Lev Konstantinovich Knipper (Лев Константинович Книппер) (3 December [O.S. 21 November] 1898 in Tbilisi – 30 July 1974 in Moscow), was a Soviet composer of partially German descent and an active OGPU - NKVD (Soviet secret police) agent.
Life and career
During the Russian civil war he fought in the White army and left Russia with the rest of Baron Wrangel forces in 1920. Upon his return from emigration in 1922 he was recruited by OGPU foreign département. There is no evidence that he denounced any of his fellow composers or musicians during the periods of repressions.
He studied music in Moscow with Reinhold Glière and the Gnessin Music School. In the 20s, he worked at the Moscow Art Theatre with Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko and Konstantin Stanislavski. Vacationed in Buryatia.
He wrote his Fourth Symphony in 1934, which includes the famous song Polyushko Pole, with lyrics (dedicated to Kliment Voroshilov) by Victor Gusev. The music became one of the Marching songs of the Red Army Choir. Knipper did not suffer from the attacks of Andrei Zhdanov, who censored other composers.
According to secret documents revealed in 2008, during the Second World War existed in the USSR a secret plan designed by the Kremlin in case that Moscow would fall into Nazi hands. Under the elaborate plan, ballerinas and circus acrobats were armed with grenades and pistols and ordered to assassinate German generals if they attempted to organise concerts and other celebrations upon taking the city. Lev Knipper was charged with the responsibility of killing Hitler if he got the opportunity.
Knipper was prolific. He wrote 5 operas (including one on The Little Prince), 20 symphonies, ballets, pieces for piano and other film musics. He also studied ethnomusicology in the Central Asian Republics and researched folk music from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
One of his most famed compositions is Полюшко-поле (Polyushko Polye), known as "Meadowland", and also called "Song of the Plains".
The primary publishers of Knipper's works are Muzyka, Kompozitor and Le Chant du Monde. Most of his published compositions are currently out of print, and the majority of his output has yet to be published.
List of symphonies
- Symphony No. 1 in 4 parts, Op. 13 (1926) - dedicated to Olga Knipper
- Symphony No. 2, Op. 30 (1929)
- Symphony No. 3 "Far East," Op. 32 (1932) - poetry by Viktor Gusev
- Sinfonietta, Op. 33 (1932)
- Symphony No. 4 "Poem for the Komsomol Fighters" (1934, rev. 1966) - poetry by Viktor Gusev
- Symphony No. 5 (1935)
- Symphony No. 6, Op. 47 (1936)
- Symphony No. 7 "Military" in 3 parts (1938)
- Symphony No. 8 in 3 movements (1941)
- Symphony No. 9 in 4 movements (1944–45)
- Symphony No. 10 in 4 movements (1946) - dedicated to Nikolai Myaskovsky
- Symphony No. 11 in 4 movements (1949)
- Symphony No. 12 in 3 parts (1950)
- Symphony No. 13 in 4 parts (1951–52) - dedicated to Nikolai Myaskovsky
- Sinfonietta in 4 movements (1952)
- Symphony in 4 movements (1954)
- Symphony No. 14 for string orchestra in 4 parts (1961–62)
- Symphony No. 15 (1962)
- Symphony No. 16 (1962–69)
- Symphony No. 17 in 3 movements (1969–70)
- Symphony No. 18 (1970–71)
- Sinfonietta for string orchestra in 4 movements (1971–72)
- Symphony No. 20 in 3 parts (1972)
- Symphony No. 21 "Dances" in 5 parts (1972)
- Violin Concerto No. 1 (1944)
- Violin Concerto No. 2 (1965)
- Violin Concerto No. 3 (1967)
- Concerto-Monologue for cello, seven brass instruments and timpani (1962)
- Cello Concerto No. 1 (1962)
- Saga for cello, chorus and orchestra (1963)
- Concerto-Poem for cello and chamber orchestra (1971)
- Cello Concerto No. 2 (1972)
- Concerto for string quartet and orchestra (1963)
- Clarinet Concerto (1966)
- Oboe Concerto (1967)
- Double Concerto for trumpet and bassoon (1967)
- Bassoon Concerto (1970)
Honours and awards
- Antony Beevor (30 August 2005). The Mystery of Olga Chekhova. Penguin Publishing Group. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-101-17505-7.
- Blomfield, Adrian (2008-12-05). "Stalin planned to destroy Moscow if the Nazis moved in".
- Widstrand, Alex Christopher (2018). "Lev Konstantinovich Knipper's Concerto for Bassoon and String Orchestra: Introduction and Critical Performing Edition". University of Iowa. doi:10.17077/etd.hrub7lpe. Cite journal requires
- List of Works
- Life and Work (in French)
- Stalin Planned to Destroy Moscow
- Beevor, Antony (2004) The Mystery of Olga Chekhova: was Hitler's favorite actress a Russian spy? ISBN 978-0-670-03340-9