Legislature XVIII of Italy
XVIII legislatura della Repubblica Italiana
|Houses||Chamber of Deputies|
Senate of the Republic
|Founded||23 March 2018|
|Preceded by||XVII Legislature|
S: 321 (315 + 6)
Chamber of Deputies political groups
Senate political groups
Last general election
|4 March 2018|
Next general election
|before 28 May 2023|
|Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome (C)|
|Palazzo Madama, Rome (S)|
|Constitution of Italy|
The Legislature XVIII of Italy (Italian: XVIII Legislatura della Repubblica Italiana) started on 23 March 2018 and is the current legislature of the Italian Parliament. The composition of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate is the one resulting from the 4 March 2018 election, called after the dissolution of the Parliament announced by President Sergio Mattarella on 28 December 2017.
The members of this legislature have on average the lowest age in the history of the Italian Republic: 44.33 years old in the Chamber of Deputies and 52.12 in the Senate. This legislature has also the largest number of new MPs and the highest percentage of women (34%) in Italian history.
During the negotiations for the government formation, the outgoing Gentiloni Cabinet remained in charge. After the election of the Presidents of the two houses on 23 March 2018, Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni resigned and his cabinet remained in charge with the task of handling the "current affairs".
- Conte I Cabinet (1 June 2018 – 5 September 2019)
- Conte II Cabinet (5 September 2019 – present)
Chamber of Deputies
The number of elected deputies is 630. However, due to resignations, deaths or office incompatibilities, the number of deputies might be lower during the periods in which substitutes are picked (via parties lists or via by-elections).
- President: Roberto Fico (M5S), elected on 24 March 2018
- Vice Presidents: Mara Carfagna (FI), Maria Edera Spadoni (M5S), Ettore Rosato (PD, then IV), Fabio Rampelli (FdI)
- On 26 July 2018, deputy Andrea Mura left the M5S group and joined the mixed group. On 27 September 2018 he resigned from office.
- On 7 December 2018, deputy Matteo Dall'Osso, elected with the M5S, joined the FI group.
- On 17 April 2019, deputy Sara Cunial, elected with the M5S, joined the Mixed group.
- On 1 July 2019, deputies Veronica Giannone and Gloria Vizzini left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group. On 15 July 2020, Giannone joined the NCI-C!-AdC component of the Mixed group.
- On 10 July 2019, deputy Davide Galantino, elected with the M5S, joined the Mixed group. On 8 October 2019, he left the Mixed group and joined FdI.
- In the early 2020, 10 deputies left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group. On 3 January 2020, deputies Nunzio Angiola and Gianluca Rospi; on 7 January, deputy Lorenzo Fioramonti; on 9 January, deputies Massimiliano De Toma and Rachele Silvestri; on 14 January, deputy Santi Cappellani; on 21 January, deputies Michele Nitti and Nadia Aprile; on 4 February, deputy Flora Frate; on 18 March, deputy Raffaele Trano; on 23 April, deputy Antonio Zennaro; on 24 April, deputy Fabiola Bologna; on 6 May, deputy Rosalba De Giorgi; on 20 May, deputy Nicola Acunzo; on 22 June, deputy Alessandra Ermellino; on 7 August deputy Paolo Lattanzio; on 2 September deputy Piera Aiello; on 21 September deputy Marco Rizzone; on 20 October deputy Paolo Nicolò Romano; on 23 November deputy Elisa Siragusa.
- On 27 October 2020, deputy Rina De Lorenzo left the M5S group and joined the LeU group.
- On 9 September 2019, deputy Carmelo Lo Monte left the Lega group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 3 December 2019, deputy Antonino Minardo left the FI group and joined the Lega group.
- On 5 August 2020, deputy Benedetta Fiorini left the FI group and joined the Lega group.
- On 5 August 2020, the seat of deputy Luca De Carlo (FdI) was reassigned to deputy Giuseppe Paolin (Lega).
- On 20 November 2020, deputies Maurizio Carrara, Laura Ravetto, and Federica Zanella left the FI group and joined the Lega group.
- On 24 January 2019, deputy Andrea Frailis replaced former deputy Andrea Mura (M5S) after the result of the by-election in the Cagliari constituency.
- On 13 June 2019, deputy Daniela Cardinale left the PD group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 19 September 2019, twenty-four deputies from the PD group and one from the Mixed-CP group formed Italia Viva, led by Matteo Renzi. On 24 September 2019, deputy Giacomo Portas also left the PD and joined the IV group.
- On 23 September 2019, deputies Beatrice Lorenzin and Serse Soverini left the Mixed-CP-AP-PSI-AC group and joined the PD group.
- On 24 September 2019, deputy Laura Boldrini left LeU and joined the PD group.
- On 2 December 2019, deputy Paolo Gentiloni left his seat in the Chamber in relation to his appointment as European commissioner in the von der Leyen Commission; his seat (Rome) was opened for by-election, and was won by the centre-left candidate Roberto Gualtieri, minister of Economy and Finance of the Conte II Cabinet. Gualtieri joined the PD group on 4 March 2020.
- On 19 February 2020, deputy Santi Cappellani, elected with the M5S, left the Mixed group and joined the PD group.
- On 30 September 2020, deputy Nicola Carè leaves the Italia Viva group and joins the PD group.
- On 18 April 2018, deputy Enrico Costa left the Mixed-NcI group and joined FI; on 4 August 2020 he left FI and joined the Mixed group, on 26 November 2020 he joined Mixed Az–+E–Rad.
- On 4 October 2018, deputy Vittorio Sgarbi left the FI group and joined the Mixed group. On 6 December 2019, he joined the Mixed–NcI–USEI subgroup.
- On 6 May 2019, deputy Giorgio Silli left the FI group and joined the Mixed–10VM group.
- On 28 August 2019, deputy Galeazzo Bignami left the FI group and joined the FdI group.
- On 11 September 2019, deputies Stefano Benigni, Manuela Gagliardi, Claudio Pedrazzani and Alessandro Sorte left the FI group and joined the Mixed-Cambiamo-10VM group.
- On 20 December 2019, deputy Davide Bendinelli left the FI group and joined the IV group.
- On 15 May 2020, deputy Francesco Scoma left the FI group and joined the IV group.
- On 26 May 2020, deputy Antonino Germanà left the FI group and joined the Mixed NcI–USEI–C!–AdC subgroup.
- On 6 August 2020, deputy Maria Teresa Baldini left the FdI group and joined the Mixed group. On 18 August, she joined the FI group.
- On 14 May 2019, deputy Salvatore Caiata left the Mixed–10VM group and joined the FdI group.
- On 17 October 2019, deputy Catello Vitiello left the Mixed–C!–10VM group and joined IV.
- On 25 October 2019, deputy Giuseppina Occhionero left the LeU group and joined the IV group.
- On 19 February 2020, deputy Michela Rostan left the LeU group and joined the IV group.
- On 18 December 2019, five former members of the dissolved component Mixed–C! joined the Mixed–NcI–USEI–AdC group.
- On 6 May 2020, deputies Gianluca Rospi, Michele Nitti and Antonio Zennaro formed the subgroup "Popolo Protagonista – Popular Alternative" in the Mixed group. On 16 June 2020, deputy Fabiola Bologna (non-inscrit) joined the PP-AP group.
- On 23 September 2020, deputy Fausto Longo (Mixed–NI) joins the Mixed-AP subgroup.
- On 23 September 2020, deputies Michele Nitti and Antonio Zennaro leave the Mixed–AP subgroup and become therefore non-inscrits.
In this legislature the number of elected Senators was 314, instead of the usual 315: in the Sicily constituency the total number of assigned seats to the M5S exceeded the number of candidates in the party's list. Including the six life senators, the total number of senators was therefore 320. On 31 July 2019, the Senate commission on elections finalized a decision about the missing seat in Sicily, assigning it to the M5S. The total number of senators is currently 321.
- President: Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati (FI), elected on 24 March 2018
- Vice Presidents: Roberto Calderoli (Lega), Ignazio La Russa (FdI), Paola Taverna (M5S), Anna Rossomando (PD)
- On 3 January 2019, senators Saverio De Bonis and Gregorio De Falco joined the Mixed group.
- On 29 June 2019, senator Paola Nugnes left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group. On 11 September 2019, she joined the Mixed–LeU group.
- On 1 August 2019, senator Emma Pavanelli joined the M5S group, filling the missing M5S seat in Sicily.
- On 24 September 2019, senator Gelsomina Vono left the M5S group and joined IV.
- On 6 November 2019, senator Elena Fattori left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 22 November 2019, senator Franco Ortolani (M5S) passed away; his seat (Naples) was opened for by-election, and was won by the centre-left candidate Sandro Ruotolo, who on 5 March 2020 became Senator joining the Mixed group.
- On 11 December 2019, senators Ugo Grassi, Stefano Lucidi and Francesco Urraro left the M5S group and joined the Lega group.
- On 4 January 2020, senator Gianluigi Paragone was expelled from the M5S and joined the Mixed group.
- On 15 January 2020, senator Luigi Di Marzio left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 4 February 2020, after being expelled from the M5S, senator Lello Ciampolillo left its group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 17 March 2020, senator Vittoria Bogo Deledda (M5S) died; her seat was opened for by-election, and was won by the centre-right candidate Carlo Doria, who on 5 October 2020 joined the Lega group.
- On 24 April 2020, senator Mario Michele Giarrusso left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 23 June 2020, senator Alessandra Riccardi left the M5S group and joined the Lega group.
- On 20 October 2020, senator Marinella Pacifico left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 27 October 2020, senator Tiziana Carmela Rosaria Drago left the M5S group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 11 November 2020, senator Gianni Marilotti left the M5S group and joined the Aut group.
- On 30 July 2019, the election of senator Matteo Salvini (Lega) was invalidated. On 1 August 2019, senator Fulvia Michela Caligiuri replaced him, and joined the FI group.
- On 18 September 2019, thirteen senators from the PD (including Matteo Renzi and Teresa Bellanova), one from FI (Donatella Conzatti) and one from the Mixed group (Riccardo Nencini) formed the IV—PSI group.
- On 2 June 2020, senator Elena Testor left the FI group and joined the Lega group.
- On 1 July 2020, senator Vincenzo Carbone left the FI group and joined IV.
- On 22 July 2020, senators Gaetano Quagliariello, Paolo Romani and Massimo Vittorio Berutti left the FI group and joined the Mixed group. On 5 August they create the component IdeA–Cambiamo! of the Mixed group.
- On 28 July 2020, senator Alessandrina Lonardo left the FI group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 11 October 2020, senator Raffaele Fantetti left the FI group and joined the Mixed-MAIE subgroup.
- On 31 July 2019, the election of senator Kristalia Rachele Papaevangeliu (Lega) was invalidated. Senator Matteo Salvini replaced her, and joined the Lega group.
- On 31 July 2019, the election of senator Edoardo Patriarca (PD) was invalidated. Senator Stefano Corti replaced his seat, and joined the Lega group.
- On 2 December 2019, governor of Umbria Donatella Tesei (Lega) left her seat in the Senate; the seat was opened for by-election, and was won by the centre-right candidate Valeria Alessandrini (Lega). Alessandrini joined the group on 18 March.
- On 12 October 2020, senator Claudio Barbaro left the Lega group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 10 September 2019, senator Matteo Richetti left the PD group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 7 October 2019, senator Annamaria Parente left the PD group and joined IV.
- On 25 February 2020, senator Tommaso Cerno left the PD group and joined the Mixed group.
- On 15 June 2020, senator Stefano Bertacco (FdI) died; his seat was opened for by-election, and was held by the centre-right, with candidate Luca De Carlo becoming Senator, and joining the FdI group on 5 October 2020.
Main legislative acts
- Dignity decree (Italian: decreto dignità), approved on 7 August 2018. The bill imposed additional limits on the temporary employment contracts, issued fines on companies which received government aid and decide to relocate abroad, and banned advertising of gambling operators.
- Security decree (Italian: decreto sicurezza), or Salvini decree, approved on 28 November 2018. Strongly pushed by then Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, the bill involves measures regarding public safety and immigration. The new legislation abolished the status of humanitarian protection, extended the period of immigration detention in the Italian identification centres, increased funding for repatriation, extended the list of crimes that imply a nullification of refugee or protection status, and introduced the possibility of canceling the Italian citizenship acquired by a foreigner citizen in case they committed a terrorism-related crime.
- Anti-corruption bill (Italian: decreto anti-corruzione), also known as "Spazza-corrotti" (English: corruption-sweeper), approved on 18 December 2018. The bill increased the punishment and introduced a ban from public service for officers convicted for corruption, reformed the statute of limitations by expanding the time span for prescription, and included new rules for the regulation of political party funding.
- 2019 budget law (Italian: legge di bilancio 2019), approved on 30 December 2018. The bill introduced new taxes on web-based businesses and a strategy to drive up government revenues by selling public properties. The 2019 budget included a target deficit of 2.04% of the GDP, meeting the requests of the European Commission after a first proposal of 2.4%.
- Citizens' income and "quota 100" decree (Italian: decreto reddito di cittadidanza e quota 100), approved on 27 March 2019. The bill introduced a means-tested "citizens' income" to support poor families of up to 780 euros per month for a single unemployed person, and up to 1032 euros per month for a family. The bill also lowered the age of retirement based on the "100 quota": workers can retire when the sum of their age and their pension contribution years adds up to 100.
- Right of self-defense decree (Italian: decreto legittima difesa), approved on 28 March 2019. The bill introduced limitations to legal action against persons who attack an intruder, legitimating the self-defense also in case of "perceived" threat.
- Economic growth decree (Italian: decreto crescita), approved on 27 June 2019. After two consecutive quarters of negative national growth, the government passed a bill introducing various tax cuts and investment boosts.
- Security decree – bis (Italian: decreto sicurezza – bis), approved on 5 August 2019. The bill covers mainly two topics: migrant rescue at sea, and public order management during demonstrations. The bill allowed the Interior Minister to limit or forbid the passage of ships in national waters for security and public-order reasons, and issued sanctions up to 1 million euros and possibly the seizure of the vessel against the ship captains who violate this law. Regarding public order management, the bill introduces harsher punishments for the usage of rockets, petards, sticks, bats, and helmets during demonstrations, and for the interruption of a public service.
- Constitutional law – Reduction of the number of MPs (Italian: legge costituzionale – riduzione del numero dei parlamentari), approved on 8 October 2019. The constitutional law reduces the size of the two houses of Parliament, from 630 to 400 in the Chamber of Deputies and from 315 to 200 in the Senate.
- Climate decree (Italian: decreto clima), approved on 10 December 2019. The bill is the first step of the government proposed "Green New Deal" plan; it introduced incentives for reducing the use of plastic packaging by shopkeepers, and incentives to car, moped or scooter drivers to use public transport in their cities.
- 2020 budget law (Italian: legge di bilancio 2020), approved on 24 December 2019. This budget law was the first of the Conte II cabinet, and introduced tax cuts and a crack-down on tax evasion. The budget keeps the Italian deficit for 2020 at 2.2% of the GDP, and introduced safeguard clauses in order to keep the 2021 deficit at 1.8%, like the previously planned target agreed with the European Commission.
In order to counter the health, economic, and social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Italian government enacted multiple legislative acts, usually of the type known as "decree of the President of the Council of ministers" (Italian: decreto del Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri) or DPCM. Most of these decrees were later approved by both houses of Parliament.
- COVID decree (Italian: decreto Covid), approved on 4 March 2020. This decree imposed a full lockdown in 10 comuni in Lombardy and one in Veneto; additionally, it imposed a partial lockdown in Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, and the provinces of Savona and Pesaro-Urbino.
- Cure Italy decree (Italian: decreto Cura Italia), approved on 24 April 2020. This decree introduced measures to support the national health service and to enhance financial aid to businesses, workers, and families that were hit by the pandemic. The government allocated 25 billion euros to fund these measures.
- Relaunch decree (Italian: decreto rilancio), approved on 16 July 2020. This decree expanded and enhanced the measures taken in the previous "Cure Italy decree", with an allocated funding of additional 54.9 billion euros.
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