This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state.
The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.
Member and observer states of the United Nations
- Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
The following states control their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
|State/Government||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Artsakh||Azerbaijan||President – Bako Sahakyan|
|Somaliland||Somalia||President – Muse Bihi Abdi|
|Transnistria||Moldova||President – Vadim Krasnoselsky||Prime Minister – Aleksandr Martynov|
These alternative governments are recognized as legitimate by at least one UN member.
- List of countries by system of government
- List of current longest-ruling non-royal national leaders
- List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office
- List of current presidents
- List of current sovereign monarchs
- List of current vice presidents and designated acting presidents
- List of current foreign ministers
- List of current presidents of assembly
- List of current dependent territory leaders
- List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government
- List of leaders of dependent territories
- List of oldest living state leaders
- List of national governments
- Lists of state leaders
- Lists of state leaders by year
- List of state leaders in 2019
- In this state, the president is both head of state and head of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—nor does the Afghan Chief Executive, the Myanma/Burmese State Counsellor, the Saudi Arabian First Deputy Prime Minister, or the Sierra Leonean Chief Minister.
- The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
- Constitutionally, Elizabeth II is separately and equally monarch of 16 sovereign states—alongside the United Kingdom (UK)—known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states, with the exception of the UK (where she permanently resides), she is duly represented at the national level by a governor-general.
- The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
- The Governor-General of New Zealand and the Governor-General of Niue are positions held by the same person.
- The term "Supreme Leader" is used as a description (for the sake of brevity) rather than being an official title of a single office.
The three actual offices held by Kim are:
- Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea
- Chairman of the State Affairs Commission—constitutionally defined as the supreme leader of North Korea
- Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army
- The President (otherwise known as Chairman) of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly accepts the credentials of foreign ambassadors and represents North Korea on all state visits—ceremonial functions usually performed by heads of state in other states. The president has held these duties since 1998, when the constitution was revised.
- As of 2018[update], the political party Future Republic holds a plurality of seats in the legislature of San Marino, the Grand and General Council. Thus, the Captain Regent representing this party reserves more legislative power than the Captain Regent belonging to the other party.
- The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is collectively head of state and government. As a party to the Council, the President serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- The office of head of state of Venezuela has been disputed between Nicolás Maduro and the President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, Juan Guaidó, since 11 January 2019. See also the Other governments section of this list article.
- States in free association with New Zealand.
- CIDOB Foundation (in Spanish)—contextualised biographies of world political leaders
- EmilePhaneuf—an archived, partial list of official websites for heads of state
- Portale Storia (in Spanish)—a list of current rulers by country
- Rulers—a list of rulers throughout time and places
- United Nations—a list of heads of state, heads of government, and foreign ministers
- WorldStatesmen—an online encyclopedia of the leaders of nations and territories