Liwwadden / Ljouwert (West Frisian)
Location of the municipality (red) and the city (dark red) in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||Sybrand van Haersma Buma (CDA)|
|• Municipality||255.62 km2 (98.70 sq mi)|
|• Land||238.38 km2 (92.04 sq mi)|
|• Water||17.24 km2 (6.66 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3.2 m (10.5 ft)|
|Highest elevation||5.2 m (17.1 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||1.9 m (6.2 ft)|
|• Density||516/km2 (1,340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Leeuwarden (US: //, Dutch: [ˈleːʋɑrdə(n)] (listen); West Frisian: Ljouwert [ˈljɔːʋ(ə)t]/[ˈʎɔːw(ə)t] (listen); Town Frisian: Liwwadden; Leeuwarder dialect: Leewarden) is a city and municipality in Friesland in the Netherlands. It is the provincial capital and seat of the States of Friesland. The municipality has a population of 122,293.
The region has been continuously inhabited since the 10th century. It came to be known as Leeuwarden in the early 9th century AD and was granted city privileges in 1435. It is the main economic hub of Friesland, situated in a green and water-rich environment. Leeuwarden is a former royal residence and has a historic city center, many historically relevant buildings, and a large shopping center with squares and restaurants. Leeuwarden was awarded the title European Capital of Culture for 2018.
The Elfstedentocht (Eleven Cities Tour), an ice skating tour passing the eleven cities of Friesland, started and finished in Leeuwarden.
The following towns and villages within the municipality have populations in excess of 1,000 people: Leeuwarden, Stiens, Grou, Goutum, Wergea, Jirnsum, Reduzum, and Wirdum. The municipality is governed by the mayor Sybrand van Haersma Buma and a coalition of the Labour Party, Christian Democratic Appeal, and GreenLeft.
The name "Leeuwarden" (or older variants of it) first came into use for Nijehove, the most important of the three villages (the other two being Oldehove and Hoek) which in the early 9th century merged into Leeuwarden (Villa Lintarwrde c. 825). There is much uncertainty about the origin of the city's name. Historian and archivist Wopke Eekhoff summed up a total of over 200 different spelling variants, of which Leeuwarden (Dutch), Liwwadden (Stadsfries), and Ljouwert (West Frisian) are still in use.
The first part of the name, leeuw, means lion in modern standard Dutch. This interpretation corresponds with the coat of arms adopted by the city, which features a heraldic lion. However, modern standard Dutch was not used in this region in the Middle Ages, when the city was called Lintarwrde. Some scholars argue that the name of the city is derived from leeu-, a corruption of luw- (Dutch for sheltered from the wind, cf. the maritime term leeward) or from lee- (a Dutch word for waterway). Sheltered landing place or harbour could be the original meaning. This suits the watery province of Friesland and the position of the original three villages at the end of an important estuary called Middelzee.
The name is also similar to that of the French commune Lewarde, located in the Nord Department, an originally Flemish-speaking area annexed to France in the 17th century. Western Flemish was related to Frisian and also to Saxon up to the 11th century.
The oldest remains of houses date back to the 2nd century AD in the Roman era and were discovered during an excavation near the Oldehove. Inhabited continuously since the 10th century, the city's first reference as a population center is in German sources from 1285, and records exist of city privileges granted in 1435. Situated along the Middelzee, it was an active center of maritime trade. The waterway silted-up in the 13th century.
|Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 13–15 (1398–1795)|
The Grote of Jacobijnerkerk (English: Great, or Jacobin Church) is the oldest building in the city. The 15th century was the period of the two opposing Frisian factional parties Vetkopers and Schieringers. The bastions and a moat were built in the period 1481–1494. In 1747 William IV, Prince of Orange was the last stadtholder residing in the Stadhouderlijk Hof. In the first half of the 19th century the fortifications were demolished.
The Jewish community of Leeuwarden was one of the earliest in the Netherlands aside from Amsterdam, and was first mentioned in 1645. By 1670, the city council granted a man referred to as "Jacob the Jew" (in Dutch) permission to build a Jewish cemetery, meaning that there were enough Jews living there to require a cemetery and other communal institutions. Land for 'The Jodenkerkhof' (Jews' cemetery) was purchased in 1679, near the Oldehove tower.
The first synagogue in the city was built in the 17th century as well, and was also used by the city's Catholics who were not allowed to build a house of worship of their own because of the Protestant city authorities. The Jewish community enjoyed generally good relations with authorities in the 18th century and continued to expand throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak population of 1,236 in 1860.
In 1901 the city's population was 32,203.
After occupation by German forces (1940-1945), the Royal Canadian Dragoons disobeyed direct orders on 15 April 1945 and charged into the heavily defended city, driving out German forces by the end of the next day. The anniversary of the liberation is celebrated by the Dragoons and the city, who fly each other's flags on the day.
Kneppelfreed (English: Baton Friday) was an incident on 16 November 1951 in front of the courthouse at Wilhelminaplein (Wilhelmina Square), when the police used batons against Frisian language activists during a protest against the exclusive use of Dutch in the courts. A committee of inquiry recommended that the Frisian language should receive legal status as a minority language.
On 19 October 2013, a fire broke out in a clothes shop on a busy pedestrian street. The fire started late in the afternoon and burned through the night, destroying five shops and eleven flats. The only casualty was a 24-year-old man who was living in one of the flats. The birthplace of Mata Hari was at first thought to be destroyed, but survived, albeit with considerable smoke and water damage.
The coat of arms of Leeuwarden is the official symbol of the municipality. It consists of a blue escutcheon, a golden lion, and a crown. The fact that Leeuwarden carries a lion in its seal seems logical, considering that "Leeuw" is Dutch for "Lion". However, it is very plausible the oldest name of the city conceals an indication of water rather than an animal, and some sources suggest that the lion may have only been added after the name became official. It is also possible the coat of arms was a gift to the city from the powerful Minnema family.
Leeuwarden is located centrally in Friesland. The military Leeuwarden Air Base lies northwest of the city. East of the city lies recreational area and nature reserve De Groene Ster. It contains the windmill Himriksmole, a golf course and AquaZoo Friesland.
On 1 January 2014 parts of the neighboring Boarnsterhim municipality were added to Leeuwarden. On 1 January 2018 it was enlarged by Leeuwarderadeel and parts of former municipality of Littenseradiel.
|Dutch name||West Frisian name||Population|
|Oude Leije||Alde Leie||255|
|Source: Statistics Netherlands|
|Climate data for Leeuwarden (1981–2010).|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.1
|Average high °C (°F)||4.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.7
|Average low °C (°F)||0.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||68
|Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute|
Museums in the city of Leeuwarden:
- Fries Museum. An art, culture and history museum. The building (2013) was designed by Hubert-Jan Henket.
- Princessehof Ceramics Museum, a ceramics museum.
- Pier Pander Museum, an art museum dedicated to the works of sculptor Pier Pander.
- Natuurmuseum Fryslân, a natural history museum.
- The Other Museum. Collections: old-timers, model trains, lace and photography, radio and Meccano.
- Tresoar, a historical center and museum with archives about Friesland.
- Fries Landbouwmuseum, an agricultural museum.
There are over 800 Rijksmonuments (national heritage sites) in the municipality of Leeuwarden. The Oldehove, a leaning unfinished church tower, is a symbol of the city. Other well-known buildings in the city center include the Kanselarij (former chancellery), the Stadhouderlijk Hof (former residence of the stadtholders of Friesland), the city hall (1715), the Waag (old weigh house), the Saint Boniface church (an important part of the neogothic movement) and the Centraal Apotheek, a pharmacy in the Art Nouveau style. The Blokhuispoort is a former prison and is transformed into a public library, hostel and restaurant.
The Froskepôlemolen (built in 1896), is the last surviving windmill to have stood in Leeuwarden. The remains of the Cammingha-Buurstermolen were demolished in 2000. The Slauerhoffbrug is a fully automatic bascule bridge named after the poet Jan Jacob Slauerhoff. It uses two arms to swing a section of road in and out of place within the road itself. This movable bridge is also known as the 'Flying' Drawbridge.
The tallest building in the city is the 114-metre (374 ft) Achmeatoren (Achmea insurance tower), built in 2001 and designed by Abe Bonnema – who also designed the second-tallest building, Averotoren at 77 m (253 ft).
Cultural events and festivals
On 6 September 2013 Leeuwarden was voted European Capital of Culture for the year 2018. Many events were organised throughout the year. The largest art project was the 11Fountains, fountains in the Frisian eleven cities. The Love Fountain, located in front of the train station, was designed by artist Jaume Plensa. The fountain is seven metres high and consists of two white heads of a boy and a girl, their eyes closed and dreaming.
Annual music festivals are Cityrock, Dancetour, Welcome To The Village, Into the Grave, Explore the North and Fries straatfestival. Other festivals are Noordelijk Film Festival (an event for film makers), photofestival Noorderlicht and the Media Art festival. Other events are Racing Expo and a large flower market (held on Ascension Day). There is also a weekly cattle market.
The Leeuwarden railway station (opened on 27 October 1863) is the main railway station of Leeuwarden. It is a terminus station of the NS railway line from Zwolle. Regional trains, served by Arriva, operate to Groningen in the east, Harlingen in the west and Stavoren in the southwest. The other stations in the municipality are Leeuwarden Camminghaburen, and Grou-Jirnsum. A fourth station Leeuwarden Werpsterhoeke is planned to be opened after 2018.
Near the train station is the bus station. Arriva runs several city, regional and national buses. Route 66 Leeuwarden-Holwerd connects with the ferry to Ameland, bus route 50 to Lauwersoog connects with the departures of the ferry to Schiermonnikoog and route 350 via the Afsluitdijk connects to Alkmaar in North Holland.
Leeuwarden has a number of respected schools of applied science (HBO in Dutch), (21,480 students in 2017), such as the Van Hall Instituut (agricultural and life sciences) and the NHL Stenden University of Applied Sciences (hotel management, economical and media management). In addition to higher education, the city is also home to three regional vocational schools (MBO): the Friese Poort, Friesland College, and Nordwin College.
Although the city has no university of its own, several satellite campuses are located here, including Campus Fryslân (University of Groningen) and Dairy Campus (Wageningen University and Research).
Technological Top Institute Wetsus does research into water management and related technologies. Centre of Expertise Water Technology (CEW) is the knowledge and innovation centre for applied research and product development in the field of water technology and the Wadden Academy to study and research the Wadden Sea.
Among the 10 largest employers in Leeuwarden are Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), ING, The Central Judicial Collection Agency (CJIB), Achmea, NHL Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden Air Base and FrieslandCampina. WTC Expo is the largest events complex in the Northern Netherlands.
The city's local football team, Cambuur Leeuwarden, plays in the second tier Eerste Divisie. Home ground is the Cambuur Stadion. The city's basketball team, Aris Leeuwarden, has played in the Dutch Basketball League since 2004.
Loop Leeuwarden is an annual road running competition (5 km, 10 km and half marathon races). The race was first held in 1985 and takes place in May. It attracts amateur runners. The city of Leeuwarden has two sailing boats (skûtsje) racing in the yearly sailing competition Skûtsjesilen.
The Elfstedenhal is a sport venue. The stadium is used for long track speed skating, short track speed skating, ice hockey, figure skating and curling. The 400m indoor speed skating oval is named after speed skater Atje Keulen-Deelstra. The ice hockey club is IJshockeyclub Capitals Leeuwarden (IJCCL).
Leeuwarden is the starting and finishing point for the celebrated Elfstedentocht, a 200 km (120 mi) speed skating race over the Frisian waterways that is held when winter conditions in the province allow. As of 2018,[update] it last took place in January 1997, preceded by the races of 1986 and 1985. In 1986, the Dutch king Willem-Alexander participated in the Eleven cities tour, with the pseudonym W.A. van Buren, which is the pseudonym of the royal family of the Netherlands.
Leeuwarden will host the World Flying Disc Federation 2020 World Ultimate and Guts Championships from the 11th to the 18th of July. The event is expected to have over 2500 athletes from 40 countries.
The Leeuwarder Courant and Friesch Dagblad are daily newspapers mainly written in Dutch (published by the NDC Mediagroep). Omrop Fryslân is a public broadcaster with radio and TV programs mainly in Frisian.
Public thinking & Public Service
- Wijerd Jelckama (c. 1490–1523), military commander
- Campegius Vitringa (1659-1722), theologian
- William IV, Prince of Orange (1711-1751), stadtholder
- Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer (1715–1785), classical scholar
- Joachim van Plettenberg (1739–1793), colonial governor
- Cornelis Adriaan Lobry van Troostenburg de Bruyn (1857–1904), chemist
- Pieter Jelles Troelstra (1860–1930), politician
- Johannes Henricus Gerardus Jansen (1868–1936), archbishop
- Eva and Abraham Beem (1932/1934–1944), young Jewish Holocaust victims
- Harm Wiersma (born 1953), draughts player and politician
- Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527–c. 1607), architect, painter, and engineer
- Hendrik Niehoff (1495–c. 1561), pipe organ maker
- Saskia van Uylenburg (1612–1642), wife of the painter Rembrandt van Rijn
- Abraham Lambertsz van den Tempel (1622-1672), painter
- Willem van Haren (1710–1768), poet
- Wilhelmina van Idsinga (1788–1819), painter
- Piet Paaltjens (1835–1894), minister and romantic author
- Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912), knighted painter
- Dirk van Erp (1860–1933), artisan and metalsmith
- Mata Hari (1876–1917), exotic dancer and courtesan, possible double agent 
- Richard Hageman (1881–1966), conductor, pianist, composer, and actor 
- Jan Jacob Slauerhoff (1898–1936), poet and novelist
- M. C. Escher (1898–1972), graphic artist
- Havank (1904–1964), writer, journalist, and translator
- Cisca Dresselhuys (born 1943), journalist and magazine editor
- Tjitske Reidinga (born 1972), actress 
In the Netherlands, a municipality is governed by the college of mayor and aldermen and the municipal council. Sybrand van Haersma Buma of the CDA has been mayor of Leeuwarden since 26 August 2019. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the Labour Party (3 aldermen), Christian Democratic Appeal (2 aldermen), PAL GroenLinks (1 alderman) form a coalition. The municipal council of Leeuwarden has 39 seats.
The city of Leeuwarden is twinned with
- "Burgemeester Sybrand van Haersma Buma" [Mayor Sybrand van Haersma Buma] (in Dutch). Gemeente Leeuwarden. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "Postcodetool for 8911DH". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Leeuwarden". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
- Groot 1984, p. 10 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGroot1984 (help)
- "BBC - Travel - The Dutch city with a constantly changing name". 11 December 2019. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Groot 1984, p. 12 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGroot1984 (help)
- Stadsgeschiedenis Leeuwarden, Historisch Centrum Leeuwarden.
- Langen, G. de Leeuwarden 750 - 2000 Hoofdstad van Friesland p. 19 (Franeker 1999)
- "The Jewish Community of Leeuwarden". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot.
- "The Jewish community of the city of Leeuwarden". www.dutchjewry.org.
- "Army.ca forums". 15 April 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- Canon of Frisian History - Kneppelfreed 11en30.nu Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Summary of inspection report of fire along De Kelders in Leeuwarden, 19 October 2013" (PDF). European Fire Service Colleges' Association. 19 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "Fire destroys house where Mata Hari was born". San Diego Union Tribune. 20 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- Jansma, Klaas (1981). Friesland en zijn 44 gemeenten. Leeuwarden: Friesch Dagblad. p. 45. ISBN 90-6480-015-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- AquaZoo Friesland Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Gemeentelijke indeling op 1 januari 2014" [Municipal divisions on 1 January 2014]. cbs.nl (in Dutch). CBS. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2017 [Key figures for neighbourhoods], CBS Statline (in Dutch) CBS 2 Februari 2018 . Retrieved on 1 March 2018.
- Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand, [Population growth; regions per month], CBS Statline (in Dutch) CBS 28 Februari 2018 . Retrieved on 1 March 2018.
- "Knmi.nl" (in Dutch). Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Tresoar, Tresoar. Retrieved on 28 February 2018.
- Fries Verzetsmuseum, Fries Verzetsmuseum. Retrieved on 28 February 2018.
- Princessehof, Princessehof Ceramics Museum. Retrieved on 28 February 2018.
- (in Dutch) Natuurmuseum Fryslân, Natuurmuseum Fryslân. Retrieved on 28 February 2018.
- The Other Museum. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
- Fries Landbouwmuseum. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Monumentenregister, Official database of heritage sites 1 January 2018 . Retrieved on 1 March 2018.
- Stichting De Fryske Mole (1995). Friese Molens (in Dutch). Leeuwarden: Friese Pers Boekerij bv. pp. 69–73, 181, 183, 253. ISBN 90-330-1522-6.
- Cultural capital website
- european-capital-of-culture Archived 19 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 1 March 2018.
- LF2018 Retrieved on 1 March 2018
- 11fountains-Leeuwarden Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Explore the North. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- Tourist information Leeuwarden Retrieved on 2 March 2018.
- Cattle market Leeuwarden. Retrieved on 2 March 2018.
- Actuele vertrektijden Station Leeuwarden (in Dutch), Nederlandse Spoorwegen. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Leeuwarden Werpsterhoeke (in Dutch), ProRail. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Arriva Dienstregeling Friesland (in Dutch), Arriva. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- Wagenborg Passagiersdiensten public transportation Retrieved on 8 March 2018.
- HBO students Leeuwarden Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- NHL Stenden University Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Friese Poort
- Friesland College
- Nordwin College
- University of Groningen/Campus Fryslân Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Dairy Campus. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Wetsus Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- CEW Leeuwarden Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Wadden Academy Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Gemeentegids Leeuwarden 2011
- WTC Expo Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Loop Leeuwarden. Retrieved on 2 March 2018.
- Elfstedenhal Archived 3 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 3 March 2018.
- capitalsleeuwarden ice hockey club. Retrieved on 3 March 2018.
- WFDF 2020 World Ultimate and Guts Championships, World Flying Disc Federation. Retrieved on 21 May 2019.
- (in Dutch) LC Leeuwarder Courant. Retrieved on 6 March 2018.
- (in Dutch) Friesch Dagblad, Friesch Dagblad. Retrieved on 6 March 2018.
- (in West Frisian) Omrop Fryslan, Omrop Fryslân. Retrieved on 6 March 2018.
- IMDb Database retrieved 11 February 2020
- IMDb Database retrieved 11 February 2020
- IMDb Database retrieved 11 February 2020
- Gemeente Leeuwarden (Friesland) (in Dutch), Overheid in Friesland. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Gemeenteraadsleden en ondersteuning (in Dutch), Municipality of Leeuwarden. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Groot, P.J. de; Karstkarel, G.P.; Kuipers, W.H. (1984). Leeuwarden, beeld van een stad. Zeven eeuwen stadsleven in woord en beeld. Leeuwarden: Friese Pers Boekerij. ISBN 90 3301341X.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)