In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert professional.
Mathematics and scienceEdit
- Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who wrote a treatise on vibrating bodies at the age of nine; he wrote his first proof, on a wall with a piece of coal, at the age of 11 years, and a theorem by the age of 16 years. He is famous for Pascal's theorem and many other contributions in mathematics, philosophy, and physics.
Note: Several mathematicians were mental calculators when they were still children. Mental calculation is not to be confused with mathematics. This section is for child prodigies largely or primarily known for calculating skills.
- John von Neumann (1903–1957) A "mental calculator" by the age of six years, who could tell jokes in classical Greek.
- Truman Henry Safford (1836–1901) could square 18 digit numbers at the age of ten years; later in life, he became an astronomer.
- William Cullen Bryant published his first poem at the age of 10; at the age of 13 years, he published a book of political satire poems .
- Minou Drouet caught the notice of French critics at the age of eight, leading to speculation that her mother was the true author of her poetry. She later proved herself to be the author.
- Edmund Thomas Clint (1976–1983) was an Indian child prodigy. He is known for having drawn over 25,000 paintings during his life.
- Pablo Picasso painted Picador at the age of eight years. See List of Picasso artworks 1889–1900.
- Feldman, David H.; Morelock, M. J. (2011). "Prodigies". In Runco, Mark A.; Pritzker, Steven R. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Creativity. Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition). Academic Press. pp. 261–265. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-375038-9.00182-5. ISBN 978-0-12-375038-9. Lay summary (8 April 2015).
For the purposes of this and future research, a prodigy was defined as a child younger than 10 years of age who has reached the level of a highly trained professional in a demanding area of endeavor.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Rose, Lacey (2 March 2007). "Whiz Kids". Forbes. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
At the moment, the most widely accepted definition is a child, typically under the age of 10, who has mastered a challenging skill at the level of an adult professional.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Feldman, David Henry (Fall 1993). "Child prodigies: A distinctive form of giftedness" (PDF). Gifted Child Quarterly. 27 (4): 188–193. doi:10.1177/001698629303700408. ISSN 0016-9862. Retrieved 1 June 2014.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- William Durant, Ariel Durant (1963). The Age of Louis XIV: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Pascal, Molière, Cromwell, Milton, Peter the Great, Newton, and Spinoza: 1648-1715. Simon and Schuster. p. 56.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Von_Neumann summary". st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "The History of Computing". gmu.edu. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "HP-45". Hpmuseum.org. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "On William Cullen Bryant". vcu.edu. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Kitten on the Keys"[permanent dead link], (archived page) Time Magazine Jan 28, 1957.
- "The unfading colours of child prodigy". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "The Hindu : She spells hope and happiness". hinduonnet.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2015.