City and County seat
From Ashes to Immortality
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||February 20, 1858|
|Named for||Amos A. Lawrence|
|• Mayor||Brad Finkeldei|
|• City Manager||Craig Owens|
|• Total||34.97 sq mi (90.57 km2)|
|• Land||34.14 sq mi (88.42 km2)|
|• Water||0.83 sq mi (2.14 km2)|
|Elevation||866 ft (264 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,876.10/sq mi (1,110.47/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|Public Transportation||Lawrence Transit|
Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County and sixth-largest city in Kansas. It is in the northeastern sector of the state, astride Interstate 70, between the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 87,643; by 2019 the estimated population had risen to 98,193. Lawrence is a college town and the home to both the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University.
Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company (NEEAC), and was named for Amos A. Lawrence, a Republican abolitionist originally from Massachusetts, who offered financial aid and support for the settlement. Lawrence was central to the "Bleeding Kansas" period (1854–61), and the site of the Wakarusa War (1855) and the Sacking of Lawrence (1856). During the American Civil War it was also the site of the Lawrence massacre (1863).
Lawrence began as a center of free-state politics. Its economy diversified into many industries, including agriculture, manufacturing, and education, beginning with the founding of the University of Kansas in 1865 and Haskell Indian Nations University in 1884.
Settlement and early years
The Kaw people, also known as the Kansa, settled the region including what is now Lawrence in the late 17th or early 18th century. A series of treaties with the U.S. government compelled the Kaw to relinquish the land to the Shawnee and their Indian Reservation, established in 1830. The Kansas Territory was established in May 1854. During this period, the Oregon Trail ran parallel to the Kansas River, roughly through the area where Lawrence is now. A hill in the area, then known as Hogback Ridge and now known as Mount Oread, which sits on the water divide separating the Kansas and Wakarusa River, was used as a landmark and outlook by those on the trail. While the territory was technically closed to settlement until 1854, there were a few "squatter settlements" in the area, especially just north of the Kansas River.
Lawrence was founded "strictly for political reasons" having to do with slavery, which was heavily debated in the United States in the early to mid-1800s. Northern Democrats, led by Senators Lewis Cass of Michigan and Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, promoted "popular sovereignty" as a middle position on the slavery issue. Its proponents argued that it was more democratic, as it allowed the citizens of newly organized territories (and not Washington, D.C. politicians) to have a direct say as to the legality of slavery in their own lands. (Meanwhile, enemies of the bill, especially in the north, derisively called this idea "squatter sovereignty".) Douglas eventually made popular sovereignty the backbone of his Kansas–Nebraska Act—legislation that effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska—which passed Congress in 1854.
The Christian abolitionist and Protestant minister Richard Cordley later noted that after the bill became law, "there was a feeling of despondency all over the north" because its passage "opened Kansas to [the possibility of] slavery [which many] thought [was] equivalent to making Kansas a slave state." This was largely because nearby Missouri allowed slavery, and many rightly assumed that the first settlers in Kansas Territory would come from Missouri, bringing their penchant for slavery with them. In time, anger at the Kansas-Nebraska Act united antislavery forces into a movement committed to stopping the expansion of slavery, eventually institutionalized as the Republican Party. Many slavery opponents decided to "meet the question [of slavery in Kansas] on the terms of the bill itself" by migrating to Kansas, electing antislavery legislators, and eventually banning slavery altogether. These settlers soon became known as "Free-Staters". Even before the bill passed, some people already had this idea. In early May 1854, four men—Thomas W. and Oliver P. Barber, Samuel Walker, and Thomas M. Pearson—toured the new territory with the intention of finding a good place to settle. Their travels included what would become Lawrence, passing up on the spur of Hogback Ridge. The Kansas-Nebraska Act passed while they were in the territory, and they were instrumental in convincing others to come. In his book A History of Lawrence (1895), Cordley wrote:
The most systematic and extensive movement [to populate Kansas], however, was made [by] "The New England Emigrant Aid Company" ... The men engaged in it, Eli Thayer [a Republican in the United States House of Representatives], Amos A. Lawrence [a Republican abolitionist and businessman], and others, began their work at once, arousing public interest and making arrangements to facilitate emigration to Kansas. As early as June, 1854, they sent Dr. Charles Robinson, of Fitchburg, and Mr. Charles H. Branscomb, of Holyoke, to explore the territory and select a site for a colony ... [Previously] Robinson [had journeyed to Kansas, during which] his party climbed the hill along this spur, and looked off over what was afterwards the site of Lawrence. They marked the beauty of the spot and the magnificence of the view. Whether they thought then of what might afterwards occur is not known; but when the time came to select a location for the first colony, Dr. Robinson remembered this view from the hilltop, and this doubtless had much to do in the final decision. When he was asked, therefore, to go and explore the country with a view to locating colonies, it was not altogether an unknown land to him.
Branscomb was tasked with exploring the Kansas River up to about Fort Riley, while Robinson scouted land near Fort Leavenworth and the nearby city of the same name; after assessing the territory they had surveyed, the two recommended that the New England Emigrant Aid Company (NEEAC) send its settlers to claim territory along the Oregon Trail near Hogback Ridge. The two likely chose this site because it was the "first desirable location where emigrant Indians had ceded their land rights." The area was also attractive because it was close to not only on the Oregon Trail, but also the Santa Fe and the 1846 Military Trails.
Concurrent with Robinson and Branscomb's exploration, the NEEAC was soliciting some of its members to settle in Kansas. At first, the NEEAC wanted to send a somewhat sizeable group of settlers to claim the land, but a cholera outbreak in the Missouri Valley prevented that. In the end, a group of only 29 men—which Eli Thayer later called the "pioneer colony"—volunteered for the job. Led by Branscomb, these pioneers left Boston, Massachusetts, and set out for Kansas Territory on July 17, 1854; according to Thayer's antislavery newspaper the Kansas Crusader for Freedom, "Immense crowds had gathered [in Boston] at the station to give them a parting God-speed. They moved out of the station amid the cheering of the crowds who lined the track for several blocks." In late July, the group met Robinson in St. Louis, and he discussed the next leg of the journey with them and provided them with transportation. The pioneers arrived in Kansas Territory near the end of July, and at about noon on August 1, they ate their first meal on Hogback Ridge itself, which was soon renamed Mount Oread after the Oread Institute in Worcester, Massachusetts. Immediately thereafter, about half this party set off to claim land in the nearby countryside, where about 15 of the original settlers remained, and began to establish a city between Mount Oread and the Kansas River roughly where Massachusetts Street now runs.
While all of this was unfolding, a followup party of 67, guided by Robinson and Samuel C. Pomeroy (an abolitionist and a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives), left Worcester, Massachusetts, on August 31; along the way to Kansas, settlers of similar political inclinations joined this group, and when the party reached its destination on September 9–11, it had grown to about 114 people. This second party included about ten women, a number of children, and several musicians. A third group of settlers arrived in the vicinity of the future city on October 8–9, but many "became disgusted by the outlook" of the settlement and returned to New England, feeling they had been "deceived" by the NEEAC. A fourth group of settlers arrived on October 30, followed by a fifth on November 20 and a sixth on December 1. On September 18, the early colonists convened and established a "voluntary municipal government", and by September 20, the settlers had approved a constitution that included principles of prohibitionatory Maine law to govern their town. The settlement was created against threats by pro-slavery men that the free-staters ought to be "driven from the country." The first rally of forces from Lawrence was the night of September 30, done to protect Thomas J. Ferril, a free-state Methodist preacher from Missouri. His assailants had surrounded his house, threatening violence and to destroy his property, but retreated upon seeing a body of armed free-staters without injury to either side. The next day, a woman tore down a free-state man's tent. Pro-slavery men rallied to prevent the tent's reconstruction by a group of about 20 armed free-staters, but it was completed without violence. The next day, a sizeable band of pro-slavery men appeared, threatening a repeat of the attack, but upon seeing their opponents ready, they retreated with renewed threats of vengeance.
When the settlers first arrived, most had called their fledgling city simply Wakarusa, after the nearby river of the same name, but other names were considered, such as New Boston (in recognition of both the NEEAC's city of operation and the hometown of many early settlers) and Plymouth (after Plymouth Rock). Meanwhile, settlers from Missouri derisively called it "Yankee Town", due to its New England connections. Another name considered around this time was Lawrence. Many approved of this name in honor of Amos A. Lawrence, an Ipswich-based businessman and noted abolitionist, who, Cordley writes, was "a man of wide personal influence" and "one of the first men of means" to fund the Emigrant Aid Company. Others hoped that if they named their town after him, Lawrence would be inclined to support them with monetary donations, which proved correct. Another factor making "Lawrence" a popular choice was that it had "no bad odor attached to it in any part of the Union." On October 1, the settlement's leaders voted to approve "Lawrence" as the name of their new city, and on October 17, the citizens drew territory lots so as to begin erecting homes and businesses. Around this time, the settlers got into a heated argument with pro-slavery squatters, who were hoping to establish a city named Excelsior on the land where Lawrence was being constructed. These pro-slavers threatened violence against anyone who stood in their way, but eventually acquiesced to the New Englanders, and no open conflict occurred.
In early October 1854, the first governor of the Kansas Territory, Andrew Horatio Reeder, arrived, had a reception and a festival, and after a welcoming speech by Pomeroy, made a conciliatory speech urging harmony and order, while evading the slavery question. Lawrence's first winter was characterized by great hardship, as the people predominantly lived in sod houses and "shanties made of clap-boards." About two miles (3.3 km) south of Lawrence, at the first election on November 3, 1854, which was to elect only Congressional delegates, there was a commotion; it ended with a man named Henry Davis attacking a pro-slavery man named Lucius Kibbee with a Bowie knife. The fight ended when Kibbee shot Davis, making this Kansas's first homicide. While briefly incarcerated at Fort Leavenworth, Kibbee was never tried.
By the end of 1854, two newspapers touting the free state mission had been established in the town: the Herald of Freedom, edited by George W. Brown, and the Kansas Pioneer, edited by John Speer, renamed the Kansas Tribune after Speer discovered that a proslavery Kansas Pioneer newspaper already existed. A third paper, the Kansas Free State, was also created by editors Robert Gaston Elliott and Josiah Miller, and began publication in early January 1855. The Plymouth Congregational Church was started in September 1854 by Reverend S. Y. Lum, a missionary sent to Kansas from Middletown, New York. The first post office in Lawrence was established in January 1855, and E. D. Ladd was appointed the town's first postmaster. On January 10, 1855, the first school in Kansas was established in Lawrence by voluntary contributions, and it was taught by Edward P. Fitch.
At the start of 1855, settlers who held opposing opinions about slavery had settled in the Kansas Territory around the Lawrence area and began vying for political power. Secret societies, called Blue Lodges, were created, and their sole purpose was to make Kansas a slave state. Their plan was to come into Kansas on the day of the election and vote so as to gain control of the legislature. Before the election, a census was conducted. Kansas had a population of 8,601 with 2,905 of them being voters. Lawrence, specifically, had 369 voters. At the legislature election on March 30, 1855, about 700–1,000 armed pro-slavery men from Missouri voted at the election. They came in over 100 wagons, and they were armed with guns, rifles, pistols, and Bowie knives. They also brought two pieces of artillery. Due to their large numbers, they went unchallenged. They left for Missouri the next morning, having camped in Lawrence the night before. Silas Bond was shot at and driven from the polls on the grounds that he was "an obnoxious free-state man." 1,034 votes were cast in Lawrence, 232 of which were legal, with 802 being from non-residents. There were only 2,905 legal voters in the territory, but 6,307 votes were cast. The people appealed to Governor Andrew Reeder to set the election aside, to which he agreed initially, but after being threatened by pro-slavery people, he decided instead to hold another election in districts in which there were protests, such as Lawrence. The people of Lawrence felt this did nothing, and many were uncertain about what would happen or what they needed to do.
In June 1855, a meeting was held in Lawrence, at which resolutions were adopted intending to resist any laws that may be passed by the legislature, and they declared that the legislature was elected by "armed usurpers from Missouri." This paved the way for a larger convention on June 25. Between June 8 and August 15, 1855, seven meetings were held in Lawrence for the purposes of resisting the legislature. The free-state leaders sent George W. Deitzler to the east to secure weapons from other anti-slavery people. Amos Lawrence and others sent crates full of rifles, to which they labeled "books" because "the border ruffians had no use for books, [and] they came through without being disturbed." With the help of Horace Greeley, a howitzer was sent to Lawrence. On August 27, 1855, the proslavery faction in Douglas County (based primarily out of the territorial capital, Lecompton, as well as smaller satellite settlements like Franklin and Lone Star) got a boost when acting territorial governor Daniel Woodson appointed the zealously proslavery settler Samuel J. Jones to the office of county sheriff. Then, in October 1855, the outspoken abolitionist John Brown arrived in the Kansas Territory; he brought with him a wagon-load of weapons with which he intended to use to fight off "Satan and his legions" (i.e., proslavery settlers).
For much of 1855, the pro- and antislavery factions existed uneasily with one another. Then on November 21, 1855, after an intense verbal altercation, the proslavery settler Franklin N. Coleman shot the Free-Stater Charles Dow in the head, killing him. The murder was the culmination of a long-simmering feud between the two, as for some time they had bickered about a land claim near the Hickory Point post office, located about 14 miles (23 km) south of Lawrence. According to the Border War Encyclopedia, "Politics had not motivated Coleman to kill Dow, but the murder marked the genesis of the violent political divisions that characterized Kansas for the next 10 years." When Jones investigated the crime, Coleman argued that he had simply been acting in self-defense. The sheriff sided with his proslavery compatriot and chose to instead arrest Dow's free state affiliate Jacob Branson for disturbing the peace. Branson was quickly rescued by Samuel Newitt Wood and a gang of Free-Staters by breaking him out of jail. He was rescued at one in the morning, just two hours after the arrest. As the gang of free-staters were heading back, they were unsure of what to do. They consulted with Charles Robinson, and they all realized that the pro-slavery people would label this act of breaking someone out of jail as an insurrection. They realized that the militia would be called to carry out the arrests of those who broke Branson out of jail, but that they would likely use it as an excuse to destroy Lawrence. The rest of the city was unaware of the rescue at this time. It was decided that the men who broke Branson out of jail would need to keep out of the way. Robinson informed the others at a meeting of citizens that morning, to which they agreed. They then started preparing the city for defense.
To calm the increasingly belligerent settlers, the governor of the Kansas Territory, Wilson Shannon, called on the Kansas militia to intervene and keep the peace. Shannon had intended for the militia to be composed of Kansans, but Jones mustered a small army of 1,200–1,500 proslavery men, all but about 50 came from Missouri. When the citizens of Lawrence learned of Jones's army, they raised up a defensive militia of 600–800 men armed with "Beecher's Bibles". Robinson was chosen to direct the city's military operations, the future state senator James Lane was selected as his second-in-command, and a "committee of safety" was also created, which organized squads of about 20 men to keep watch over the city. Lawrence was additionally aided by John Brown and his four sons: John Jr., Oliver, Owen, and Watson. Five forts of earthwork or rifle pits were constructed, and a solid defense was prepared. While both sides were ready for a fight, an outright clash between the two militias was prevented at least in part by the harsh Kansas winter. On December 8, Shannon had had enough and ordered representatives from both sides to meet at the proslavery stronghold of Franklin to sign a peace treaty. Terms were agreed to, and eventually, after much persuading, the Missouri army reluctantly left the area. This conflict, despite its rather diminutive size and scale, would later be known as the "Wakarusa War".
In the spring of 1856, the proslavery forces, hoping to diminish the power of the anti-slavery settlers, singled out the Kansas Free State, the Herald of Freedom, and the Free State Hotel (the latter of which was owned and operated by the NEEAC) as "nuisances" that needed to be stopped. On April 23, 1856 Sheriff Jones entered into Lawrence and attempted to arrest about a dozen members of the extralegal Free-State legislature (a rogue governing body which had been set up in opposition to the official proslavery territorial government). During the commotion, Jones was non-fatally shot by a sniper named Charles Lenhart, and Lawrence residents promptly drove the sheriff out of town. The people of Lawrence disavowed the act, and they offered a $500 bounty for the sniper's arrest. A few weeks later, on May 11, Federal Marshal Israel B. Donaldson proclaimed the act had interfered with the legal execution of warrants against select antislavery settlers. This proclamation was bolstered by a Kansas grand jury's presentment that "the building known as the 'Free State' Hotel' [sic] in Lawrence had been constructed with a view to military occupation and defence, regularly parapetted and port holed, for the use of cannon and small arms, thereby endangering the public safety, and encouraging rebellion and sedition in this country". Donaldson, Jones, and Missouri senator David Rice Atchison consequently raised up another army comprising around 800 Southerners. Ostensibly this army's purpose was to enforce the legal arrest warrants, but the group was also motivated by a desire to stamp out the Free-Stater nest that was Lawrence.
On May 21, Donaldson and Jones rode into town and successfully arrested those who had previously evaded them. While the citizens of Lawrence hoped that the officers would leave peacefully after making the arrests, this did not come to pass. Donaldson dismissed his men, who were immediately deputized by Jones. The sheriff was then joined by more followers and together they began to sack the city. After seizing the house of Charles Robinson (who had recently been arrested in Missouri, and was held in prison near Lecompton on grounds of treason) to serve as his headquarters, Jones and his men attacked the offices of the antislavery newspapers. The attackers smashed the presses, tossed the type into the nearby Kansas River, and threw already-printed copies of the newspapers into the wind. After this was done, the proslavery mob shot the Free State Hotel with a cannon before burning it down. Jones and his men then pillaged $30,000 worth of valuables. When Jones left the city, he and his men lit Robinson's house on fire for good measure. Although the city was thoroughly ransacked, the human cost of the attack was low: only one person—a member of Jones's posses—died during the attack when he was struck by a piece of falling masonry. In late September 1856, another sack seemed nigh when, according to the Kansas State Board of Agriculture 1878 Biennial Report, "2,700 proslavery men appeared in sight of Lawrence, and the city was temporarily defended by Free-State men, under the command of Maj. J. B. Abbott". However, this threat was neutralized when the recently-installed territorial governor John W. Geary realized what was about to happen and called for federal reinforcements to defend the city.
In both 1855 and 1857, Lawrence received a charter from the proslavery government in Lecompton, but the citizens, being adamant in their opposition to the "Bogus Legislature", refused to accept it, as it would have organized Lawrence under proslavery laws. In July 1857, the citizens of Lawrence then attempted to secure an "official" city charter from the extralegal Free-State legislature before issuing one themselves. This act was seen as one of bold-faced insurrection by the newly-installed territorial governor Robert J. Walker; as a result, on July 15, 1857 Walker ordered William S. Harney to send a regiment of soldiers to watch over the city and impose martial law. These troops remained in the vicinity of Lawrence until the territorial elections in October of that year. By this time, it seemed as if the struggles of Lawrence's early citizens were coming to fruition. In the election of 1857, free-staters gained the upper hand and were able to oust the proslavery majority from the territorial legislature. By the start of the next year, Samuel Jones—long the enemy of Lawrence's free state population—resigned his post as sheriff and left the territory. On January 16, 1858, Lawrence was declared the seat of Douglas County (an honor that had previously belonged to Lecompton). In February of that year, the legislature approved the city charter that had been drafted a little less than a year prior in July, and soon James Blood became the first mayor of the city. Around this time, the antislavery legislature often met in Lawrence, which functioned as the de facto capital of Kansas Territory from 1858 until 1861 (although Lecompton was still the de jure seat of the governing body).
Kansas statehood and the American Civil War
On October 4, 1859, the Wyandotte Constitution was approved in a referendum by a vote of 10,421 to 5,530, and after its approval by the U.S. Congress, Kansas was admitted as a free state on January 29, 1861. By the time the Wyandotte Constitution was framed in 1859, it was clear that the proslavery forces had lost in their bid to control Kansas. But while Kansas's entrance into the Union as a free state arguably ended the Bleeding Kansas period, it coincided with the outbreak of the American Civil War. Kansas's admission as a free state immediately followed the departure of the seceding states' pro-slavery congressmen, who until then had blocked it.
During the war, Lawrence became a stronghold for Jayhawker guerilla units (also known as "Red Legs"), led by James Lane, James Montgomery, and "Doc" Jennison, among others. These groups raided parts of western Missouri, stealing goods and burning down farms; it was a common belief by Southerners that the goods snatched by these Jayhawkers were stored in Lawrence. On August 21, 1863, Lawrence was attacked and destroyed by William Quantrill and hundreds of his irregular Confederate raiders. Most houses and businesses in Lawrence were burned and between 150 and 200 men and boys were murdered, leaving 80 widows and 250 orphans. About $2,000,000 worth of property (equivalent to $41,529,730 in 2019) was destroyed. The Plymouth Congregational Church in Lawrence survived the attack, but a number of its members were killed and its records were destroyed.
Following the Lawrence Massacre, the survivors and their Unionist allies began to clean up the damage and restore their settlement. After a very bitter winter that forced the citizens to temporarily put their work on hold, rebuilding continued into 1864, and was completed with a zeal that Richard Cordley described as akin to "a religious obligation." Given the trauma of 1863, the citizens of Lawrence were on edge during this period of rebuilding; Cordley notes, "Rumors [of guerrilla attacks] were thick and the people [of Lawrence] were particularly sensitive to them." Consequently, Lawrence citizens organized themselves into companies to protect the city. Around this time, the federal government also erected several military posts on Mount Oread (among them Camp Ewing, Camp Lookout, and Fort Ulysses) to keep guard over the city. However, no further attacks were made on Lawrence, and these installations were eventually abandoned and dismantled after the war.
Attempts to begin a university in Kansas were first undertaken in 1855, but it was only after Kansas became a state in 1861 that those attempts saw any real fruition. An institute of learning was proposed in 1859 as The University of Lawrence, but it never opened. When Kansas became a state, provision was included in the Kansas Constitution for a state university. From 1861 to 1863 the question of where the university would be located—Lawrence, Manhattan or Emporia—was debated. On January 13, 1863, Manhattan was made the site of the state's land-grant college, leaving only Lawrence and Emporia as candidates. The fact Lawrence had $10,000 plus interest donated by Amos Lawrence plus 40 acres (160,000 m2) to donate for the university had great weight with the legislature. Eventually, Lawrence beat out Emporia by one vote, and in 1866, the University of Kansas (KU) was opened to students.
The first railroad that connected Lawrence was built in 1864, starting from Kansas City. It was surveyed by the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division, and the first train to Lawrence traveled on November 28, 1864. The first train to operate in Kansas south of the Kansas River did so by crossing the river in Lawrence on November 1, 1867.
Facing an energy crisis in the early 1870s, the city contracted with Orlando Darling to construct a dam across the Kansas River to help provide the city with power. Frustrated with the construction of the dam, Darling resigned and the Lawrence Land & Water Company completed the dam without him in 1873; however, only when J.D. Bowersock took over the dam in 1879 that the constant damage to the dam ceased and repairs held up. The dam made Lawrence unique which helped in winning business against Kansas City and Leavenworth. The dam closed in 1968 but was reopened in 1977 with help from the city, which wanted to build a new city hall next to the Bowersock Plant.
The first wind-powered mill in Kansas was built in Lawrence in 1863 near the corner of what is now 9th Street and Emery Road. It was partially destroyed during Quantrill's Raid, but it was rebuilt in 1864 at a cost of $9,700. It continued to be operational until July 1885, but on April 30, 1905, it was destroyed in a fire.
In 1884 the United States Indian Industrial Training School was opened in Lawrence, a Native American Boarding School with the goal of assimilation. Boys were taught the trades of tailor making, blacksmithing, farming and others while girls were taught cooking and homemaking. Most food was produced on site at the Haskell Farm and students were expected to work in addition to their training. In 1885, the school expanded to include academic training and a commercial department with five typewriters opened, starting the first touch-typing class in Kansas. In 1887 the name was changed to the Haskell Institute, after Dudley Haskell, a legislator responsible for the school being in Lawrence. In 1993 the name was changed again to Haskell Indian Nations University.
20th century and beyond
In 1888, Watkins National Bank opened at 11th and Massachusetts. Founded by Jabez B. Watkins, the bank would last until 1929. Watkin's wife Elizabeth donated the bank building to the city to use as a city hall. In 1970, the city built a new city hall and after extensive renovations, the bank reopened in 1975 as the Elizabeth M. Watkins Community Museum.
In 1903, the Kansas River flooded causing property damage in Lawrence, especially North Lawrence. The water got as high as 27 feet and water marks can still be seen on some buildings especially at TeePee Junction at the U.S. 24–40 intersection and at Burcham Park. Lawrence would be hit by other floods in 1951, where the water rose over 30 feet, and in 1993 but with the reservoir and levee system in place, Lawrence only had minimal damage compared to the other floods.
Also in 1903, Theodore Roosevelt visited Lawrence on his way to Manhattan where he gave a short speech and dedicated a fountain at 9th & New Hampshire. The fountain was later moved to South Park next to the gazebo. Roosevelt would visit Lawrence again in 1910 after visiting Osawatomie where he dedicated the John Brown State Historical Site and gave a speech on New Nationalism.
In 1871, the Lawrence Street Railway Company opened and offered citizens easy access to hotels and businesses along Massachusetts Street. The first streetcar was pulled by horses and mules and the track just ran along Massachusetts Street. After the 1903 flood, the Kansas River bridge had to be rebuilt but was not considered safe for a streetcar to pass over. The Lawrence Street Railway Company closed later that year. In 1907, C.L. Rutter attempted to bring back a bus system, after having failed in 1902. In 1909, a new streetcar system was implemented putting Rutter out of business and lasting until 1935. In 1909, the streetcar company created Casey's Coaster (also known as Daisy's Dozer), a wooden roller coaster which lasted from 1909 to the 1920s, in Woodland Park.
In 1921, Lawrence Memorial Hospital opened in the 300 block of Maine Street. It started with only 50 beds but by 1980, the hospital would expand to 200. LMH has been awarded several awards and recognitions for care and quality including The Hospital Value Index Best in Value Award and is ranked nationally in the top five percent for heart attack care by the American College of Cardiology.
In 1927, high school classes were offered at Haskell Institute. Haskell's Athletics were well-knock; they were known as the "Powerhouse of the West" with victories over Oklahoma A&M, Kansas State, Texas, and Nebraska. The Olympian Jim Thorpe graduated from the program. The last high school class graduated in 1965, the school was transitioning to post-high school education. In 1970, the school became known as Haskell Indian Junior College, and in 1993, "Haskell Indian Nations University".
In 1929 Lawrence began celebrating its 75th anniversary. The city dedicated Founder's Rock, commonly referred to as the Shunganunga Boulder, a huge red boulder brought to Lawrence from near Tecumseh. The rock honors the two parties of the Emigrant Aid Society who first settled in Lawrence. Lawrence also dedicated the Lawrence Municipal Airport on October 14.
In 1943, the federal government transported German and Italian prisoners of World War II to Kansas and other Midwest states to work on farms and help solve the labor shortage caused by American men serving in the war effort. Large internment camps were established in Kansas: Camp Concordia, Camp Funston (at Fort Riley), Camp Phillips (at Salina under Fort Riley). Fort Riley established 12 smaller branch camps, including Lawrence. The camp in Lawrence was near 11th & Haskell Avenue near the railroad tracks. The camp would close by the end of 1945.
In 1947, Gilbert Francis and his son George opened Francis Sporting Goods downtown, selling mostly fishing and hunting gear. A decade later they moved across the street to larger retail space at 731 Massachusetts Street, enabling them to expand into other sporting goods. In November 2014, in the wake of the opening of a new Dick's Sporting Goods location in Lawrence, Francis Sporting Goods, announced its retail business within what had become Lawrence's Downtown Historic District would close by the end of the year, allowing the Francis family to focus on supplying uniforms and equipment to teams.
In the early 1980s, Lawrence grabbed attention from the television movie The Day After. The TV movie first appeared on ABC but was later shown in movie theaters around the world. The movie depicted what would happen if the United States were destroyed in a nuclear war. The movie was filmed in Lawrence, and hundreds of local residents appeared in the film as extras and in speaking roles.
In 1989, the Free State Brewing Company opened in Lawrence becoming the first legal brewery in Kansas in more than 100 years. The restaurant is in a renovated inter-urban trolley station in downtown Lawrence.
In 2020, a report commissioned by the Lawrence City Council concluded that the city needed to promote a vital expansion or risk turning into an unaffordable albatross, saying "If Lawrence doesn't attract more kinds of businesses, it could become a bedroom community that’s not affordable for people who don't commute elsewhere."
Downtown Lawrence is located at Topeka, and 35 mi (56 km) west of Kansas City, Kansas. Though Lawrence has a designated elevation of 866 feet (264 m), the highest elevation is Mount Oread on the University of Kansas campus with an elevation of 1,020 feet (310 m).(38.959902, −95.253199), approximately 25 miles (40 kilometers) east of
The city lies on the southern edge of the Dissected Till Plains, bordering the Osage Plains to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.26 square miles (88.73 km2), of which, 33.56 square miles (86.92 km2) is land and 0.70 square miles (1.81 km2) is water, and is split between Wakarusa Township and Grant Township with small portions in Lecompton, Kanwaka and Clinton Townships.
Lawrence is located between the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers. Several major creeks flow through Lawrence. Burroughs Creek in East Lawrence (named after the writer William S. Burroughs, who retired in East Lawrence) and Baldwin Creek in northwestern Lawrence empty into the Kansas River. Yankee Tank Creek in southwest Lawrence and an unnamed creek that flows through central Lawrence converge with the Wakarusa River south of the city. Yankee Tank Creek is dammed to form Lake Alvamar, which was originally called Yankee Tank Lake. The Wakarusa River was dammed to form Clinton Lake. Potter Lake is on the University of Kansas Campus and Mary's Lake is located in southeastern Lawrence within Prairie Park. The Haskell-Baker Wetlands, maintained by Haskell University and Baker University, is an extensive open space located in the southern part of the city that features wetlands, native plants, hiking and biking trails, and interpretative signage about the prairie and wetland ecosystems.
Lawrence has 54 parks which include community and neighborhood parks, trails, cemeteries and nature preserves. A new, multi-use trail system called the Lawrence Loop ("the Loop") encircles the city and, when fully completed, will create a 22-mile paved recreational trail, a green transportation network, and multiple opportunities for environmental restoration. Community parks include South Park, Buford Watson Park, Broken Arrow Park, Riverfront Park, Holcomb Park, "Dad" Perry Park, Centennial Park and Prairie Park. Cemeteries include Oak Hill, Maple Grove and Memorial Park. The first cemetery in Lawrence, Pioneer Cemetery, is on the University of Kansas campus and is maintained by KU.
Lawrence has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), typically experiencing hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 28.4 °F (−2.0 °C) in January to 78.5 °F (25.8 °C) in July. The high temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 32 days a year and 100 °F (38 °C) an average of 1.9 days. The minimum temperature falls to or below 0 °F (−18 °C) on an average 4.9 days a year. Extreme temperatures range from 111 °F (44 °C) on July 13 and 14, 1954 down to −21 °F (−29 °C) on December 22, 1989.
Lawrence receives an annual average of 39.9 inches (1,010 mm) of precipitation, most of which occurs in the warmer months, and records 96 days of measurable precipitation. Measurable snowfall occurs an average of 8 days per year with 4.6 days receiving at least 1.0 inch (2.5 cm). Snow depth of at least one inch occurs an average of 15.8 days a year.
|Climate data for Lawrence, Kansas (1981–2010 normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||72
|Average high °F (°C)||38.5
|Average low °F (°C)||18.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−18
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||0.98
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||3.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||5.2||5.9||7.9||9.7||11.3||10.4||8.7||8.6||8.4||8.1||6.6||5.6||96.4|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||2.2||2.1||0.5||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.8||2.2||8.0|
|Source: NOAA The Weather Channel|
The early settlers of the town named the city's main road "Massachusetts" to commemorate the New England Emigrant Aid Company's home state. Originally, north–south streets were named after states in the order that they were admitted to the Union, and east-west streets were named after famous Revolutionary War heroes. Over the years, however, this plan became marred. A number of streets were placed in the wrong order, North and South Carolina were consolidated into a single Carolina Street near Lawrence High School, and the names of nine states (Alaska, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington and Wyoming) were never given to streets. The state street naming system was abandoned after the establishment of Iowa Street, which runs through the center of Lawrence. In 1913, the east-west streets were renamed to numbered streets.
Lawrence is designated by neighborhoods. Neighborhoods closest to downtown are Old West Lawrence, North Lawrence, East Lawrence, Oread, Hancock and Pinckney. The neighborhoods west of Iowa Street are Sunset Hills, Prairie Meadows, Deerfield, and Alvamar. There are several neighborhoods listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Old West Lawrence, Oread, Hancock, Breezedale, and most of Rhode Island Street in East Lawrence.
Grant Township, north of the Kansas River, was annexed to Douglas County in 1870 from southern Sarcoxie Township in Jefferson County. The largest city in the township was Jefferson, founded in 1866 just over the river from Lawrence. Jefferson was renamed North Lawrence in 1869 and it was attempted to annex the town to Lawrence proper but the motion failed. The following year, the State Legislature annexed the town.
Just northeast of North Lawrence there once was a popular park area known as Bismarck Grove. During the late 19th century, this area housed numerous fairs, picnics, and temperance meetings. In 1870, the Kansas Pacific railroad set up a number of manufacturing and repair shops in this area, which became known as "Bismarck". The first organized gathering in the area took play in 1878 was the National Temperance camp meeting. The last fair was held at the Grove in 1899, and due to financial issues, the area was sold and became private property in 1900.
The architecture of Lawrence is greatly varied. Most buildings built before 1860 were destroyed in the Lawrence Massacre. Architectural styles represented in Lawrence's historical areas are Victorian, Gothic Revival, Tudor, Romanesque and many others.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The city's planning and urban development department estimates that the city reached 100,000 people in early 2018.
As of the census of 2010, there were 87,643 people, 34,970 households, and 16,939 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,611.5 inhabitants per square mile (1,008.3/km2). There were 37,502 housing units at an average density of 1,117.5 per square mile (431.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 82.0% White, 4.7% African American, 3.1% Native American, 4.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, and 4.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population.
There were 34,970 households, of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 51.6% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.91.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 17.5% of residents under the age of 18; 28.7% of residents between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.4% from 25 to 44; 18.5% from 45 to 64; and 8% were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 26.7 years. The gender makeup of the city was 50.2% male and 49.8% female.
As of 2010[update] the median income for a household was $41,290, and the median income for a family was $65,673. Males had a median income of $42,362 versus $34,124 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,666. About 10.7% of families and 23.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2000, there were 80,098 people, 31,388 households, and 15,725 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,849.4 people per square mile (1,100.2/km2). There were 32,761 housing units at an average density of 1,165.4 per square mile (450.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.80% White, 5.09% African American, 2.93% Native American, 3.78% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, and 2.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.65% of the population. 23.8% were of German, 10.6% English, 10.1% Irish and 7.1% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.0% spoke English, 2.9% Spanish and 1.0% Chinese or Mandarin as their first language.
Of the 31,388 households, 25.1% included children under the age of 18, 38.0% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.9% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 18.6% under the age of 18, 30.7% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 15.1% from 45 to 64, and 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males.
As of 2000[update] the median income for a household was $34,669, and the median income for a family was $51,545. Males had a median income of $33,481 versus $27,436 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,378. About 7.3% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.6% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. However, traditional statistics of income and poverty can be misleading when applied to cities with high student populations, such as Lawrence.
Lawrence has a diverse economy spanning education, industrial, agricultural, government, finance and scientific research, most of these are related to the University of Kansas, which is the largest employer in Lawrence. The largest private employer in Lawrence is General Dynamics.[a] Lawrence Public Schools, the City of Lawrence, Lawrence Memorial Hospital and Hallmark Cards round out the top six employers.
Lawrence saw growth in the industrial sector in the 1980s in part to the development of the East Hills Business Park in 1986. The industrial land opportunities provided by the East Hills Business Park provided space for national companies such as AMARR Garage Doors to house one of their two manufacturing facilities. The new industrial park also provided opportunities for Kansas City-based companies such as PROSOCO to move their business operations to Lawrence.
Historic sites and museums
South Park is a large park in Downtown Lawrence divided by Massachusetts Street just south of the county courthouse between North Park and South Park Streets. The park originally consisted of four separate parks—Lafayette, Hamilton, Washington and Franklin Parks—but was combined to form one park. South Park was developed in 1854 as part of the original city plat. A gazebo was built in South Park in 1910 and is used for annual city band performances during the summer months.
The Watkins Museum of History is a block north of South Park and houses exhibits from Lawrence and Douglas County. The building is managed by the Douglas County Historical Society and used to be Watkins National Bank (1888–1929) and Lawrence City Hall (1929–1970). The building features a range of architectural styles from the period it was constructed. Today it houses the Watkins Museum of History, which offers free admission and three floors of traditional and computer interactive exhibits. Next door to the museum is a Japanese Friendship Garden designed by the city and representatives from sister city Hiratsuka, Japan. An exhibit on the Bleeding Kansas era and the Freedom's Frontier National Heritage Area is in the old Lawrence Public Library at 9th and Vermont Streets. Other museums on KU campus include the Natural History Museum in Dyche Hall, the Spencer Museum of Art and the Dole Institute of Politics among others.
Centennial Park, between 6th and 9th Streets and Rockledge Road and Iowa Street, was established in 1954 for the city's 100th anniversary. The park features rolling hills, a skatepark, a disc golf course and a Polaris missile constructed during the Cold War. Sesquicentennial Park is near Clinton Lake and was established for Lawrence's 150th anniversary and is mostly undeveloped but features a timeline of Lawrence history and a time capsule to be opened in 2054.
Liberty Hall was built when the Bowersock Opera House burned down in 1911. Liberty Hall is a theater typically showcasing independent movies and frequent live acts. Liberty Hall also runs a video rental next door. The Granada Theater was originally built in 1928 as a vaudeville theater. It was renovated in 1934 as a movie theater until closing in 1989. It was renovated again in 1993 and opened as a venue for comedy acts and live music.
The Eldridge Hotel was first built in 1855 as the Free State Hotel. During the 1855 sack of Lawrence, the hotel was burned to the ground, and its ruins were purchased by Col. Shalor Eldridge, who rebuilt it and named it the Eldridge House. This version of the structure was destroyed during Quantrill's Raid, but once again Eldridge rebuilt it. In 1925, this structure was completely renovated, and in 1970, the hotel was converted into apartments. In 1985, work began to renovate the Eldridge and turn it back into a hotel, and in 2004 the building was sold and completely renovated back to its 1925 look. It is a popular rumor that the ghost of Eldridge haunts the hotel.
Memorial Stadium and Allen Fieldhouse are on KU campus. Memorial Stadium was built in 1920 for the Kansas Jayhawks football program. It was named to honor KU students who died in World War I. Allen Fieldhouse was built in 1955 for the basketball program and was named for Phog Allen, a coach at KU from 1907 to 1909 and 1919 to 1956. On November 4, 2010, the ESPN's online publication, The Magazine, named Allen Fieldhouse the loudest college basketball arena in the country, whilst prominent sportswriter, Mark Whicker, has publicly declared the fieldhouse is "the best place in America to watch college basketball."
Oak Hill Cemetery in east Lawrence was established in 1866 and was called by William Allen White the "Kansas Arlington." The cemetery features the burials of James Lane, Lucy Hobbs Taylor, Langston Hughes' grandparents, numerous veterans and many prominent Kansans. Across the street is Memorial Park Cemetery which features a memorial for KU coach and inventor of basketball James Naismith. The memorial is a cenotaph but Naismith is buried in the mason section of Memorial Park.
Lawrence is also the site of many historic houses related to the history of the city. The Robert Miller house survived Quantrill's Raid and was a stop on the Underground Railroad, Ferdinand Fuller, an original settler of Lawrence, built his house atop of Windmill Hill in what is now the Hillcrest Neighborhood and the John Roberts House, commonly called the Castle Tea Room, was designed by famed architect John G. Haskell in 1894 and is now used for various formal events. There are many other houses of historic prominence in Lawrence, many of them on the National Register of Historic Places.
Arts and culture
The city is known for a thriving music and art scene. Rolling Stone named Lawrence one of the "best lil' college towns" in the country in its August 11, 2005, issue. The New York Times said Lawrence had "the most vital music scene between Chicago and Denver" in a travel column on February 25, 2005. Locally owned bar and music venue The Replay Lounge was named one of Esquire magazine's top 25 bars/venues in the country in 2007.
The Lied Center of Kansas is known for presenting Broadway musicals, internationally touring dance companies and many headline artists such as The Beach Boys, Kristin Chenoweth, Lyle Lovett and Kansas.
In December 2005, the city announced International Dadaism Month, celebrating the early 20th century art movement. In the spirit of Dada, rather than select a typical calendar month for the occasion, Mayor Dennis "Boog" Highberger set the dates for the "Month" as February 4, March 28, April 1, July 15, August 2, August 7, August 16, August 26, September 18, September 22, October 1, October 17, and October 26, determined by rolling dice and pulling numbers out of a hat.
Lawrence is home to many bands and record labels. Many artists, such as Paw, Mates of State, The New Amsterdams, Kansas, Fourth of July, White Flight, The Anniversary, Minus Story, The Appleseed Cast, Old Canes, Ad Astra Per Aspera, Ghosty, The Esoteric and The Get Up Kids originated in Lawrence or its surrounding areas. KJHK 90.7 FM, the University of Kansas's student-run radio station, is a staple of the local music scene. It won a CMJ award in 2006 for "most improved station," and it was nominated for a Plug Award for best college radio station in 2007.
The Wakarusa Music and Camping Festival was a four-day-long weekend music festival held annually in early June just outside Lawrence, at Clinton State Park. After its inception in 2004, the festival grew dramatically by 2006, with almost 60,000 tickets sold, and developed a nationwide following that accounted for 80% of ticket sales. The festival featured an eclectic mix of music, with artists like The Flaming Lips, Wilco, STS9, Medeski, Martin and Wood, Neko Case, and Widespread Panic taking the stage. The event is kept smaller than other festivals such as Bonnaroo by an agreement with the state. Activities other than music include disc golf, yoga, hiking, and swimming in Clinton Lake. The festival was relocated to Mulberry Mountain due to a dispute between the organizers and the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks over limiting attendees and over rent payment.
Lawrence is home to the Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction, the first research center in the world dedicated to science fiction studies. Since 1969, the center has offered courses and workshops in science fiction literature and writing, hosted an annual conference, brought speakers to Lawrence, and presented multiple annual awards and scholarships.
Every year since 1959, on the third Thursday of July there is the Massachusetts Street "sidewalk sale," which most businesses on Massachusetts Street offer discounts on their merchandise. The sale is often supplemented by band performances or radio stations playing during the event.
Lawrence is also the home of the University of Kansas (KU) athletic teams. The perennially highly ranked Kansas Jayhawks basketball team (1922 and 1923 Helms Foundation National Champions and 1952, 1988, and 2008 NCAA Champions) is closely followed by most residents during the winter. Massachusetts Street, the primary street of downtown Lawrence, flooded with fans in 2002, 2003, 2008, and 2012 after both KU's victories and defeats in the final rounds of the NCAA tournaments those years. KU's football team had their best record in their school history in the 2007–2008 season going 12–1 and culminating with a victory in the Orange Bowl. The city honored the university's mascot, the Jayhawk, in 2003 when 30 statues of Jayhawks were commissioned by the Lawrence Convention and Visitors Bureau; these can be seen throughout the city as part of an art installation called "Jayhawks on Parade." The Jayhawks also field a soccer team, baseball and softball teams, track and field teams, cross country teams, and a men's club hockey team. KU also has a club rugby team, run by the KU Rugby Football club, with a clubhouse in North Johnny's Tavern. They also run the high school and the club team.
Lawrence is run by a city commission and city manager. Commissioners consists of five individuals elected by the citizens. Three commissioner seats are up for reelection every two years. The two top vote-getters receive a four-year term, third-place finisher receives a two-year term. The commission elects a mayor and vice-mayor every year in April, usually the two top vote-getters, and also hires the city manager. Lawrence uses plurality-at-large voting (also known as block voting) for its municipal elections, whereby voters may choose up to three candidates for office.
While Kansas is a heavily Republican state, Lawrence is often considered a bastion of the modern Democratic Party, and has been since the late 1980s. Douglas County, where Lawrence is situated, was one of only two counties in Kansas whose majority voted for John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election, one of only three that voted for Barack Obama in the 2008 election and one of the only two counties to vote for Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election. Douglas County has supported the Democratic candidate for the past seven presidential elections.
Lawrence is served by Democratic state representatives Christina Haswood, Mike Amyx, Barbara Ballard and Dennis "Boog" Highberger, and by Democratic state senators Marci Francisco, and Tom Holland. Lawrence is represented federally by Republican Steve Watkins of the 2nd and U.S. Senators Pat Roberts and Jerry Moran, both Republicans. Prior to 2002, Lawrence sat entirely within the 3rd district until reapportionment split Lawrence between the 2nd and 3rd districts. In 2012, Lawrence was placed entirely within the 2nd district.
Lawrence was the first city in Kansas to enact an ordinance (enacted in 1995, after a campaign called Simply Equal) prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. On October 4, 2011, Lawrence became the first city in Kansas to prohibit discrimination based on gender identity with the passage of City Ordinance No. 8672. The effort to pass the GIO was led by Scott Criqui from the Kansas Equality Coalition. Scott Criqui would go on to become the first openly gay candidate to run for office and win an election in Lawrence. Douglas County was the only county in Kansas to reject the amendment to the Kansas Constitution prohibiting both gay marriage and civil unions in April 2005. The vote against the amendment was primarily in the city of Lawrence; outside the city in the rest of Douglas County, the amendment carried. Lawrence has an active chapter of the Kansas Equality Coalition, which persuaded the city commission to approve a domestic partner registry on May 22, 2007. The registry, which took effect on August 1, 2007, provides unmarried couples —both same-sex and other-sex— some recognition by the city for legal purposes.
Primary and secondary education
The community is served by Lawrence USD 497 public school district, which has fourteen grade schools, four middle schools: Liberty Memorial Central, West, Billy Mills (formerly South) and Southwest, and two high schools: Lawrence High School and Lawrence Free State High School. The athletic teams of the former are nicknamed the Chesty Lions, and those of the latter are the Firebirds. Both schools are Class 6A in enrollment size, and Lawrence High School leads the State of Kansas in most state championships won, with 107 championships. The Lawrence High School football team also leads the nation with most undefeated seasons at 31, though all of these occurred before Free State High School came into existence. Private high schools include Bishop Seabury Academy, which is affiliated with the Episcopal Church, and the interdenominational Veritas Christian School. There is also St. John Catholic School, which teaches grades Pre-K through eight and is funded by the Catholic communities of Lawrence and Corpus Christi Catholic School. Raintree Montessori School is a secular private school which teaches preschool through grade eight. The Prairie Moon School is a Waldorf school near Lawrence. The city has 15 public schools: Langston Hughes Elementary, which is named after Langston Hughes; Quail Run Elementary, Broken Arrow Elementary, Cordley Elementary, Hillcrest Elementary, Kennedy (pre-K-6), Pinckney Elementary, Prairie Park Elementary, New York Elementary, Schwegler Elementary, Sunflower Elementary, Sunset Hill Elementary, Woodlawn Elementary, Deerfield Elementary.
Colleges and universities
The University of Kansas is the largest public university in the state with total enrollment of just more than 30,000 students (including approximately 3,000 students at the KU Medical Center in Kansas City, KS). A Big 12 school, the University of Kansas has more than 170 fields of study and the nationally known Kansas Jayhawks athletics programs. Haskell Indian Nations University offers free tuition to members of registered Native American tribes. However, students are required to pay semester fees similar to many other colleges in the United States. It has an average enrollment of more than 1,000 (with students hailing from all 50 U.S. states and from over 150 tribes). Haskell University is also the home of the American Indian Athletic Hall of Fame and the Haskell Cultural Center. Several private Christian colleges and schools are located in Lawrence as well, such as Heritage Baptist College.
In 2011, Lawrence was named one of America's 10 best college towns by Parents & Colleges. Lawrence also was included in lists of top college towns in 2010 by the American Institute for Economic Research, MSN and MSNBC.
The first library in Lawrence was started in October 1854 and was a subscription library costing $1 a year. After the Lawrence massacre destroyed the library, a new one was started in 1865 and placed under city jurisdiction in 1871. In 1902, Peter Emery successfully got a grant from Andrew Carnegie to build a new library at 9th and Vermont Streets. The Lawrence Public Library opened in 1904. A new library to replace the aging and outdated Carnegie Building was completed in 1972 at 7th and Vermont Streets with voters approving a bond issue in 2010 to expand and update the building. During construction, the library moved to 7th and New Hampshire in the former Borders bookstore. The new library opened in July 2014.
One of the first businesses established in Lawrence was a newspaper, the Herald of Freedom, which began in October 1854 and ceased publication in 1859. In August 1885, the Lawrence Daily Journal began and the Lawrence Daily World began in June 1895. These papers would merge in 1911 to become the Lawrence Journal-World although the masthead lists the founding as 1858, probably in reference to the Herald of Freedom. Other newspapers include The University Daily Kansan, an independent student newspaper from the University of Kansas, and Change of Heart, a street newspaper sold by homeless vendors.
Radio stations in Lawrence include KLWN an AM station that began in 1951. FM stations are KU's student station, KJHK, KANU, a NPR member station, K241AR, a Christian station that broadcasts Air 1, KCIU-LP, a religious station and KKSW, formerly KLZR, a Top 40 station. KMXN, a country station, also broadcasts from Lawrence but is licensed to Osage City. Listeners can also receive stations from Kansas City and Topeka.
Lawrence is in the Kansas City television market, but viewers can also receive stations from the Topeka market as well. Television stations licensed and/or broadcasting from Lawrence are KUJH-LP, a KU student station, and KMCI which broadcasts from Kansas City, Missouri.
From 1947 until 1981, Lawrence was the location of the Centron Corporation, one of the major industrial and educational film production companies in the United States at the time. The studio was founded by two University of Kansas graduates and employed university students and faculty members as advisers and actors. Also, many talented local and area filmmakers were given their first chances to make movies with Centron, and some stayed for decades. Others went on to successful careers in Hollywood. One of these local residents, Herk Harvey, was employed by Centron as a director for 35 years and in the middle of his tenure there he made a full-length theatrical film, Carnival of Souls, a horror cult film shot mostly in Lawrence and released in 1962. The Centron Corporation soundstage and residing building is now called Oldfather Studios and houses the University of Kansas film program.
Lawrence is the home of a daily newspaper, the Lawrence Journal-World. The student newspaper of the University of Kansas is The University Daily Kansan. While it publishes predominately online, a semi-weekly print subscription is still offered.
The following radio stations are licensed to Lawrence, Kansas:
|90.7||KJHK||Student radio, Sports, News, Alternative|
|91.5||KANU||Kansas Public Radio (NPR)|
The following television stations are licensed to Lawrence, Kansas:
|Digital Channel||Analog Channel||Callsign||Network||Notes|
|31||31||KUJH-LP||Student-run television for The University of Kansas|
|32||N/A||Midco Sports Network||Local sports network broadcasting high school sports and college press conferences|
Interstate 70, as the Kansas Turnpike, runs east–west along the northern edge of the city, interchanging with U.S. Route 59 which runs north–south along North 2nd Street, 6th Street and Iowa Street. Another east–west route, U.S. Route 40, runs through northern Lawrence along 6th Street roughly 2 miles south of I-70. U.S. 40 runs concurrently east–west with U.S. 59 for approximately 1 mile between Iowa Street and Massachusetts Street. The two routes turn north before crossing I-70. One half-mile north of I-70, U.S. 40 splits from U.S. 59 and turns east, running concurrently with U.S. 24, exiting the city.
K-10, an east–west state highway, enters the city from the east along 23rd Street, then turns south, running concurrently with U.S. 59 for 1.5 miles before splitting off and continuing west and finally north around western Lawrence as a bypass, terminating at an interchange with I-70 northwest of the city. The K-10 South Lawrence Trafficway is a project with the goal to connect K-10 and the Kansas Turnpike. To transfer between K-10 and the Kansas Turnpike, drivers must use Lawrence city streets. The K-10 South Lawrence Trafficway, already partially built, was proposed as a solution to traffic, air quality, and safety concerns. However, the project has received criticism and been the subject of many protests for more than a decade because of opposition to the trafficway being built through the Haskell-Baker Wetlands. More recently, it appears completion of the project is underway. In June 2011, the Kansas Department of Transportation announced it would provide $192 million to complete the trafficway and in July 2012, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a lower court's ruling that all necessary permits were properly obtained and construction could commence. As for the wetlands, about 56 acres were taken for the construction of the South Lawrence Trafficway; because of this some 380 acres of man-made wetlands were developed next to the site.
Two bus systems operate in the city. Lawrence Transit, known locally as "The T", is a public bus system operated by the city, and KU on Wheels is operated by the University of Kansas. Together, the two systems operate 18 bus routes in the city. Both systems are free to KU students, faculty, and staff. Greyhound Lines provides intercity bus service with a stop in Lawrence. In addition, the Johnson County, Kansas bus system provides inter-city transport between Lawrence and Overland Park college campuses in a route known as the K-10 Connector.
Lawrence Municipal Airport is northeast of the city, immediately north of U.S. 40. Publicly owned, it has two runways and is used for general aviation. The nearest airport with commercial airline service is Kansas City International Airport which is approximately 50 miles northeast of downtown Lawrence. Arrival Shuttle provides service from Lawrence to Kansas City International Airport.
Two Class I railroads, BNSF Railway and Union Pacific Railroad (UP), have lines which pass through Lawrence. The BNSF line enters the city from the east and exits to the north, roughly following the course of the Kansas River. The UP line does the same on the north side of the river, running through the city's northeast corner. Using the BNSF trackage, Amtrak provides passenger rail service on its Southwest Chief line between Chicago and Los Angeles. Amtrak's Lawrence station is a few blocks east of downtown.
According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 76.6% of working city of Lawrence residents commuted by driving alone, 8.9% carpooled, 2.6% used public transportation, and 6.0% walked. About 2.0% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 3.8% of working city of Lawrence residents worked at home. In 2017, 2.5% of city of Lawrence households were without a car. 77.3% of city of Lawrence residents also work in Lawrence.
Lawrence ranked 62nd in the United States for the highest percentage of commuters by bicycle in 2011 at 1.73%.
Health and Utilities
Lawrence has one hospital, the non-profit community-owed Lawrence Memorial Hospital. The hospital has been awarded several awards and recognitions for care and quality including The Hospital Value Index Best in Value Award, and it is ranked nationally in the top five percent for heart attack care by the American College of Cardiology.
The most predominant electric provider is Evergy, and the most predominant gas provider is Black Hills Energy. Midco and DirecTV are the major television providers. Internet providers include AT&T, Midco, Wicked Broadband, CenturyLink, Exede and Wildblue Internet Service, HughesNet, Allconnect, and ViaSat Satellite. There are numerous telephone service providers in Lawrence, including Midco, AT&T, Sprint, Verizon, and others.
Snow removal services are provided by the Lawrence Street Maintenance Division, who is also responsible for maintaining the city's streets, curbs, alleys, and gutters, the Kansas River and Mud Creek levee, some of the infrastructure of the Lawrence Municipal Airport, and street sweeping.
- Eutin, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany – October 27, 1989
- Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan – September 21, 1990
- Iniades, Greece – October 20, 2009
In popular culture
The city served as the setting for a number of science fiction writer James Gunn's novels, including The Immortals (1964), which was the basis for the ABC television movie and TV series The Immortal (1969–1971).
Sam and Dean Winchester, the protagonists of the Supernatural TV series, are from Lawrence, and the city has been referenced numerous times throughout the show's history. Eric Kripke, the creator of Supernatural, decided to have the two brothers be from Lawrence because of its closeness to Stull Cemetery, a location famous for its urban legends. Lawrence was destroyed in the 2006 TV Series Jericho.
American folk singer Josh Ritter's song "Lawrence KS" is on the 2002 album Golden Age of Radio. Cross Canadian Ragweed's 2007 album Mission California features the song "Lawrence", which was inspired by a homeless family the band encountered near Christmas while visiting the town.
Lawrence's Meadowbrook Apartments residential complex is the default starting point for the map program Google Earth. This location was set by Brian McClendon, a 1986 graduate of the University of Kansas and director of engineering for Google Earth, who lived in the complex as a child.
- Great Flood of 1951
- Lied Center of Kansas
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Douglas County, Kansas
- "Behind LFK: The acronym created by local printmaker and KU alumna". kansan.com. University Daily Kansan. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- E.g. "Larryville Life". LJWorld.com. Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- "Lawrence, Kansas". City-Data.com. Onboard Informatics. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- "Lawrence: From Ashes to Immortality". Legends of America. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- "GNIS Detail – Lawrence". geonames.usgs.gov.
- "Incorporated Cities Alphabetical with Dates" (PDF). Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2019. List of Cities in Kansas and their incorporation dates. Lawrence is in the 2nd column on the 4th page.
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "2010 City Population and Housing Occupancy Status". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 6, 2011.[dead link]
- "About Us | City of Lawrence, KS". Ci.Lawrence.KS.us. November 21, 1996. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- David Dary, Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas: An Informal History (Lawrence: Allen Books, 1982), 7-9.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 308–09.
- Nelson (1995).
- "About the City". Lawrence, KS. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- Childers (2011), pp. 48–70.
- Gilman (1914), pp. 5–10.
- "Popular Sovereignty". Encyclopædia Britannica. May 3, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Lincoln (1989), p. 441.
- Cordley (1895), p. 1.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 1–2.
- Weiss, Kathy (June 2015). "Free-Staters of Kansas". Legends of America. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 2–3.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 3–4.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 4–5.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 312–14.
- Freedom's Frontier (n.d.), p. 21.
- Federal Highway Administration (2002), p. A64.
- Andreas (1883), p. 308.
- Andreas (1883), p. 312.
- Connelly (1918), p. 360.
- Armitage and Lee (1992), p. 5.
- Harvey, Douglas. "Fuller's Brushes With Fame". KU Connection. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012.
- Kansas State Board of Agriculture (1878), pp. 187–191.
- Connelly (1918), p. 361.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 6–7.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 314–16.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 316–17.
- Gilmore (2005), p. 47.
- Cordley (1895), p. 9.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 8–9.
- Cordley (1895), p. 10.
- Bisel (2012), p. 32.
- Chisholm (1911), pp. 308–309.
- Pantle, Alberta (1950). "Death Notices from Kansas Territorial Newspapers, 1864-1864: Part One, A-L". The Kansas Historical Quarterly: 301–529. Archived from the original on August 20, 2003. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- Carolyn Berneking (Autumn 1977). "A Look at Early Lawrence". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019. Kansas Historical Society's entry on Robert Elliott. Autumn 1977 (Vol. 43, No. 3), pages 282 to 296
- "First Biennial Report, 1878, Douglas County, Kansas". KSGenWeb. Retrieved May 23, 2019. Kansas State Board of Agriculture 1878 Biennial Report.
- Cordley (1895), p. 13.
- "Kansas Post Offices, 1828–1961 (archived)". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
- Cordley (1895), p. 20.
- Cordley (1895), p. 28–29.
- Cordley (1895), p. 28.
- Cordley (1895), p. 30–31.
- Cordley (1895), p. 32.
- Cordley (1895), p. 33.
- Cordley (1895), p. 35.
- Cordley (1895), p. 37.
- "About Lecompton". Historic Lecompton. Lecompton, Kansas. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- Litteer (1987), p. 32.
- Parker and Laird (1976), pp. 146–62.
- "Samuel J. Jones (Sheriff), ca.1820-ca.1880". Territorial Kansas. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Bordewich, Fergus (October 2009). "John Brown's Day of Reckoning". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- John E. Stewart (1856). "Experience of John E. Stewart". Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- Litteer (1987), pp. 4–7.
- Connelley (2018) , p. 44.
- Mullis, Tony (April 22, 2013). "Wakarusa War". Civil War on the Western Border: The Missouri-Kansas Conflict, 1854–1865. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- "Wakarusa War – KS-Cyclopedia – 1912". Skyways.Lib.KS.us. Archived from the original on May 12, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Bisel (2012), pp. 55–56.
- Cordley (1895), p. 50.
- Cordley (1895), p. 51.
- Cordley (1895), p. 52.
- Litteer (1987), pp. 13–14.
- Cordley (1895), p. 54.
- Fitzgerald (1988), pp. 74–75.
- Connelley (2018) , p. 53.
- Ball (2001), p. 174.
- Cordley (1895), p. 88.
- Griffin (1968), pp. 409–26.
- Ball (2001), p. 175.
- Monaghan (1984), pp. 55–58.
- Whitfield (2014), p. 14.
- "Charles Robinson Arrested in Lexington, Missouri". Civil War on the Western Border. Kansas City Public Library. 2014. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- "The Sack of Lawrence, Kansas, 1856". EyeWitnessToHistory.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Drake, Ross (May 1, 2004). "The Law That Ripped America in Two". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- "Introduction" (PDF). City of Lawrence. December 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "Governor Walker Declares Lawrence in Rebellion". Civil War on the Western Border. Kansas City Public Library. April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- United States Congress (1922), p. 71.
- "Free-Staters Win Election". Civil War on the Western Border. Kansas City Public Library. April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Adams (1896), p. 276.
- "Samuel J. Jones (Sheriff), ca.1820-ca.1880". Territorial Kansas Online. n.d. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- Kansas Territory Legislature (1858), pp. 218–19.
- Andreas (1883), p. 310.
- Andreas (1883), p. 326.
- "Kansas Constitutions". KSHS.org. Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "Wyandotte Constitution". Kansapedia. Kansas State Historical Society. April 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Drago (1998), pp. 4–5.
- "The Lawrence Massacre, Part One". Kancoll.org. June 30, 1994. Archived from the original on October 25, 2002. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 321–23.
- Sellen, Al. "A Brief Outline of Plymouth's History". Plymouth Congregational Church. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 251–56.
- Cordley (1895), pp. 253–54, 256.
- Cordley (1895), p. 251.
- Cordley (1895), p. 254.
- Cordley (1895), p. 255.
- Pollard, Jr, William C. (1992). "Kansas Forts During the Civil War". Kansas History. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Bisel and Martin (2013).
- Andreas (1883), pp. 324–25.
- Olson, Kevin (2012). Frontier Manhattan. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1832-3.
- Kansas Historical Society (January 2010). "Railroads in Kansas". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019. Kansas Historical Society's timeline of railroads in Kansas.
- Harold J. Henderson (August 1947). "The Building of the First Kansas Railroad". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019. The Kansas Historical Quarterly, August 1947 (Vol. 15, No. 3), pages 225–239.
- "Our History". Bowersockpower.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Andreas (1883), pp. 326–27.
- John M. Peterson (Fall 1980). "The Lawrence Windmill" (PDF). Kansas History, Vol. 3, No. 3, pg. 147 – Autumn 1980. Kansas Historical Society. John Peterson's 1980 article about the windmill and its history.
- "Old windmill in Lawrence, Kansas". Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Some info about the windmill.
- "School History | Haskell Indian Nations University". November 10, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- "HINU | About Haskell". Haskell.edu. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "The Watkins Building | Douglas County Kansas". WatkinsMuseum.org. April 14, 2011. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Flood of 1903 – Kansapedia – Kansas Historical Society". KSHS.org. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Dary, David. Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas: An Informal History. Lawrence: Allen Press, 1981.
- Juracek, Kyle E.; Perry, Charles A.; Putnam, James E. "USGS – The 1951 Floods in Kansas Revisited". KS.Water.USGS.gov. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "The Local Flood Hazard | City of Lawrence, KS – Planning & Development Services". LawrenceKS.org. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "South Park | City of Lawrence, Kansas – Parks and Recreation". LawrenceKS.org. August 31, 1910. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Kansas Historical Quarterly – Theodore Roosevelt's Osawatomie Speech – Kansas Historical Society". KSHS.org. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "History of Lawrence, Kansas". History.Lawrence.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "WILL PUT UP FERRIS WHEEL". Lawrence Journal-World. July 9, 1909. Retrieved May 24, 2019. pg.1, top-right column.
- Phil Cauthon (March 28, 2010). "The Daisy Dozer's Day". Retrieved May 24, 2019. Lawrence Journal-World, mentioning the coaster.
- "Lawrence Memorial Hospital – History". LMH.org. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Hospital Quality Awards". Lawrence Memorial Hospital. Archived from the original on March 12, 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Pember, Mary Annette (June 1, 2009). "Haskell Indian Nations University Commemorates 125th Anniversary, Recognized Painful History".
- "Lawrence Journal-World – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- List of Prisoner Of War (POW) Camps in Kansas, Genealogy Tracer
- Lawhorn, Chad (November 6, 2014). "Downtown Lawrence retailer of 67 years to close its doors". Town Talk. Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
Francis Sporting Goods is closing its downtown store after 67 years in business. The company is not going entirely out of business. Owner Jon Francis ...will solely focus on its team business, which sells uniforms and equipment to everybody from youth baseball teams to college football programs.
- Niccum, Jon (November 19, 2003). "Fallout from 'The Day After'". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- "The Story of The Free State Brewing Co. | Free State Brewing Company". FreeStateBrewing.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Best Places to Retire: Lawrence, KS".
- "Lawrence again named a top 10 college town – KU News". news.ku.edu.
- Valverde, Rochelle (March 27, 2021). "Consultants: If Lawrence doesn't diversify its economy, it could become unaffordable for many people". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- Blackmar, Frank W., ed. (1912). "Mount Oread". Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. 2. Chicago: Standard. p. 330.
- "TopoQuest Map Viewer". TopoQuest. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Geography". Geohydrology of Douglas County. Kansas Geological Survey. December 1960. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "2003–2004 Official Transportation Map" (PDF). Kansas Department of Transportation. 2003. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "General Highway Map – Douglas County, Kansas" (PDF). Kansas Department of Transportation. May 2010. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "City of Lawrence" (PDF). Kansas Department of Transportation. January 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Parks & Trails". City of Lawrence. Archived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2019. LawrenceKS – Parks & Trails.
- "About Us · City of Lawrence, Kansas". Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Parks & Trails · City of Lawrence, Kansas". Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (March 1, 2007). "Updated Köppen-Geiger climate classification map" (PDF). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (4): 439–473. doi:10.5194/hessd-4-439-2007. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "Station Name: KS LAWRENCE". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
- "Average weather for Lawrence, KS". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- Brackman (1997), p. 22.
- "The Kansas herald of freedom. (Wakarusa, Kan. Territory) 1854–1860, January 27, 1855, Image 2". Library of Congress. Page 2, Section "Chart of Lawrence" (4th column, in the center).
- E. U. Bond (Mayor); R. D. Brooks (City Clerk) (November 9, 2006). "Ordinance No 973 (manuscript)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 28, 2014. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- Hall, Brian (April 23, 2015). "What's in a (Street) Name?". Tauy Creek. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- "Search". nrhp.focus.nps.gov.
- Jim L. Lewis (Autumn 1969). "Beautiful Bismarck". Kansas Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019. Kansas Historical Society's entry for Bismarck Grove. Autumn 1969 (Vol. 35, No. 3), pages 225 to 256.
- Lewis (1969).
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Rochelle Valverde (February 7, 2018). "Lawrence's population breaks 100,000, according to city estimates". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
- "U.S. Census website". American Community Survey. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
- "When Off-Campus College Students are Excluded, Poverty Rates Fall in Many College Towns – Poverty – Newsroom – U.S. Census Bureau". Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "A study in poverty, or how college towns skew Census data – Policy Blog NH". policyblognh.org. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Kansas Top Employers – KS Major Employers". MBA-Today.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Lawhorn, Chad (July 21, 2002). "Prosoco Sweeps into "Alliance"". Lawrence Journal World. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- Slater, Lindsey (July 21, 2007). "History of East Hills Business Park" (PDF). LawrenceKS.org. City of Lawrence. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- "South Park". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "About". Watkins Museum of History. Archived from the original on July 3, 2019. Retrieved July 3, 2019. The About page for the official website.
- "Watkins Museum of History announces Civil War on the Western Frontier 2014 programs". Freedom's Frontier. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2019. Mentions the Japanese garden next to the museum.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
- "Spencer Museum of Art, Kansas University". Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015.
- Dave Toplikar (July 22, 2003). "Dole dedication draws thousands". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, Kansas. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019. Lawrence Journal-World's article on the opening ceremony. Mentions things such as opening date, budget, location, etc.
- "Centennial Park". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "Sesquicentennial Point". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "100 Years Ago: New Bowersock Opera House Opens to Cheering Public". LJWorld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Niccum, Jon (October 20, 2006). "Sweet Liberty: Venue celebrates 20 years since its cultural renovation". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
- "Bowersock Opera House – From the Ground Up". Luna.KU.edu. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "History". EldridgeHotel.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Ghost". EldridgeHotel.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Barker, Matt (December 10, 2011). "Roundball Preview: No. 2 Ohio State vs. No. 13 Kansas". BuckeyeBanter.com. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "KU Facilities :: Allen Fieldhouse". KUAthletics.com. CBS Interactive. 2012. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "Oak Hill Cemetery". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "Memorial Park Cemetery". LawrenceKS.org. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "National Register of Historic Places—Nomination Form". Image1.NPS.gov. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "This Old House Full of Lawrence History". LJWorld.com. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form". Image1.NPS.gov. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- "History of The Castle – The Castle Tea Room". CastleTeaRoom.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Schools that rock" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "36 hours in Lawrence, Kan". The New York Times. February 25, 2005. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "Esquire's Best Bars in America". May 21, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Looking Back at 10 Memorable Lied Center Performances". Lawrence, KS: The University Daily Kansan. Archived from the original on September 12, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2019. Article from the UDK about Beach Boys at the Lied Center.
- Werthheimer, Linda (December 31, 2005). "'International Dadaism Month' in Lawrence, Kansas". NPR.
- "International Dadaism Month Begins Today". HuffPost. February 4, 2011.
- "CMJ College Radio Awards Winners". Archived from the original (English) on March 3, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2007.
- "KJHK Nominated for PLUG Award". Archived from the original (English) on February 7, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2007.
- Jon Niccum (June 24, 2005). "Wakarusa Officials Reflect on Event". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved April 8, 2007.
- Lawhorn, Chad (August 10, 2008). "Wakarusa Fest may not play on". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- "Center for the Study of Science Fiction website". Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- Valverde, Rochelle (July 19, 2017). "58th Annual Downtown Lawrence Sidewalk Sale to take place Thursday". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, Kansas. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- "Jayhawks in the Final Four". The University of Kansas. Archived from the original on October 1, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- Gergen, Joe. "Jayhawks give Allen his title – 1952". Sporting News. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- "Ncaa Men's Basketball Championship: Kansas 83, Oklahoma 79: Notes; Title Brings Out a Big Celebration in Lawrence". Los Angeles Times. April 5, 1988. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Thamel, Pete (April 9, 2008). "Chalmers and Kansas Are Swinging on a Star". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "Fans celebrate championship in downtown Lawrence". Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- "KU fans celebrate Final Four win". Lawrence Journal-World. April 1, 2012. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012.
- "Mangino Receives Coach of the Year Honor". The Topeka Capital-Journal. December 7, 2007. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
- "Kansas beats Virginia Tech in Orange Bowl". The New York Times. January 4, 2008. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- Adam Strunk (August 19, 2012). "What are those birds everywhere? Jayhawks on Parade". Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- Chad Lawhorn (October 11, 2014). "Keeping it between the lines with rugby". Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on February 16, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- "Lawrence City Commissioners". City of Lawrence, KS. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "2017 General Election Douglas County, Kansas Sample Ballot" (PDF). Retrieved May 25, 2019. The 2017 Douglas County, Kansas General Election sample ballot, which shows the multi-choice voting.
- For election results, see– Leip, David (ed.). "1992 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Leip, David (ed.). "1996 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Leip, David (ed.). "2000 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Leip, David (ed.). "2004 Presidential General Election Data Graphs". US Election Atlas. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "2008 General Election Results" (PDF). Douglas County, KS. 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "2012 General Election Results" (PDF). Douglas County, KS. 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "2016 General Election Results" (PDF). Douglas County, KS. 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Rothschild, Scott (June 8, 2012). "Voters Will See Big Changes from new Redistricting Plan". www2.ljworld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Ordinance No. 8672". City of Lawrence. October 4, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2019.Lawrence City Ordinance No. 8672, on anti-discrimination.
- For election results, see section "2005 Election Information" and choose "2005 Constitutional Amendment Results by County (Excel)." on- "Election Statistics". Kansas Secretary of State. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- To immediately download the results, see-http://www.kssos.org/elections/05elec/2005_Constitutional_Amendment_results_by_county.xls
- Lawhorn, Chad (August 1, 2007). "Domestic Partnership Registry Opens Today". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Lawrence Public Schools / HomePage". usd497.org. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Schools & Services Directory". Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved July 3, 2019. List of schools in USD 497.
- "KU News – KU enrollment breaks 30,000; sets records in minority enrollment, ACT scores". news.ku.edu. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "About Haskell". Haskell.edu. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- "Library History". Lawrence Public Library. Archived from the original on September 29, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- "Lawrence Public Library". Lawrence.Lib.KS.us. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "New Lawrence Library's Grand Opening Dazzles Eager Readers". LJWorld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "2016 AIA/ALA Library Building Award winners announced". ALAnews. American Library Association. May 20, 2016. Archived from the original on September 29, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- "About the Kansas Herald of Freedom". Library of Congress. Brief overview of Kansas Herald of Freedom
- "About Lawrence daily journal. (Lawrence, Kan.) 1885–1911". Library of Congress. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "About Lawrence daily world. (Lawrence, Kan.) 1895–1911". Library of Congress. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- (December 13, 1991). A 100-Year Newspaper Tradition, Lawrence Journal-World
- (Feb 20, 1911). "Journal-World, The Combination"
- "About Us – The University Daily Kansan: Site". Kansan.com. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Giles Bruce (May 2, 2014). "In Lawrence, paper aims to change view of homeless". The Wichita Eagle. Wichita, KS. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "About KJHK 90.7 FM". KJHK. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "Air 1 Stations". Air 1. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "Contact Us". KMXN. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "Kansas TV Markets". EchoStar Knowledge Base. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "About NBC Action News & 38 the Spot". E.W. Scripps Company. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "Centron Films Camera". Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- "What is in Oldfather Studios?". University of Kansas. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019. University of Kansas – Oldfather Studios.
- "The Reincarnation of 'Carnival of Souls'". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California: Tronc. April 19, 1990. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019. The LA Times.
- Sara Shepherd (February 26, 2017). "Summerfield Hall shaping up to become new home of KU film and media studies". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, Kansas. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2017. Lawrence Journal-World.
- "Welcome to the Kansan!". The University Daily Kansas. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- "AMQ AM Radio Database Query". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "Station Information Profile". Arbitron. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "FMQ FM Radio Database Query". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "TVQ TV Database Query". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on May 8, 2009. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "South Lawrence Trafficway". Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "KDOT commits $192 million to complete South Lawrence Trafficway". Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "South Lawrence Trafficway legal fight ends with passing of deadline". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "About Us". Lawrence Transit. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Route Map" (PDF). Lawrence Transit. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Fares & Bus Passes". KU on Wheels. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Locations : States : Kansas". Greyhound Lines. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "The Jo Routes". Johnson County Transportation. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- "KLWC – Lawrence Municipal Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Travel". Lawrence Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Arival – KCI Airport Shuttle – Ride Share Service". Retrieved February 21, 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Kansas Operating Division" (PDF). BNSF Railway. April 1, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Southwest Chief". Amtrak. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Lawrence, KS (LRC)". Amtrak. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Commuting Characteristics by Sex". American Community Survey. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Commuting Characteristics by Sex in Lawrence, KS.
- Maciag, Mike (October 16, 2012). "New Data Shows Where Americans Bike to Work". Governing.com. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- "About US". Lawrence Memorial Hospital. Retrieved May 23, 2019. Lawrence Memorial Hospital – About Us.
- "Other Utilities". City of Lawrence. Retrieved May 23, 2019. City of Lawrence Utilities.
- "LTE Advanced" (PDF). Sprint. Retrieved May 24, 2019. List of Cities that Sprint is in. Page 2, under Kansas.
- "Verizon Wireless at Lawrence KS". Verizon Wireless. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Verizon in Lawrence, Kansas.
- "Pavement Management". City of Lawrence. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2019. Lawrence's Street Maintenance Division information.
- "Sister Cities Lawrence". City of Lawrence. Archived from the original on July 1, 2019. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Niccum, Jon (November 19, 2003). "Fallout from 'The Day After'". Lawrence.com. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- Kripke, Eric (October 12, 2006). "Supernatural: Your Burning Questions Answered!". TV Guide. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
- "N. Lawrence looking to benefit from publicity for CBS drama / LJWorld.com". www2.ljworld.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Niccum, Jon (December 7, 2007). "Mass St. muse: Cross Canadian Ragweed is the latest national act to write and release a song inspired by Lawrence". Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
- "Lawrence is the center of the world for more than Jayhawk fans | Kansan.com". Kansan.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Adams, F. G., ed. (1896). Transactions of the Kansas State Historical Society. 5. Kansas State Historical Society.
- Andreas, Alfred Theodore (1883). "Douglas County". History of the State of Kansas. Chicago, IL: A. T. Andreas. pp. 308–63.
- Armitage, Katie; Lee, John (1992). 19th Century Houses in Lawrence, Kansas. Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art.
- Ball, Durwood (2001). Army Regulars on the Western Frontier, 1848–1861. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
- Bisel, Debra Goodrich (2012). The Civil War in Kansas: Ten Years of Turmoil. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 9781609495633.
- Bisel, Debra Goodrich; Martin, Michelle M. (2013). "Camp Ewing: 1864–1865". Kansas Forts & Bases: Sentinels on the Prairie. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 9781614238683.
- Brackman, Barbara (1997). Kansas Trivia. Thomas Nelson Inc. ISBN 9781418553814.
- Childers, Christopher (March 2011). "Interpreting Popular Sovereignty: A Historiographical Essay". Civil War History. 57 (1): 48–70. doi:10.1353/cwh.2011.0009.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 308–309. .
- Connelley, William (1918). A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. 1. Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Company.
- Connelley, William (2018) . John Brown in Kansas. Topeka, KS: Crane and Company. ISBN 9781387365135.
- Cordley, Richard (1895). A History of Lawrence: From the Earliest Settlement to the Close of The Rebellion. Lawrence, KS: E. F. Caldwell.
- Drago, Harry Sinclair (1998). Outlaws on Horseback: The History of the Organized Bands of Bank and Train Robbers who Terrorized the Prairie Towns of Missouri, Kansas, Indian Territory, and Oklahoma for Half a Century. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803266124.
- Federal Highway Administration (2002). U.S. Highway 59 from Lawrence to Ottawa in Douglas and Franklin Counties, KDOT Project No.59-106 K-6318-01. 2.
- Fitzgerald, Daniel (1988). "Franklin". Ghost Towns of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. pp. 73–77.
- Freedom's Frontier (n.d.). "Study Area History and Contributions" (PDF). Feasibility Study. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Gilman, A. F. (1914). The Origin of the Republican Party. Ripon, Wisconsin: Ripon College. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Gilmore, Donald (2005). Civil War on the Missouri-Kansas Border. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. ISBN 9781455602308.
- Griffin, C. S. (1968). "The University of Kansas and the Sack of Lawrence: A Problem of Intellectual Honesty". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains. 34 (4): 409–26.
- Kansas State Board of Agriculture (1878). First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the years 1877-8. Vol. 6. Topeka, Kansas: State of Kansas.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Kansas Territory Legislature (January 16, 1858). "The Statutes of the Territory of Kansas". Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Lewis, Jim (1969). "Beautiful Bismarck: Bismarck Grove, Lawrence, 1878–1900". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains. 35 (3). Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- Lincoln, Abraham (1989). Speeches and Writings 1832–1858: Speeches, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings: the Lincoln-Douglas Debates. New York City: Library of America. ISBN 9780940450431.
- Litteer, Leron (1987). 'Bleeding Kansas': The Border War in Douglas and Adjacent Counties. Baldwin City, KS: Champion Publishing.
- Monaghan, Jay (1984). Civil War on the Western Border, 1854–1865. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
- Nelson, Lynn (1995), North Lawrence, Kansas: A Brief History, archived from the original on October 25, 2002, retrieved August 5, 2018 – via Kansas Collection.
- Parker, Martha; Laird, Betty (1976). "Lone Star". Soil of Our Souls. Parker-Laird Enterprises. pp. 146–62.
- United States Congress (1922). United States Congressional serial set, Issue 7985. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Whitfield, Steve (2014). Kansas Paper Money: An Illustrated History, 1854–1935. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. ISBN 9780786454266.
- History of Lawrence, Kansas: from the First Settlement to the close of the Rebellion; Richard Cordley; E.F. Caldwell; 360 pages; 1895. (Download 20MB PDF eBook)
- Texts on Wikisource:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lawrence, Kansas.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lawrence, Kansas.|
- Official website
- Lawrence – Directory of Public Officials
- Lawrence – Chamber of Commerce
- Lawrence – Visitors Bureau
- Daily Record, Google news archive. —PDFs for 998 issues, dating from 1889 through 1893.
- Daily World, Google news archive. —PDFs for 1,062 issues, dating from 1892 through 1895.
- Lawrence City Map, KDOT