This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries, which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors.
Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere.
Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.
See also : International auxiliary languages
|Esperanto||Akademio de Esperanto|
|Ido||Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido|
|Lojban||Logical Language Group|
Other constructed languages
|Talossan||Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ|
|Snehék Blád||The Democratic Conlang|
The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy".
- Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:
Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian
- "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ...
- "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis" (in Latin). Vatican.va. 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- "Хуулийн нэгдсэн портал сайт". Legalinfo.mn (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 2015-09-14.
- "Scots Language Centre". Scotslanguage.com. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- "Scottish Language Dictionaries - Home". Scotsdictionaries.org.uk. 2015-08-03. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- Johan Derks, Prilingvaj institutoj de 18 naciaj lingvoj (Language Institutes of eighteen states), Interlingvistikaj Studoj, UAM, 2014/17, Esperanta Interlingvistiko 1