- Cobalt Violet: (PV14) cobaltous orthophosphate.
- Ultramarine (PB29): a synthetic or naturally occurring sulfur containing silicate mineral - Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4 (generalized formula)
- Persian blue: made by grinding up the mineral Lapis lazuli. The most important mineral component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1–2.
- Egyptian Blue: a synthetic pigment of calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10). Thought to be the first synthetically produced pigment.
- Han Blue: BaCuSi4O10
- Azurite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)
- YInMn Blue: a synthetic pigment discovered in 2009 (YIn1−xMnxO3).
- Manganese Blue: Barium manganate(VI) sulfate
- Cadmium Green: a light green pigment consisting of a mixture of Cadmium Yellow (CdS) and Chrome green (Cr2O3)
- Cobalt green: also known as Rinman's green or Zinc green (CoZnO2)
- Malachite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
- Scheele’s Green (also called Schloss Green): cupric arsenite (CuHAsO3)
- Green earth: also known as terre verte and Verona green (K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg)](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2)
- Orpiment: natural monoclinic arsenic sulfide (As2S3),
- Aureolin or Cobalt Yellow (PY40): Potassium cobaltinitrite (K3Co(NO2)6).
- Yellow Ochre (PY43): a naturally occurring clay of monohydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O)
- Zinc Yellow (PY36): Zinc chromate (ZnCrO4), a highly toxic substance with anti-corrosive properties which was historically most often used to paint over metals.
- Cadmium Orange (PO20): an intermediate between cadmium red and cadmium yellow: cadmium sulfoselenide.
- Chrome Orange: a now obscure pigment composed of a mixture of lead chromate and lead(II) oxide. (PbCrO4•PbO)
- Realgar: As4S4 - a highly toxic natural pigment
- Cadmium Red (PR108): cadmium sulfo-selenide (Cd2SSe)
Iron oxide pigments
- Sanguine, Caput Mortuum, Indian Red, Venetian Red, Oxide Red (PR102)
- Red Ochre (PR102): anhydrous Fe2O3
- Burnt Sienna (PBr7): a pigment produced by heating Raw Sienna.
Clay earth pigments (naturally formed iron oxides)
- Raw Umber (PBr7): a natural clay pigment consisting of iron oxide, manganese oxide and aluminum oxide: Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + AlO3. When calcined (heated) it is referred to as Burnt Umber and has more intense colors.
- Raw Sienna (PBr7): a naturally occurring yellow-brown pigment from limonite clay. Used in art since prehistoric times.
- Manganese dioxide: blackish or brown in color, used since prehistoric times (MnO2)
- Titanium Black: Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3)
A number of pigments, especially traditional ones, contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium that are highly toxic. The use of these pigments is now highly restricted in many countries.
- Völz, Hans G.; et al. "Pigments, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_243.pub2..
- Müller, Hugo; Müller, Wolfgang; Wehner, Manfred; Liewald, Heike. "Artists' Colors". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_143.pub2.
- Smith, Andrew E.; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Delaney, Kris; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Sleight, Arthur W.; Subramanian, M. A. (2009). "Mn3+ in Trigonal Bipyramidal Coordination: A New Blue Chromophore". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131: 17084–17086. doi:10.1021/ja9080666. PMID 19899792.
- New International Encyclopedia. 1905. .