered to accept a "no contest" plea to attempted involuntary manslaughter, child endangerment and breaking and entering in exchange for release. Although his conviction still stands, the case gained widespread attention across Europe. The European Parliament approved a resolution urging that Richey's life be spared, and Pope John Paul II made an appeal on his behalf. Amnesty International described his case as "the most compelling case of innocence we have come across on death row."|
|1987, January 22 and February 16||Glen Woodall||Sexual Assault, Sexual Abuse, Kidnapping, Robbery||Barboursville, West Virginia||2 life terms without parole and 203 to 335 years, served consecutively||5 years||Yes|
|Two victims in two separate incidents were abducted, raped, and robbed. The assailant wore a ski mask, but both victims noted a few characteristics, such as the perpetrator was uncircumcised. Woodall was convicted on circumstantial evidence, including testimony that he shared the same blood type, similar body and beard hair, voice identification, and a partial visual identification by victim two, and the fact that Woodall was uncircumcised.
Woodall was granted DNA testing in 1988 on semen samples recovered from the victims—the first ever admitted as evidence at the state level in the United States—which excluded Woodall, and the conviction was thrown out.
Woodall was the first person to be exonerated after being convicted due to testimony by lab technician Fred Zain. Woodall's defense team conducted its own tests on the evidence, which determined that Zain had used flawed blood-typing methods in tying the semen to Woodall. It further appeared that Zain had initially determined a piece of hair was unidentifiable pubic hair, but later changed his identification to hair from Woodall's beard. Woodall subsequently sued the state for false imprisonment and won a $1 million settlement.
At the request of the state police, Kanawha County Prosecutor William Forbes began a criminal investigation. Forbes was so disturbed by what he found that he asked the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia to appoint a special judge and a panel of lawyers and scientists to investigate the serology department. On November 4, 1993, Senior Circuit Court Judge James Holliday issued a report finding that Zain had engaged in a staggering litany of misconduct and outright fraud. According to the report, Zain had misstated evidence, falsified lab results and reported scientifically implausible results that may have resulted in as many as 134 people being wrongfully convicted. Holliday found that Zain's misconduct was so egregious that any testimony offered by Zain should be presumed as prima facie "invalid, unreliable, and inadmissible". It also found serious deficiencies in the serology division's quality-control procedures. The Supreme Court unanimously accepted Holliday's report on November 12, calling Zain's actions "egregious violations of the right of a defendant to a fair trial" and a "corruption of our legal system". West Virginia paid out a total of $6.5 million to settle lawsuits by people who had been wrongfully convicted due to Zain.
|1987, February 11||Tim Masters||Murder of Peggy Hettrick||Fort Collins, Colorado||Life in prison||9 years||Yes|
|Masters was a sophomore in high school at the time of the murder. He was convicted largely on the basis of graphic drawings by Masters portraying violent scenes. He was later eliminated via DNA testing. In 2008, special prosecutors assigned to the case agreed that critical information was not turned over to the original defense team. Rather, the DNA results pointed to Hettrick's sometime boyfriend. In 2008 a Colorado judge vacated Masters' conviction and ordered him released immediately.|
|1987||Levon "Bo" Jones||Murder of Leamon Grady||Duplin County, North Carolina||Death||14 years||No|
|Lovely Lorden, the sole witness against Jones, admitted in an affidavit that she "was certain that Bo did not have anything to do with Mr. Grady's murder" and that she did not know what happened the night Grady was murdered. His conviction was overturned in 2006 and he was released.|
|1988, January 22||James Calvin Tillman||Rape||Hartford, Connecticut||45 years||16 years||Yes|
|Accused and found guilty of rape, was released after DNA tests proved he was not the culprit.|
|1988, September 7||Martin Tankleff||Murder of his parents Seymour and Arlene Tankleff||Long Island, New York||Two terms of 25 years to life||17 years||Yes|
|Tankleff's parents were murdered while the 17-year-old Tankleff was sleeping in the home. He was convicted on the basis of a false confession given during an extended interrogation. His convictions were overturned in 2007 after his defense attorney presented an alternative scenario involving Seymour's business partner, to whom he owed money, and three former convicts, one of whom confessed to being the getaway driver.|
|1988, November 8||Joseph Burrows||Murder of William Dulan, an 88-year-old retired farmer||Kankakee, Illinois||Death||6 years|
|Several hours after the murder, a man named Chuck Gullion attempted to cash one of Dulan's checks at a local bank. Gullion was arrested along with 32-year-old Gayle Potter. Potter admitted to the killing, but implicated two others: Burrows and Ralph Frye, 22, a mildly retarded friend of Burrows.
No physical evidence linked either Burrows or Frye to the crime, and the two men had alibis. After a lengthy interrogation, Frye agreed to a plea deal in exchange for testifying against Burrows. Following Burrows' conviction, Frye recanted his testimony to news reporter Peter Rooney, claiming that police had coerced him in exchange for a lesser sentence. Burrows' lawyers discovered a letter written by Potter asking a friend to lie and say that she had seen Burrows drive her to the crime scene. Confronted with the letter, Potter admitted that she had falsely accused the men in part because she mistakenly believed that Burrows had burglarized her trailer.
|1989, January||Employees at the Little Rascals day care facility||Satanic ritual sex abuse||Edenton, North Carolina||Varied, 7 years to life||Varied||No|
|Day-care sex-abuse hysteria: In January, 1989, allegations were made that Bob Kelly had sexually abused a child. A total of 90 children, after many therapy sessions (in some cases up to ten months' worth), also made allegations leading to accusations against dozens besides Kelly and charges against seven adults (Bob and Betsy Kelly, three workers at the day care, a worker at a local Head Start center and the son of a judge). The charges ultimately involved rape, sodomy and fellatio, while other bizarre allegations were also made, including the murder of babies, torture and being thrown into a school of sharks.
During the trial, children were asked to testify about events that had occurred three years previously, with memories "refreshed" in therapy sessions, meetings with the prosecution and repeated discussions with their parents. While the alleged abuse was occurring, no parents noticed anything unusual about their children's behavior to indicate abuse or torture. The eight-month trial against Bob Kelly was the most expensive in North Carolina history, ending in conviction on 99 of 100 charges and twelve consecutive life sentences, though on May 2, 1995, all convictions were reversed in the Court of Appeals.
|1989, April 19||"Central Park Five": Yusef Salaam, Antron McCray, Raymond Santana, Kevin Richardson and Korey Wise||Assault and rape of Trisha Ellen Meili||New York, New York||Varied||Varied||Yes|
|The five boys, who were between the ages of 14 and 16 at the time, were convicted of the assault and rape of Meili, who was jogging in Central Park. They were convicted and their convictions were upheld on appeal, though they asserted that their convictions were based on allegedly coerced confessions and allegedly faulty scientific evidence. The convictions were vacated in 2002 when Matias Reyes, a convicted rapist and murderer serving a life sentence for other crimes, whose DNA evidence confirmed his involvement in the rape, claimed after the statute of limitations had run that he had committed the crimes alone, a claim the Armstrong Report disagreed with.|
|1989 April 11||Sabrina Butler||Murder of her nine-month-old son, Walter Dean Butler*||Mississippi||Death||5 years|
|She was convicted of murder and child abuse after her unresponsive son was rushed to the hospital. At retrial, one of Sabrina's neighbors corroborated her account of events and the medical examiner changed his opinion about Walter's cause of death, which he now believed occurred due to a renal condition. Sabrina was acquitted.|
|1989 August||Jeffrey Scott Hornoff||Murder of Victoria Cushman||Warwick, Rhode Island||Life in prison||6 years||Yes|
|Hornoff was a police detective who had an affair with the victim. He was arrested in 1994, and convicted by a jury of first-degree murder in June 1996, despite what seemed a rock-solid alibi and no physical evidence linking him to the crime.
In November 2002, Todd Barry confessed to the murder and in 2003, Barry was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
|1989 December 2||Debra Jean Milke||Murder of Christopher Milke||Phoenix, Arizona||Death||23 years|
|Milke was convicted on the basis of testimony by police officer Armando Saldate that she had freely confessed to him, orally, in private and without a recording. Saldate had a long record of misconduct, including a suspension for taking "liberties" with a female motorist and then lying about it to his supervisors; four court cases where judges tossed out confessions or indictments because Saldate lied under oath; and four cases where judges suppressed confessions or vacated convictions because Saldate had violated the Fifth Amendment or the Fourth Amendment in the course of interrogations.|
|1989, January 4||Debbie Tucker Loveless and John Harvey Miller||Murder of April Renee Tucker||Emory, Texas||Life in prison||4 years||Yes|
|Loveless and Miller were convicted of murdering Loveless' 4-year-old daughter, April Renee Tucker, who died on the operating table after sustaining multiple lacerations, including a severed femoral artery. Loveless and Miller claimed that April had told them she had been attacked and mauled by dogs, but investigators rejected their theory, in large part because April's wound was a clean cut, lacking the jagged edges one would expect in a dog attack. On November 5, 1989, they were convicted and sentenced to life in prison. While working on their appeal, lawyers for Miller and Loveless found that April's emergency room and autopsy photos, which had not been turned over the defense prior to the trial, strongly supported the theory that April was attacked by dogs. Furthermore, a key piece of prosecution evidence was found to be flawed: while trying to save April's life, doctors had cut away some of the damaged skin with scalpels, causing the clean cuts that had been mistakenly attributed to abuse. Based on the prosecution's failure to disclose potentially exculpatory evidence, Loveless and Miller's convictions were overturned and they were granted a new trial. Loveless and Miller were released from prison on December 23, 1993; prosecutors elected not to re-try Loveless and Miller for the crime, and formally dismissed the charges against them on May 2, 1994.|
|1989||Mark Denny||Sexual Assault, Robbery, Other Violent Felony||Manhattan||19 to 57 years||28 years||Yes|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1990||Jeffrey Mark Deskovic||Murder of Angela Correa||Peekskill, New York||15 years to life||16 years||Yes|
|Deskovic was convicted on the basis of a coerced confession. He claims that during a 7-hour intensive interrogation, detectives fed him details and promised him he wouldn't go to prison if he confessed. Hair and semen samples collected did not match Deskovic, but prosecutors argued that they were from earlier consensual sex and were not related to the murder. The DNA was later matched to a man who is serving time for another Westchester murder.|
|1991, January 18||Francisco "Franky" Carrillo||Murder of Donald Sarpy||Los Angeles, California||Life in prison||20 years||No|
|Carrillo was convicted on the basis of testimony of six teenage boys who witnessed the murder. He was released after five of the six witnesses recanted; the sixth refused to testify.|
|1991||Dixmoor 5||Murder of Cateresa Matthews||Dixmoor, Illinois||varied||varied||Yes|
|Robert Taylor, Jonathan Barr, James Harden, Robert Lee Veal and Shainne Sharp were convicted of the murder. They were between the ages of 14 and 16 at the time. Three of them confessed after high-pressure police interrogations, and all five were arrested and charged with the crime. Two pleaded guilty and testified against the others in exchange for shorter sentences. Both men have since recanted their testimony. Each received at least 80 years in prison. DNA testing on semen excluded the suspects. A convicted sex offender has been identified as the source of the DNA, but his name has yet to be released and he has not been charged. A suit filed by the men alleges police withheld exculpatory evidence, including the DNA, from their defense teams. In 2014, they reached a wrongful conviction settlement with the state of Illinois for $40 million US dollars, the largest wrongful conviction settlement in state history.|
|1991, December 23||Cameron Todd Willingham||Arson deaths of his three children*||Corsicana, Texas||Death penalty||Executed||No|
|Willingham was convicted and executed for the death of his three children who died in a house fire. The prosecution charged that the fire was caused by arson. He has not been posthumously exonerated, but the case has gained widespread attention as a possible case of wrongful execution. A number of arson experts have decried the results of the original investigation as faulty. In June 2009, five years after Willingham's execution, the State of Texas ordered a re-examination of the case. Dr. Craig Beyler found "a finding of arson could not be sustained". Beyler said that key testimony from a fire marshal at Willingham's trial was "hardly consistent with a scientific mind-set and is more characteristic of mystics or psychics". The Texas Forensic Science Commission was scheduled to discuss the report by Beyler at a meeting on October 2, 2009, but two days before the meeting Texas Governor Rick Perry replaced the chair of the commission and two other members. The new chair canceled the meeting, sparking accusations that Perry was interfering with the investigation and using it for his own political advantage. In 2010, a four-person panel of the Texas Forensic Science Commission acknowledged that state and local arson investigators used "flawed science" in determining the blaze had been deliberately set.|
|1991, December 29||Ray Krone||Murder of Kim Ancona||Maricopa County, Arizona||Death penalty, Life in prison||11 years||Yes|
|Krone was convicted twice largely on the basis of bitemark analysis, a science that would later come into question. He was eventually cleared via DNA testing.|
|1992, April 6||Robert Jones||a series of armed robberies, a rape and a murder||New Orleans, Louisiana||Life in prison||23 years||Yes|
|Jones was convicted largely on eyewitness identification, even though another man was also found guilty of the crimes and the prosecution withheld exculpatory evidence. Jones' conviction was eventually overturned by the Louisiana Supreme Court, and all charges against him were subsequently dropped.|
|1992, August 17||Juan Rivera||Murder of 11-year-old Holly Staker||Waukegan, Illinois||Life in prison||20 years||Yes|
|Rivera was wrongfully convicted three times for the murder of Staker, who was babysitting at a neighbor's house when she was raped and murdered by an intruder. Swabs were taken of a semen sample, but DNA testing was not performed at the time. Rivera was convicted on the basis of a confession that he claims was given under duress and which contained many factual inconsistencies. He was convicted twice before DNA testing was performed on the swabs taken from the crime scene. DNA testing excluded Rivera from being the source of the semen. Prosecutors decided to try him again despite the results of the DNA test, arguing that the semen sample was from consensual sex prior to the murder. He was convicted a third time.
His case was overturned a third and final time with the appellate court heavily criticizing prosecutors for arguing that Holly was sexually active without evidence and for putting so much weight on a confession obtained while Rivera, who suffered from mental illness, was in an "acute psychotic state" and which contained so many inaccuracies.
Following his exoneration, his defense team sought to do further testing on shoes that the state had once sought to enter into evidence. Holly's blood was found on shoes worn by Juan. The evidence had been dropped once it was discovered that the shoes were not for sale anywhere in the US until after the murder. Genetic testing performed in 2014 found not only Holly's blood, but genetic material that matches the semen found at the crime scene. His defense team argued that the reasonable interpretation is that in an effort to plant blood on Juan's shoes, the state also planted DNA from Holly's real killer. Following this revelation, the state agreed to settle with Rivera, giving him a US$20 million settlement, which at the time was the largest wrongful conviction settlement in US history.
The source of the DNA has never been identified, but it has been linked to evidence found at another murder scene. The man convicted of that murder insists this is proof that he himself has been wrongfully convicted.
|1993, April 8||Gary Gauger||Murder of his parents, Morris and Ruth Gauger||McHenry County, Illinois||Death penalty||3 years||Yes|
|Following the murder, police interrogated Gauger for 18 hours. Detectives lied to Gauger, claiming they had found blood-soaked clothes in Gauger's bedroom and that he had failed a polygraph test. Gauger was instructed to discuss a hypothetical situation and describe how he would have killed his parents during a possible alcohol-induced blackout. The interrogation was not tape-recorded and Gauger did not sign a confession. His hypothetical statements were later used in court in support of a claim that Gauger confessed to the crime. In 1996, he was granted an appeal and his alleged confession was thrown out. Without that evidence they were forced to drop the charges. James Schneider and Randall E. Miller, members of the Outlaws Motorcycle Club, were later convicted of the murders. Gauger was pardoned in 2002.|
|1993, February 13||Lynn DeJac||Murder of her daughter Crystallynn Girard*||Buffalo, New York||25 years||14 years||Yes|
|Lynn DeJac summoned police to her home on February 13, 1993, after finding her daughter, Crystallyn Girard, dead in her bed. DeJac told police that she spent the evening out with her boyfriend, Dennis Donohue, with whom she had had an argument that evening. The coroner ruled that she died from strangulation. Donohue became a suspect for a brief time after DeJac told police he may have returned to her house while she was out. He was arrested, but was later granted full immunity in return for testimony regarding DeJac's use of cocaine that evening. Wayne Hudson, a childhood friend of DeJac, claimed that DeJac confessed to him that she had killed her daughter. She was convicted on the basis of the testimony from the two men. At the time he came forward, Hudson was facing forgery charges and a possible life sentence in prison as a repeat offender. In 2008, a new autopsy determined that Crystallyn died of a cocaine overdose, not strangulation.|
|1993, August 29||Mark Maxson||Murder of six-year-old boy Lindsay Murdock||Chicago, Illinois||Life plus 40 years||23 years||Yes|
|Police subjected Maxson to torture and beatings until he made a confession to the murder of Lindsay Murdoch. In spite of withdrawing his confession and lack of physical evidence against him, Maxson was convicted and sentenced to life plus 40 years. In 2015 the Cook County Conviction Integrity Unit got DNA testing done which proved another man, Osborne Wade, had committed the murder. Wade confessed to the murder.|
|1994, April 30||Ken Wyniemko||Criminal Sexual Conduct, Armed Robbery, Breaking and Entering||Clinton, Michigan||40–60 years||8 years||Yes|
|Wyniemko was convicted on the basis of his resemblance to the composite sketch and identification of Wyniemko in a lineup by the victim. He was later cleared by DNA testing.|
|1995, March 2||Shareef Cousin||Murder of Michael Gerardi||New Orleans, Louisiana||Death||4 years||No|
|Cousin was convicted on the basis of an eyewitness identification by Gerardi's date. It was later discovered that she had made statements to police indicating that she wasn't wearing her glasses and didn't get a good look at the assailant. This statement was not disclosed to the defense. Another witness testified that he was coerced to testify against Cousin in exchange for a reduced sentence on his own charges. After his release, Cousin alleged that the prosecutor's office had illegally detained witnesses whom Cousin had planned to call to testify in his defense, making it impossible for them to testify.|
|1995, April 14 (Discovered)||Alan Gell||Murder of Allen Ray Jenkins||Aulander, North Carolina||Death||9 years||No|
|Two teenage girls testified that they were involved in a conspiracy involving Gell in exchange for a lower sentence. Gell was in prison or otherwise out of town for all but one day in April. Although the date of death is unknown, prosecutors hitched their timeline to that date. Gell's conviction was overturned after it was later discovered that prosecutors had withheld exculpatory evidence, including the testimony of 17 witnesses who said they had seen Jenkins alive after that date as well as a tape recording of one of the girls saying that she had to make up a story to tell the police. Gell was retried and acquitted of all charges.|
|1996||Kristine Bunch||Arson and murder of her 3-year-old son||Decatur County, Indiana||110 years||17 years||Yes|
|Bunch was convicted of deliberately setting a fire in her mobile home that took the life of her 3-year-old son, Anthony. The conviction was largely based on the testimonies of Fire Marshall investigators Brian Frank and James Skaggs, who claimed that the fire was caused by the presence of liquid accelerants that had been poured across the floor. Their testimony was corroborated by forensic analyst William Kinard, who found traces of liquid accelerants in wood samples taken from the home. During the trial, Bunch had become pregnant. At Bunch's sentencing hearing, Judge John Westhafer accused her of orchestrating the pregnancy to gain an advantage in court and declared that she will "have nothing to do with that child." Bunch maintained her innocence. Years later, lawyers found that Kinard's original report found no traces of liquid accelerants anywhere in the home and that Frank and Skaggs conspired with Kinard to alter the report to score a conviction. In 2008, in light of the fabricated evidence against Bunch, her legal team filed a petition for a new trial, which was rejected by Judge Westhafter. The defense appealed, and in March 2012, the Court of Appeals of Indiana reversed the conviction and held that Bunch was entitled to a new trial. In August 2012, The Indiana Supreme Court declined to disturb the Court of Appeals decision. 24 days later, Bunch was released on her own recognizance, and in December 2012, the prosecution dropped the remaining charges against her.|
|1996||Christopher Tapp||Rape and murder of Angie Dodge||South Bend, Indiana||30 years to life||20 years||Yes|
|On June 13, 1996, Dodge was found raped and murdered in her Idaho Falls apartment. Months later, 20-year-old Tapp, a high school dropout, confessed to police that he had been involved. Tapp's DNA did not match samples taken at the crime scene, and no other physical evidence linked him to the crime. But at trial, that inconsistency was explained away by a theory that multiple people had participated in the killing. It was also outweighed by Tapp's confession. In 1998, Tapp was convicted by a jury of rape and murder and sentenced to 30 years to life. The Idaho Innocence Project took up Tapp's case in 2007. At the same time, more than a decade after her daughter's murder, Carol Dodge was still searching for answers. While Tapp had been convicted, authorities had failed to match the crime scene DNA to any suspect, though they believed the crime had more than one perpetrator. In 2017, in the face of mounting evidence of his innocence, Tapp's rape charge was vacated and his murder sentence was reduced to time served, allowing him to leave prison. But authorities still hadn't connected the DNA evidence with an alternate suspect. Then, in late 2018, police partnered with Parabon NanoLabs, a Virginia company that specializes in DNA analysis, to analyze crime scene evidence using genetic genealogy via GEDmatch which Eventually, narrowed down her results to a new suspect: Brian Leigh Dripps Sr who had lived across the street from Angie Dodge in 1996. Tapp was exonerated on July 17, 2019, which makes him the first man to be exonerated with use of genetic genealogy.|
|1996||Richard Alexander||Several rapes, dubbed "River Park Rapist"||South Bend, Indiana||20 years||5 years||Yes|
|Alexander was convicted of a series of rapes in South Bend, Indiana, and was dubbed the "River Park Rapist". He was convicted largely on the basis of eyewitness testimony. In 2001, with Alexander already having served five years in prison, an alleged burglar and child molester named Michael Murphy confessed to one of the two rapes of which Alexander had been convicted, knowing details only the true assailant would know. With this revelation, a judge ordered a new round of DNA testing in Alexander's case. Hairs found at the scene of the rape were submitted to mitochondrial DNA testing. At the time of Alexander's original conviction, such testing was not available in the state of Indiana. The tests proved that the DNA did not match Alexander's profile, but did match Murphy's. Alexander was released from prison on December 12, 2001. It is now believed that the River Park Rapist was actually two separate perpetrators.|
|1997, July 8||"Norfolk Four": Derek Tice, Danial Williams, Joseph J. Dick Jr., and Eric C. Wilson||Rape and murder of Michelle Moore-Bosko||Norfolk, Virginia||Varied, 8.5 years to life||Varied||Yes|
|Michelle Moore-Bosko was raped and murdered in her apartment. Police initially focused on a neighbor of Moore-Bosko, Danial Williams, coercing a confession with threats of receiving the death penalty if he did not plead guilty. When his DNA did not match the DNA found at the scene, police coerced confessions from Joseph J. Dick Jr., Eric C. Wilson, and Derek Tice, operating under the new theory that it was a gang rape and murder, even though none of the evidence at the scene pointed to this. After Dick, Tice, and Wilson's DNA failed to match the DNA found at the crime scene, three additional men were charged, though charges were dropped against these three after Tice refused to testify against them.|
Police later obtained a letter written by Omar Ballard, where he indicated that he had murdered Michelle Moore-Bosko. Ballard's DNA matched the DNA at the scene, and he admitted to the crime, stating that he had acted alone. However, the authorities refused to drop charges against the other four. Wilson pled not guilty and was acquitted of murder but was convicted of rape, and was sentenced to eight and a half years in prison. Williams sought to withdraw his guilty plea, but his motion was denied and he was given a life sentence. Dick pled guilty and was given a life sentence. Tice pled not guilty and was convicted of capital murder and rape, and was sentenced to two consecutive life terms. Although evidence from the scene indicated that there was only one assailant, by the time the cases came to trial, police and prosecutors were advancing the notion that there were eight participants in the rape and murder.
Wilson was released from prison in 2005. In 2009, Virginia governor Tim Kaine granted Dick, Tice, and Williams "conditional pardons", which reduced their sentences to time served, but they were placed on parole and were required to register as sex offenders. Derek Tice won a full exoneration in 2011. In 2016, U.S. District Judge John Gibney vacated the convictions of Joseph Dick and Danial Williams, with the judge declaring that both men were innocent of the crime. In 2017, Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe granted Joseph Dick, Derek Tice, Danial Williams, and Eric Wilson full pardons.
|1997, October 13||Julie Rea Harper||Murder of her 10-year-old son, Joel Kirkpatrick||Lawrenceville, Illinois||65 years||4 years||Yes|
|In the early morning hours of October 13, 1997, 10-year-old Joel Kirkpatrick was stabbed to death in his bedroom. His mother, Julie Rea Harper, had visitation with him that weekend and testified that she was awakened by screams and rushed into her son's room, where she fought off the intruder. Despite the fact that Harper sustained substantial injuries, and the absence of any physical evidence linking her to the crime, the police immediately discounted her testimony and focused on her as the prime suspect. In 2000, Harper was charged with capital murder by special prosecutor Ed Parksinson. When Harper requested two capital-qualified attorneys to defend her, in compliance with state law, Parkinson announced that he no longer intended to seek the death penalty, forcing Harper to rely on a public defender. During the trial, prosecutors asserted that Harper was angry about her loss in her custody battle with her ex-husband and used her pursuit of a post-graduate degree to vilify her as a career-obsessed woman with no time for a child. They also elicited false testimony from her ex-husband that she had once considered having an abortion in order to demonstrate that she was capable of murder. In March 2002, Harper was convicted and sentenced to 65 years in prison.
In 2004, Tommy Lynn Sells, a serial killer who murdered several children, confessed that he had broken into a home, stabbed a little boy to death and scuffled with a woman around the same time and place that Kirkpatrick was murdered. Sells's confession was remarkably similar to Harper's account of the crime. It was also discovered that the prosecution withheld exculpatory evidence and relied on false testimony from several deputies during the trial. In response, the Illinois Appellate Court reversed Harper's conviction and ordered a new trial. Harper was re-arrested immediately upon walking out of jail. In her retrial, the defense presented extensive forensic evidence substantiating Harper's account and established that her injuries could not have been self-inflicted. In July 2006, a jury found Harper not guilty of killing her son. The day after her trial, Lawrence County State attorney Patrick Hahn praised the prosecutor in the case as "a man of the highest integrity."
|1998, June 7||Clarence Elkins||Murder of Judith Johnson, Elkins' mother-in-law, rape of his niece Brooke||Barberton, Ohio||Life in prison||6.5 years||Yes|
|Judith Johnson was beaten, raped and murdered while her 6-year-old granddaughter, Brooke, was staying at her house. Brooke was also beaten and raped, but survived. She told police that the killer "looked like Uncle Clarence". He was convicted on the basis of this identification. She later explained that she meant the killer resembled him, rather than being a positive identification and she felt pressured to testify against him at trial by the prosecutor. DNA testing performed after conviction from semen found on the victims excluded Elkins, but his appeal was denied. Elkins' wife, who is Judith's daughter, solved the case through her research. She identified Earl Mann, Johnson's neighbor, as a likely suspect. Elkins, who was in prison with Mann at the time, collected a cigarette butt from Mann. It was a match.|
|1998||Luis Vargas||Sexual Assault, Kidnapping||Los Angeles, California||55 years in prison||16 years||Yes|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|2000, September 28||David Camm||Murder of his wife Kim and two children, Brad and Jill||Georgetown, Indiana||Life in prison||13 years||Yes|
|The key evidence against Camm was testimony regarding blood spatter patterns on his tee shirt. It was later discovered that one of the key prosecution witnesses, a blood spatter analyst whose findings had triggered the arrest, had falsified his credentials. He had testified at trial that he was a college professor in the process of getting his PhD. It was later uncovered that he had no affiliation to the university, had no training in blood spatter or crime scene analysis, and had never worked a single case prior to the Camm family murders. In 2013, he testified for the defense, explaining that he worked as an office assistant for a crime scene analyst and had been sent to the crime scene to take photos when he began voicing his opinions on the evidence. He claims the prosecutor, Stan Faith, fabricated the credentials for the trial.
A new suspect emerged when the defense compelled the prosecution to run DNA evidence found on a sweatshirt on the floor of the crime scene through CODIS a second time. It was discovered that the DNA was never run through CODIS despite the fact that Faith had assured Camm's defense team that it had been run and it returned no matches. The sweatshirt contained the DNA, prison nickname, and department of corrections number of Charles Boney, a convicted felon with a history of stalking and attacking women. He was on parole at the time for the attempted kidnapping of several college students from their apartment. Investigators had looked for Camm's DNA on the sweatshirt, but failed to investigate any other leads. A DNA analyst who worked on the case filed a complaint alleging that the prosecutor attempted to get her to testify that the foreign DNA sample was Camm's DNA. A fingerprint analyst who found Boney's prints testified to a similar interaction. The prosecutor was later discovered to be Boney's defense attorney as well as a personal family friend, and they admitted discussing the case prior to Boney becoming a suspect. Faith asserts this is coincidental and he did not know Boney was involved.
|2001, July 8||Kirstin "Blaise" Lobato||Murder of Duran Bailey||Las Vegas, Nevada||40 to 100 years in prison||16 years||Yes|
|In May 2001, Lobato, then 18, was staying at a residential motel in Las Vegas when she was allegedly attacked by a black man who "smelled like alcohol and dirty diapers." She was able to escape after she pulled out a knife and slashed the man's groin. Lobato was addicted to meth and had not slept for three days at the time of the attack, so she did not report the event to police, but she did tell friends. One of the friends who heard Lobato's story told a teacher who notified police. In July, a homeless man named Duran Bailey was found murdered on the other side of town. His penis had been severed. Although Lobato told friends about her attack prior to Bailey's murder and she had an alibi for the time of the murder, police suspected Lobato to be his killer. Police confronted her about the attack and she tearfully told them details. At the end of the interview, she was informed that she killed the man who attacked her and she was charged with murder. This "confession" would serve as key evidence against her. It wasn't until after her arrest that she discovered that the man whose murder she was charged with wasn't the man who attacked her. In 2017, her defense team convinced the appellate court that had the jury heard the strong entomological evidence pinpointing of Bailey's time of death coupled with her alibi witnesses placing her in Panaca, Nevada, they would have acquitted. Lobato's conviction was overturned. The district attorney took the further step of asking a judge to dismiss the case with prejudice, a move that bars her from ever being prosecuted for the crime.|
|2001, November 1||Ryan Ferguson||Murder of Kent Heitholt||Columbia, Missouri||40 years in prison||9 years, 8 months||Yes|
|Ferguson, who was 17 at the time of the murder, was convicted on the basis of a friend's confession to police claiming he and Ferguson killed Heitholt for drinking money. His friend, Charles Erickson, had mental health issues and substance abuse issues at the time and initially claimed to have no memory of the evening. Ferguson's conviction was overturned on November 5, 2013, after it was uncovered that the prosecution withheld exculpatory evidence and the witnesses who testified against him recanted their testimony. Erickson remains incarcerated, but Ferguson has vowed to work to get him released.|
|2002||Brian Banks||Rape of Wanetta Gibson*||Long Beach, California||6 years in prison||5 years||Yes|
|Brian Banks was a student at Long Beach Polytechnic High School when a fellow student accused him of rape. He accepted a plea deal to avoid a lengthy sentence and ended up serving almost the entire sentence. The accuser was later recorded admitting that the sexual contact was consensual and that she made up the allegation so her mother wouldn't find out she was sexually active. Gibson's family had received a $1.5 million settlement from the school following Banks' guilty plea for failing to keep Wanetta safe.|
|2005||Lamar Johnson||Murder of Carlos Sawyer||Baltimore, Maryland||Life in prison||13 years||Yes|
|Lamar Johnson was wrongly identified as the suspect following a 911 tip, that the assailant has a particular nickname: "Boo Boo." This tip came hours after the fatal attack. Police followed the lead and found Lamar Johnson, who at the time was incorrectly identified by this nickname. At the end of the trial in 2005, Johnson was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison. There was no physical evidence that connected Johnson nor a clear motive for the crime provided by the prosecution. Eyewitnesses testified that Johnson "looked like" the gunman. In 2008, Lamar Johnson began filing with the court of appeals to overturn his conviction. The Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project (MAIP), a subset of the Innocence Network, picked up Johnson's case and began re-investigating. This process found new eyewitnesses that had originally not been interviewed or seen as important. The MAIP team also re-tested physical evidence used in the original case and visited the crime scene multiple times. On September 19, 2017, Lamar Johnson's case was reviewed in a writ of actual innocence hearing.|
|2007, April 2||Anthony Capozzi||Convicted of committing two sexual assaults*||Buffalo, New York||11–35 years in prison||22 years||Yes|
|Anthony Capozzi was wrongfully convicted of committing two sexual assaults in Buffalo, New York, in the mid-1980s. He spent over two decades in prison for these crimes before DNA testing proved his innocence and revealed the identity of the true perpetrator who had gone on to commit multiple rapes and murders while Capozzi was wrongfully imprisoned.|
|2008, September 21||Adrian P. Thomas||Murder of his son Matthew Thomas*||Troy, New York||25 years to life in prison||6 years||Yes|
|Four-month-old Matthew Thomas was rushed to the hospital by his father after finding him unresponsive. During the interrogation, investigators told him that it had been proven the child died from blunt force trauma and that they knew someone in the household had done it. They threatened to arrest his wife if he did not confess. He was convicted on the basis of his confession. It was later determined that the cause of death was sepsis.|
|Date of crime||Defendant(s)||Crime||Location||Sentence||Time served||Legally exonerated|
|1997||James Chad-Lewis Clay||Child Sex Abuse||Detroit, Michigan||25 to 50 years||1 year and 7 months||Yes|
|On November 12, 1997, a 15-year-old girl was sexually assaulted in an alley near Hayes Street and Harper Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. She said she was dragged into the alley at gunpoint and a cloth was put over her head and was raped. She had not seen her attacker before. The girl was taken to a hospital where a rape kit was prepared. The crime went unsolved. It was not until 2009, when the Detroit Police Department obtained a federal grant, that the kit and more than 10,000 others were submitted for DNA testing, a process that took several years.
In 2017, a DNA profile developed from the rape kit was linked to James Chad-Lewis Clay because his DNA profile was in the FBI's DNA database due to a prior conviction for possession of a stolen vehicle. Detroit police showed the rape victim, who was in her 30s, a photographic lineup that included a photograph of Clay as an adult. She was unable to identify Clay. When police questioned Clay, he denied attacking the woman. When he was shown a recent photograph of the woman taken in 2015–18 years after the attack—he denied knowing her. “I never seen her,” Clay said. “I do not know her. I never saw her a day in my life.” When he was informed that his DNA had been identified in the rape kit, he became angry. “That’s impossible,” he declared. “This is crazy….I never dated her. I don’t know her.” On August 4, 2017, he was charged with first-degree criminal sexual conduct. Not long after, the woman learned that Clay's full name was James Chad-Lewis Clay. She told police that she had a boyfriend in high school who she knew as Chad, and that they had been sexually involved at the time. She told police that she met him through a friend named Dion who was five feet, two inches tall, had green eyes, and played on the high school basketball team. She said that she and Chad would often skip school and stay at Chad's aunt's house. She said also she had a scar on her arm. When police questioned Clay about the woman's statements, he said he lived with his mother and denied having sex with a girl with the woman's first name or a girl with a scar on her arm. He denied knowing anyone named Dion. And he said nothing about staying at his aunt's house—a fact he later attributed to being in shock because of the accusation.
During a court hearing prior to trial, Clay suddenly recalled the woman and that they had a sexual relationship 20 years earlier. However, during trial in November 2017 in Wayne County Circuit Court, the woman said she did not recall Clay or having consensual sex with him. The prosecution presented the evidence that Clay's DNA was found in the rape kit. There was additional DNA present that was not identified due to the size of the sample. On November 12, 2017, based solely on the DNA evidence, the jury convicted Clay of first-degree criminal sexual conduct. He was sentenced to 25 to 50 years in prison.
While his case was on appeal, Clay's mother reached out to Steven Crane, of ACS Investigations, a private investigation firm in West Bloomfield, Michigan, to re-investigate the case. At the time, Crane was working on an investigation for Clay's cellmate, who suggested Clay contact Crane. In 2019, Crane obtained a photograph of Clay when he was a teenager and showed it to the victim. She identified the photograph as that of a boyfriend named Chad with whom she had a consensual sexual relationship. When Crane showed her a photograph of Clay as an adult, she said that was the man who raped her, based on seeing him in court. Informed that the photos were of the same person, the woman subsequently provided a statement saying, “The James Clay that is in prison for my rape was my boyfriend in high school who went by the name Chad.” Crane also located Dyeon McIntyre, who had green eyes and confirmed that he knew the victim and “Chad.” He said he played basketball during high school, although on playgrounds. Shown a photograph of Clay as an adult, he identified it as “Chad.” When Crane provided the results of his investigation to Clay's appellate attorney, Melvin Houston, he declined to accept it or review it, according to Crane. As a result, Crane reached out to the Michigan State Appellate Defenders Office and subsequently an investigator from that office was assigned to work with Houston.
When Crane couldn't get anyone to indicate that they were moving forward on a review of the case, he passed his information to reporter Elisha Anderson at the Detroit Free Press newspaper, and she began reinvestigating the case. On July 19, 2019, Anderson published a detailed account of the case that included interviews with the woman in which she confirmed what she told Crane as well as an interview with McIntyre. Clay's aunt told Anderson that she had a home near where the victim lived and that “Chad was in and out of my house all the time.” A day earlier, the Wayne County prosecutor's office and Houston had filed a joint motion with the Michigan Court of Appeals seeking to release Clay. A spokeswoman for the prosecutor's office said, “When we were informed by the Free Press of the identity issue in the case (the prosecutor’s office) immediately began an investigation. It should be completed in the near future.” “Based upon our findings so far, we have determined that it is in the best interests of justice to move the court to have Mr. Clay immediately released on a personal recognizance bond until the investigation concludes.” On July 23, 2019, Clay was released from prison. On August 31, 2019, Wayne County Circuit Court Judge Wanda Evans dismissed the case.
|2010||Deron Parks||Child Sex Abuse||Vancouver, Washington||Life||8 years and 8 months||Yes|
|2010||Patrick McAllister||Sexual Assault||Brinnon, Washington||20 years and 10 months||5 years and 6 months||Yes|
|2010||Aisha McClinton||Weapon Possession or Sale||Joliet, Illinois||5 months in jail||5 months in jail||Yes|
|Aisha McClinton was arrested March 14, 2010 outside the Stateville Correctional Center in Joliet, Illinois. She was visiting an inmate and initially refused to allow guards to search her car. When she ultimately consented, officers found a small amount of marijuana. During a second search, officers found a 9-millimeter gun in the waistband of McClinton's pants. She was charged with aggravated unlawful use of a weapon, bringing a firearm into a penal institution, and bringing cannabis into a penal institution. The latter two charges were dropped, and McClinton was convicted on April 14, 2011 after a bench trial in Will County Circuit Court of the aggravated weapons charge. Judge Sarah Jones sentenced McClinton to three years on probation and 156 days in jail. In 2013, the Illinois Supreme Court declared the charge of aggravated unlawful use of a weapon to be unconstitutional, vacating all convictions under that statute. McClinton's conviction was vacated on February 19, 2014. She filed for a certificate of innocence in early 2016. It was denied on June 15, 2016 by Judge Jones, who said McClinton was not entitled to the certificate because she had not established factual innocence. McClinton appealed. Her attorneys argued that McClinton had no need to prove factual innocence, because the statute under which McClinton was convicted had been declared unconstitutional, giving her a valid pathway to receiving a certificate of innocence under Illinois law. The Third District of the Illinois Court of Appeals ruled in McClinton's favor on May 10, 2018, stating that Jones had abused her discretion and ordering the trial court to grant McClinton her certificate of innocence. She received it on Nov. 27, 2018.|
|2010||Eric Anderson||Robbery, Assault and Illegal Use of a Weapon||Detroit, Michigan||15 to 22 years||8 years and 6 months||Yes|
|2011||Otis Boone||Robbery||Brooklyn, New York||25 years||7 years||Yes|
|2011||Livingston Broomes||Sexual Assault||Kings County, New York||4 years||2 years||Yes|
|2011||Jennifer Weathington||Murder, Assault and Illegal Use of a Weapon||Dallas, Georgia||Life||5 years and 6 months||Yes|
|2011||Elgerie Cash||Murder, Assault and Illegal Use of a Weapon||Dallas, Georgia||Life||5 years and 6 months||Yes|
|2011||Matthew Ngov||Murder||Los Angeles, Caifornia||57 to life||5 years and 9 months||Yes|
|2012||Michael Winston||Attempted Murder, Robbery, Assault, Kidnapping||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||26 years||5 years||Yes|
|2013||James Frazier||Murder, Other Violent Felony, Conspiracy||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||Life without parole||5 years and 8 months||Yes|
|Shortly before 8:30 p.m. on May 14, 2012, 21-old Rodney Ramseur and his 21-year-old girlfriend, Latia Jones, were gunned down as they sat on the front porch of the Ramseur home on West Sparks Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Witnesses said a man approached the house and asked if Ramseur was there. When Ramseur came to the railing, the man opened fire, striking Jones three times and hitting Ramseur as well. He tried to run away, but having already been hit eight times, he fell to the ground. The gunman then walked over and fired another shot into the back of Ramseur's head. The shooter was described as a young black man in a gray hooded sweatshirt and dark blue jeans who fled on foot. Police also said they were seeking an older-model gray Ford Taurus with a black hood that may have been brought the gunman to the scene. Police quickly theorized that Ramseur had been targeted because six days earlier, he had testified for the prosecution in a murder involving a childhood friend. The murder suspect, Garland Doughty, later pled guilty to voluntary manslaughter. On June 19, 2012, Philadelphia police detective Philip Nordo, later saying he acted on a tip from an informant named “Nubile,” brought in 19-year-old James Frazier for questioning. Frazier later said that Nordo sought to cultivate Frazier as a source and to engage in sexual activity. Frazier said that Nordo threatened and intimidated him, including threatening to sexually assault him. These threats resulted in a false confession, Frazier claimed. According to the statement, Tevon Robison, a friend of Doughty—against whom Ramseur had testified—learned of Ramseur's testimony. On the evening of the shooting, Robison was at a restaurant with Frazier and Frazier's half-brother, Taunzelle Garner. During their conversation, Robison said Ramseur was a “rat” and that he wanted to kill him. In the confession, Frazier said he and Garner drove Robison to Ramseur's house looking for him. When they did not see him, Robison made a telephone call and asked, “Is he out there now?” He ended the call and got out of the car, telling Frazier to wait for him. Robison then walked to Ramseur's house and began shooting. After the shooting stopped, Robison ran back to the car, saying, “Let’s go Let’s go.” Frazier initially was charged with two counts of first-degree murder as well aggravated assault and weapons violations. On September 9, 2013, following a preliminary hearing, he went to trial in Philadelphia County Court of Common Pleas on two counts of third-degree murder, aggravated assault, and illegal possession of a firearm. No physical or forensic evidence linked Frazier to the crime—the prosecution's case against him consisted of his confession. Although detectives obtained search warrants for the telephone records of “Nubile,” Frazier, Garner, and Robison, there were no records of any calls among any of them. On September 13, 2013, he was convicted of two counts of third-degree murder, conspiracy, and retaliation. He was sentenced to life in prison without parole. Robison and Garner were never prosecuted in the case. Frazier appealed and in July 2015, the Pennsylvania Superior Court upheld the convictions. On June 2016, Gerald Camp was convicted in Philadelphia County Court of Common Pleas of illegal possession of firearm and possession of a firearm with an obliterated serial number. The conviction was based on the testimony of Detective Nordo, who said an informant named Rhaheem Friend had provided the tip that Camp was in possession of the weapon. In early 2017, while Camp was awaiting sentencing, his defense attorney subpoenaed the records of prison phone calls of Friend. An examination of the calls showed that Friend and Nordo were communicating frequently. Nordo promised he would intervene in another criminal case against Friend. Nordo and Friend also made comments suggesting they had a sexual relationship. Prison records also showed that Nordo had deposited at least $400 into Friend's prison commissary account. After Camp's lawyer presented this evidence to the Philadelphia District Attorney's Office, the prosecution re-investigated the case and agreed to seek to vacate Camp's conviction on April 11, 2017. In November 2017, Detective Nordo was suspended with intent to dismiss after an investigation showed he paid a witness in another case. A Philadelphia police spokesman said Nordo was the subject of a criminal investigation and that federal authorities were involved as well. On December 6, 2018, following an investigation by the Philadelphia County District Attorney's Office Conviction Integrity Unit, the prosecution asked that the murder conviction of Jamaal Simmons be vacated and the charges were dismissed. In January 2019, the Philadelphia Inquirer and Philadelphia Daily News reported that several weeks before the dismissal, the primary witness against Simmons told the prosecution, including Patricia Cummings, the head of the Conviction Integrity Unit, that after being held in the homicide unit for a day, Nordo had pressured him to falsely implicate Simmons. In February 2019, Nordo was indicted on charges of sexually assaulting witnesses and suspects, including once in an interrogation room. On March 5, 2019, Common Pleas Court Judge J. Scott O’Keefe vacated Frazier's convictions. On April 4, 2019, Conviction Integrity Unit chief Patricia Cummings dismissed the charges and Frazier was released. On April 18, 2019, Frazier filed a federal civil rights lawsuit against the city of Philadelphia and Nordo. The lawsuit said that “as early as 2005,” the department “was aware of credible complaints that…Nordo, in his role as a Philadelphia police detective, groomed suspects for future sexual relationships. In grooming these suspects…Nordo promised leniency or reward money, used threats and coercion, and engaged in sexual assault.” The lawsuit claimed that Nordo “used his position to cause witnesses to sign false or inaccurate interview statements and confessions.” In May 2019, Cummings dismissed the 2016 murder conviction of Sherman McCoy, who falsely confessed during an interrogation by Nordo.|
|2013||Clarens Desrouleaux||Theft||Miami, Florida||5 years||4 years||Yes|
|Clarens Desrouleaux was arrested on January 23, 2013 and charged with three burglaries that had happened about two weeks earlier in Biscayne Park, Florida, a suburb of Miami. Police had said they focused on him after he was found to have forged and cashed a check stolen from one of the houses. There was no evidence linking him to the other two houses, but officers falsified an arrest affidavit and arrested Desrouleaux, a 35-year-old native of Haiti who had permanent resident status in the United States. He was interrogated, and the officers said he confessed to the three burglaries. The confession was neither written down nor recorded, but the officers would give sworn depositions confirming Desrouleaux's confession. Desrouleaux had previous convictions for drug-dealing and other non-violent crimes. If convicted at trial, he faced being sentenced as a habitual felon and serving 30 years in prison. Instead of taking that risk, he pled guilty on May 23, 2013 to three counts of burglary and three counts of grand theft. He was sentenced to five years in prison. He served four years and was released in 2017, then quickly deported to Haiti. In 2014, Biscayne Park began investigating its police force, after the town manager received a series of anonymous letters complaining about the tactics of Police Chief Raimundo Atesiano. The investigation revealed that the chief told his officers to make false arrests in order to improve the department's closure rate. A few months after Desrouleaux's arrest, Atesiano had boasted to the town council that there were no unsolved property crimes in Biscayne Park. Atesiano and three other police officers were indicted in 2018 and charged with violating the civil rights of Desrouleaux and two other men who had also been falsely arrested. Unlike Desrouleaux, the other two men had their charges dropped before trial. After pleading guilty in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, each officer received a prison sentence. Atesiano received the longest sentence, three years in prison. “Will somebody please explain to me how Mr. Desrouleaux gets five years, but the guy who framed him for those crimes that he never committed gets less of a sentence?” asked Carlos Martinez, Miami-Dade County's public defender. Desrouleaux's charges were dismissed by the Miami-Dade State Attorney's office on August 10, 2018. On September 18, 2018, Desrouleaux filed suit in U.S. District Court in Miami against Biscayne Park, Atesiano, and the two officers involved with his arrest. Since being deported, he has been unable to return to the United States.|
|2013||Brenda Jones||Arson||Friendship, Wisconsin||9 months||9 months||Yes|
|2013||Jesus Sanchez ||Murder||Wheeling, Illinois||45 years||4 years||Yes|
|2013||Sherman McCoy||Murder, Gun Possession or Sale and Conspiracy||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||Life without parole||2 years and 8 months||Yes|
|2014||Maurice Hopkins||Sexual Assault||Pine Bluff, Arkansas||12 years and six months||3 years||Yes|
|2016||Tazell Cash||Robbery and other violent felony||Detroit, Michigan||10 to 20 years||2 years||Yes|
|2017||Michael Hickingbottom||Assault||Miami, Indiana||6 years||1 years and 9 months||Yes|
|2017||Joshua Horner ||Child Sex Abuse||Redmond, Oregon||50 years||1 year and 5 months||Yes|
- Capital punishment debate in the United States
- Capital punishment in the United States
- Exculpatory evidence
- False confession
- Innocence Project
- Innocent prisoner's dilemma
- List of exonerated death row inmates
- List of miscarriage of justice cases
- List of United States death row inmates
- List of women on death row in the United States
- Miscarriage of justice
- Overturned convictions in the United States
- Prosecutorial misconduct
- Race in the United States criminal justice system
- Wrongful executions in the United States
- The National Registry of Exonerations
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