Following is a list of United States Supreme Court Justices who also served in Congress. Since the United States Supreme Court was established in 1789, 114 persons have served on the Court. Of these, several also served in the U.S. Congress, either before or after their tenure as a justice. Six were incumbent members of the United States Senate at the time of their appointment, while one—James Moore Wayne—was an incumbent member of the House of Representatives. The others had previously served in the Senate or the House or both. Additionally, one justice—David Davis—resigned from the Supreme Court to serve in the Senate.
There have been 14 U.S. Supreme Court justices with prior service in the Senate, and one with subsequent Senate service.
|Name||State||Senate service||Supreme Court service||I/F||Appointed by|
|Hugo Black||Alabama||1927–1937||1937–1971||I||F. D. Roosevelt|
|Harold Hitz Burton||Ohio||1941–1945||1945–1958||I||Truman|
|James F. Byrnes[a]||South Carolina||1931–1941||1941–1942||I||F. D. Roosevelt|
|Edward Douglass White||Louisiana||1891–1894||1894–1921||I||Cleveland|
|Levi Woodbury||New Hampshire||1825–1831;
|Howell Edmunds Jackson||Tennessee||1881–1886||1893–1895||F||B. Harrison|
|Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II[a]||Mississippi||1877–1885||1888–1893||F||Cleveland|
|Salmon P. Chase||Ohio||1849–1855;
|William Paterson||New Jersey||1789–1790||1793–1806||F||Washington|
There have been 17 U.S. Supreme Court justices with prior service in the House.
|Name||District||House service||Supreme Court service||I/F||Appointed by|
|Philip Pendleton Barbour[c]||VA-11||1814–1825;
|James F. Byrnes[d]||SC-2||1911–1925||1941–1942||F||F. D. Roosevelt|
|Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II[d]||MS-1||1857–1860;
|John Marshall||VA-13||1799–1800||1801–1835||F||J. Adams|
|John McKinley[d]||AL-2||1833–1835||1838–1852||F||Van Buren|
|William Henry Moody||MA-6||1895–1902||1906–1910||F||T. Roosevelt|
|Fred M. Vinson||KY-9||1924���1929;
|James Moore Wayne||GA-AL||1829–1835||1835–1867||I||Jackson|
- Also served in the U.S. House of Representatives
- Became a senator after service on the Supreme Court; the only justice to resign from the Court to serve in the U.S. Congress
- Served as Speaker of the House during the 17th Congress (1821–23)
- Also served in the U.S. Senate
- O'Brien, David M. (2003). Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (6th ed.). W. W. Norton. p. 46. ISBN 0393978966.
- "Senators Who Served on the U.S. Supreme Court". Washington, D.C.: Secretary of the Senate. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
- "House Members Who Became U.S. Supreme Court Justices". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Historian and the Clerk of the House's Office of Art and Archives. Retrieved February 6, 2018.