Van Noy with the Patriots in 2017
|No. 53 – New England Patriots|
|Born:||March 26, 1991|
|Height:||6 ft 3 in (1.91 m)|
|Weight:||250 lb (113 kg)|
|High school:||Robert McQueen|
|NFL Draft:||2014 / Round: 2 / Pick: 40|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Career NFL statistics as of Week 11, 2019|
|Player stats at PFR|
Kyle Van Noy (born March 26, 1991) is an American football linebacker for the New England Patriots of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Detroit Lions in the second round of the 2014 NFL Draft after playing college football at Brigham Young University (BYU), where he was recognized as a third team All-American.
- 1 Early years
- 2 College career
- 3 Professional career
- 4 Personal life
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Van Noy was born in Reno, Nevada and was partially raised in Northern California. He attended McQueen High School in Reno where, as an all-state linebacker and receiver, he led his high school football team to a perfect 14–0 record and a 4A state championship in 2008, and was rated as a 2-star recruit by Rivals.com and Scout.com.
In addition to playing football, Van Noy lettered in basketball, baseball, and track where he was an all-league performer (4 × 100 m, 4 × 200 m and 4 × 400 m). He also ran the 100 meters in 11.84 seconds and the 400 meters in 50.99 seconds.
Van Noy was ranked the 63rd best high school athlete by ESPN. He received scholarship offers from Arizona, Arizona State University, Boise State University, BYU, California, University of Colorado, UCLA, UNLV, Nevada, San Jose State University, and Stanford.
Freshman season (2010)
Van Noy was admitted to BYU in 2009 but sat out his first year due to an honor code violation. During the 2010 season, he played in every game while starting two and earned letterman honors. He recorded 35 tackles (24 solo) and was third on the team with 7.5 tackles-for-loss including 2.0 sacks. He also recorded two forced fumbles, two quarterback hurries, two pass breakups and one fumble recovery (which he returned 44 yards for a touchdown).
Sophomore season (2011)
Van Noy started eight and played in all 13 games of the 2011 season, recording 68 tackles and leading the team with 15 tackles for loss, 7 sacks, 10 quarterback hurries and tied for the team lead with three interceptions. During the 2011 season, Van Noy was the only FBS Division I player to record a stat in each of the following categories: tackle, tackle for loss, sack, interception, pass breakup, quarterback hurry, fumble recovery, forced fumble, blocked kick and touchdown. Like the 2010 season, he again recovered a fumble (which he forced), which he returned for the game-winning touchdown.
He was named to the Phil Steele All-Independent First Team, Yahoo! Sports All-Independent Team and FBS All-Independent Team.
Junior season (2012)
In 2012, Van Noy was the defensive leader of a BYU team that led the nation in red zone defense (opponent red zone percentage of .62), was second in rushing defense (84.25 yards/game), third in 3rd down conversion percentage (27.71%) and total defense (allowing 26.33 yards/game), fourth in 1st down defense (14.83/game), and fifth in scoring defense (176 total points). Additionally, they were in the top 25 in passing defense (13th), sacks (22nd), 4th down conversion defense (23rd), and tackles for loss (25th).
In 13 games played he recorded 53 tackles, 22 tackles-for-loss, 13 sacks, 2 interceptions (one for a touchdown), 6 forced fumbles, and 1 fumble recovered (for a touchdown), 8 quarterback hurries, 5 pass break-ups, and 2 blocked kicks. Van Noy dominated in BYU's 23–6 victory over San Diego State in the 2012 San Diego County Credit Union Poinsettia Bowl, where he recorded 8 tackles, 1.5 sacks, 1 forced fumble, 1 fumble recovery (for a touchdown), 1 interception (for a touchdown), and a blocked punt. One writer speculated that Van Noy's performance, in a bowl, may be the best defensive performance by a BYU Cougar ever.
Van Noy was named to the Bronko Nagurski Trophy, Lombardi Award and Chuck Bednarik Award Watch Lists, was National Linebacker of week 3, and was third team All-American. He also earned the 2012 College Football Performance Award (CFPA) trophy for overall best defensive player of the year, as well as the 2012 Linebacker Trophy.
Senior season (2013)
As a senior in 2013, Van Noy was named to the watch lists for the Butkus Award, Rotary Lombardi, Bronko Nagurski Trophy, Walter Camp, Chuck Bednarik Award, and the Lott Trophy. He was a Phil Steele, USA Today, and SI.com Preseason All-American and finished the season All-America to Walter Camp Second Team, Athlon Sports Third Team, CBSSports.com Third Team and Sport and SI.com Honorable Mention. He was also named to the All-Independent first team and was the All-Independent Defensive Player of the Year. In his final collegiate season, he recorded 70 total tackles, 17 tackles-for-loss, three sacks, two interceptions, six passes defended, and two fumble recoveries.
College career statistics
All statistics from Brigham Young Official Athletic Site,
On December 16, 2013, it was announced that Van Noy had accepted his invitation to the Senior Bowl. On January 25, 2014, Van Noy played in the 2014 Senior Bowl and recorded two solo tackles and one sack as part of Jacksonville Jaguars’ head coach Gus Bradley’s South team that defeated the North 20–10. His Senior Bowl performance helped solidify his status as a top outside linebacker in the draft. He was also ranked as the top outside linebacker in the Senior Bowl by the Reese’s Senior Bowl Executive Director Phil Savage. Van Noy attended the NFL Scouting Combine in Indianapolis and completed all of the combine drills.
|Kyle Van Noy’s NFL Combine Workout|
On March 14, 2014, Van Noy participated at BYU’s pro day, but chose to stand on his combine numbers and only performed positional drills. Van Noy attended pre-draft visits with multiple teams, including the Atlanta Falcons, Baltimore Ravens, Detroit Lions, and Jacksonville Jaguars. At the conclusion of the pre-draft process, Van Noy was projected to be a second round pick by NFL draft experts and scouts. He was ranked as the fourth best outside linebacker prospect in the draft by CBS Sports and was ranked as the fifth best outside linebacker by DraftScout.com and NFL analyst Mike Mayock. Van Noy was also ranked as the fifth best linebacker by Sports Illustrated.
|Ht||Wt||Arm length||Hand size||40-yard dash||10-yd split||20-yd split||20-ss||3-cone||Vert jump||Broad||BP|
|6 ft 3 1⁄8 in
|31 5⁄8 in
|9 5⁄8 in
|4.71 s||1.62 s||2.72 s||4.20 s||7.22 s||32 1⁄2 in
|9 ft 4 in
|All values from NFL Combine|
The Detroit Lions selected Van Noy in the second round (40th overall) of the 2014 NFL Draft. The Lions traded their second (45th overall), fourth (111th overall), and seventh round (227th overall) picks to the Seattle Seahawks in exchange for a fifth round pick (146th overall) and a second round pick (40th overall) that was used to draft Van Noy. Van Noy was the sixth linebacker drafted in 2014.
|Lions draft Kyle Van Noy 40th overall|
|2014 NFL Draft Profile: Kyle Van Noy|
On June 4, 2014, the Detroit Lions signed Van Noy to a four-year, $5.10 million rookie contract with $2.63 million guaranteed and a $2.03 million signing bonus.
Throughout training camp, Van Noy competed against Ashlee Palmer to be the starting strongside linebacker. On August 25, 2014, it was reported that Van Noy had noticed an abdominal injury five days prior and would miss the next four to six weeks. On August 28, 2014, the Lions announced that Van Noy had successfully undergone muscle core surgery, but offered no timetable on his return.
On November 9, 2014, Van Noy made his professional regular season debut and registered two solo tackles during a 20–16 victory against the Miami Dolphins in Week 10. Van Noy completed his rookie season in 2014 with six solo tackles while appearing in eight games with zero starts. The Lions finished second in the NFC North with an 11–5 record and earned a wildcard playoff berth. On January 4, 2015, Van Noy appeared in his first career playoff game as the Lions lost 24–20 at the Dallas Cowboys during the NFC Wildcard Game.
During training camp, Van Noy competed against Tahir Whitehead to be the starting strongside linebacker. Head coach Jim Caldwell named Van Noy the backup strongside linebacker, behind Tahir Whitehead, to start the regular season. Van Noy was inactive as a healthy scratch for the Lions’ Week 5 loss to the Arizona Cardinals due to the return of DeAndre Levy. On October 25, 2015, Van Noy recorded two solo tackles and made his first career sack during the Lions’ 28–19 loss to the Minnesota Vikings in Week 7. Van Noy sacked Vikings’ quarterback Teddy Bridgewater for a one-yard loss during the first quarter. In Week 12, he collected a season-high three solo tackles during a 45–14 win against the Philadelphia Eagles. He finished the 2015 NFL season with ten combined tackles (eight solo) and one sack in 16 games and one start.
Throughout training camp, Van Noy competed against Jon Bostic and Josh Bynes for job as a starting linebacker. Head coach Jim Caldwell named Van Noy the starting strongside linebacker to begin the regular season. He started the season alongside DeAndre Levy and middle linebacker Tahir Whitehead.
He made his first career start in the Lions’ season-opener at the Indianapolis Colts and deflected one pass during their 39–35 victory. In Week 4, he collected a season-high seven solo tackles during a 17–14 loss at the Chicago Bears. Before being traded, Van Noy started the first seven games of the season for the Lions and registered 23 total tackles. He finished his time with the Lions with a total of 39 tackles since 2014.
New England Patriots
On October 25, 2016, the Detroit Lions traded Van Noy and a seventh round pick (239th overall) in the 2017 NFL Draft to the New England Patriots in exchange for a sixth round pick (215th overall) in 2017. Van Noy was inactive for his first two games with the Patriots (Weeks 8 and 10), and served as the backup weakside linebacker, behind Shea McClellin.
On November 20, 2016, Van Noy played in his first game as a member of the Patriots and recorded three combined tackles and one sack during their 30–17 win at the San Francisco 49ers in Week 11. On December 4, 2016, Van Noy recorded five combined tackles, broke up a pass, and made his first career interception during a 26–10 win against the Los Angeles Rams. Van Noy intercepted a pass by Rams' rookie quarterback Jared Goff during the third quarter after the play was disrupted by Jabaal Sheard. He appeared in seven games for the Patriots in 2016 and recorded 29 combined tackles (11 solo), two pass deflections, one sack, and one interception. In total, Van Noy finished the season with 52 combined tackles (32 solo), three pass deflections, one sack, and one interception in 14 games and nine starts.
|Van Noy intercepts a pass by Jared Goff|
The Patriots finished first in the AFC East with a 14–2 record and earned a first round bye in the playoffs. The Patriots defeated the Houston Texans 34–16 in the AFC Divisional Round. On January 22, 2017, Van Noy recorded four solo tackles during a 36–17 win against the Pittsburgh Steelers in the AFC Championship Game. On February 5, 2017, Van Noy appeared in Super Bowl LI and made one tackle and was credited with half a sack during the Patriots’ 34–28 overtime victory against the Atlanta Falcons. The Patriots came back from a 25-point deficit in the third quarter to defeat the Falcons and earn Van Noy the first Super Bowl victory of his career.
During training camp, Van Noy competed to be a starting outside linebacker against David Harris, Elandon Roberts, and Shea McClellin. Van Noy was the starting strongside linebacker to begin the regular season. He started alongside Elandon Roberts and middle linebacker Dont’a Hightower. On September 8, 2017, the Patriots signed Van Noy to a two-year, $11.75 million contract that includes $5.50 million guaranteed and a signing bonus of $3.50 million.
|Van Noy shuts down Taylor Gabriel on 4th down|
|Van Noy sacks Tyrod Taylor for massive loss|
In Week 3, he collected a season-high 11 combined tackles (nine solo) during a 36–33 win against the Houston Texans. On October 15, 2017, Van Noy recorded seven combined tackles and made a season-high two sacks during a 24–17 victory at the New York Jets in Week 7. He sustained a calf injury and was inactive for three games (Weeks 14–16). Van Noy finished the 2017 NFL season with 73 combined tackles (58 solo), 5.5 sacks, and two pass deflections in 13 games and 12 starts.
The Patriots finished atop their division with a 13–3 record and earned a first round bye in the playoffs. The Patriots defeated the Tennessee Titans 35–14 in the AFC Divisional Round. On January 21, 2018, Van Noy made nine combined tackles, a pass deflection, and made one sack as the Patriots defeated the Jacksonville Jaguars 24–20 in the AFC Championship Game. On February 4, 2018, Van Noy started in Super Bowl LII and made five combined tackles as the Patriots lost 41–33 to the Philadelphia Eagles.
Then-linebackers coach Brian Flores took over duties as defensive coordinator after Matt Patricia accepted the head coaching position with the Detroit Lions. He named Van Noy and Dont’a Hightower the starting linebackers to begin the regular season as the Patriots continued to use a base defense that deployed only two linebackers.
On October 21, 2018, Van Noy registered six solo tackles and scored his first career touchdown after returning a blocked punt during the Patriots 38–31 victory at the Chicago Bears in Week 7. During the third quarter, teammate Dont’a Hightower blocked a punt attempt by Bears’ punter Pat O'Donnell that was recovered by Van Noy and returned 29 yards for a touchdown. In Week 10, he collected a season-high 12 combined tackles (five solo) during the Patriots’ 34–10 loss at the Tennessee Titans. Against the New York Jets on December 30, 2018, Van Noy scored his second career touchdown after recovering a fumble forced by teammate Adam Butler. On January 13, 2019, the Patriots defeated the Chargers in the AFC Divisional Round of the playoffs to move on to the AFC Championship Game. Van Noy recorded 4 tackles in the win. On January 20, 2019, the Patriots defeated the Kansas City Chiefs in the AFC Championship Game in overtime. In the game, Van Noy recorded 10 tackles, 2 sacks, and a forced fumble. The win advanced the Patriots to their third straight Super Bowl. In Super Bowl LIII, Van Noy recorded 3 tackles, a sack, and a tackle for loss in the Patriots' 13–3 victory over the Los Angeles Rams. The 3 points allowed by the Patriots defense were tied for the fewest ever in a Super Bowl.
In Week 4 against the Buffalo Bills, Van Noy recorded a team high 8 tackles, 2 sacks on Josh Allen, and forced 2 fumbles in the 16-10 win.  He was named AFC Defensive Player of the Week for his efforts. In week 6 against the New York Giants, Van Noy recorded a sack on rookie quarterback Daniel Jones and recovered a fumble forced by teammate Jamie Collins on Jon Hilliman and returned the ball for a 20 yard touchdown in the 35-14 win.  In week 7 against the New York Jets, Van Noy recovered a fumble by Jets quarterback Sam Darnold forced by teammate John Simon in the 33-0 win.  In week 9 against the Baltimore Ravens, Van Noy forced a fumble on running back Mark Ingram that was recovered by teammate Lawrence Guy in the 37-20 loss. 
Bold indicates career high
Van Noy proposed to on-again, off-again girlfriend and former Miss Utah USA winner, Marissa Powell on December 2013, and they were married in 2014. Both are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. They have one son, Trae.
- "AP releases 2012 All-America teams". CBSsports.com. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Rivals profile - Kyle Van Noy". Rivals.com. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Scout profile - Kyle Van Noy". Scout.com. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Player Bio: Kyle Van Noy". Brigham Young Athletics. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Football Recruiting - Kyle Van Noy". ESPN. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Scouting Report - Kyle Van Noy". Scout.com. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Van Noy talks top three". Rivals.com. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Phil Steele's 2011 Postseason All-Independent Team". PhilSteele.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- https://www.ncaa.com/stats/football/fbs/current/team/1042/p1 December 2012
- "Poinsettia Bowl - Brigham Young at San Diego State Box Score, December 20, 2012". College Football at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "Kyle Van Noy Leads BYU To Poinsettia Bowl Win Over San Diego State, 23-6 (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. December 21, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- "Dick Harmon: Kyle Van Noy becomes the latest superstar to join BYU's club of legends (+video)". DeseretNews.com. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Pyne, Brett. "Kyle Van Noy earns 2012 CFPA Linebacker Trophy". BYUcougars.com. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "College Football Performance Awards". CollegeFootballPerformance.com. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "Kyle Van Noy: Assessing Draft Stock of BYU LB After Monster Bowl Game". The Bleacher Report. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Pyne, Brett. "All-American Kyle Van Noy staying at BYU for senior season". BYUCougars.com. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "Kyle Van Noy 2013 Game Log". College Football at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- Judd, Brandon (December 16, 2013). "BYU football: Kyle Van Noy accepts invitation to play in Senior Bowl, joining Cody Hoffman". deseretnews.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "2014 Reese's Senior Bowl stats" (PDF). seniorbowl.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- Inabinett, Mark (February 13, 2014). "BYU's Kyle Van Noy gets top rating of outside linebackers at Senior Bowl". AL.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "2014 NFL Draft visits/workouts". profootballtalk.nbcsports.com. April 17, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "Lions host Kyle Van Noy for pre-draft visit". prideofdetroit.com. December 10, 2018. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "2014 NFL Draft". CBS Sports.
- Mayock, Mike (April 28, 2014). "Mike Mayock's position rankings for 2014 NFL Draft". NFL.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "2014 NFL draft position rankings: Khalil Mack, Ryan Shazier lead a diverse group of LBs". si.com. April 24, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "NFL Draft Profile: Kyle Van Noy". nfl.com. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- Yuille, Sean (May 9, 2014). "2014 NFL Draft results: Lions trade up, pick Kyle Van Noy". prideofdetroit.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "2014 NFL Draft Listing". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "Sportrac.com: Kyle Van Noy contract". Sportrac.com. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- Judd, Brandon (June 4, 2014). "Former BYU linebacker Kyle Van Noy signs rookie contract with Detroit Lions". Desert News. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "BYU in the NFL: Will Kyle Van Noy earn a starting spot with the Lions?". vanquishthefoe.com. August 19, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "Lions linebacker Kyle Van Noy worried he has sports hernia". si.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- Hirschhorn, Jason (August 28, 2014). "Kyle Van Noy injury: Lions LB undergoes surgery for 'core muscle injury'". sbnation.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "Miami Dolphins at Detroit Lions - November 9th, 2014". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "Kyle Van Noy 2014 Game Log". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "NFL Player stats: Kyle Van Noy (career)". NFL.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "NFL Player stats: Kyle Van Noy (2014)". NFL.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- Katzenstein, Josh (August 7, 2015). "Van Noy lost in shuffle in Lions' linebacker competition". Detroit News. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "TJ Jones listed as return man, Laken Tomlinson second-team on latest Detroit Lions depth chart". MLive.com. September 8, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- Reisman, Jeremy (October 10, 2015). "Lions-Cardinals inactives: James Ihedigbo in, Larry Warford out". Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "mMinnesota Vikings at Detroit Lions - October 25th, 2015". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- Metry, Sam (August 9, 2016). "This Might Be Kyle Van Noy's Most Important Year Of Football". theodysseyonline.com. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "2016 Detroit Lions projected depth chart". prideofdetroit.com. September 4, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "NFL Player Profile:Kyle Van Noy". NFL.com. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- "Lions sign LB Josh Bynes and trade LB Kyle Van Noy to Patriots". DetroitLions.com. October 25, 2016.
- "Patriots acquire LB Kyle Van Noy in a trade with Detroit". Patriots.com. October 26, 2016.
- "New England Patriots at San Francisco 49ers - November 20th, 2016". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "Los Angeles Rams at New England Patriots - December 4th, 2016". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "2016 New England Patriots Statistics & Players". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "Super Bowl LI - New England Patriots vs. Atlanta Falcons - February 5th, 2017". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- Wesseling, Chris. "New England Patriots win Super Bowl LI". NFL. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
- Clarke, Liz. "Julian Edelman’s Super Bowl miracle catch gives Patriots answer to David Tyree", The Washington Post, February 6, 2017
- "Super Bowl LI - National Football League Game Summary" (PDF). National Football League. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
- Kyed, Doug (July 25, 2017). "Ranking Patriots' Most Competitive Training Camp Roster Battles To Watch". NESN.com. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- Reiss, Mike (September 8, 2017). "LB Kyle Van Noy agrees to two-year extension with Patriots". ESPN.com.
- "Houston Texans at New England Patriots - September 24th, 2017". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "New England Patriots at New York Jets - October 15th, 2017". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- "Patriots will be without Kyle Van Noy for showdown against Steelers". nbcsports.com. December 17, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "NFL Player stats: Kyle Van Noy (2017)". NFL.com. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "Patriots' Week 1 Projected Depth Chart Includes Shallow Receiver Group". NESN.com. September 9, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- Judd, Brandon (October 23, 2018). "NFL locals in Week 7: Former BYU linebacker Kyle Van Noy scores his first NFL touchdown". deseretnews.com. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "New England Patriots at Chicago Bears - October 21st, 2018". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "NFL Player stats: Kyle Van Noy (2018)". NFL.com. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "Patriots stay undefeated, hang on to beat Bills 16-10". www.espn.com. September 29, 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- "Patriots LB Kyle Van Noy named AFC Defensive Player of the Week". Patriots.com. New England Patriots. October 3, 2019. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
- "Patriots force 4 turnovers, beat Giants 35-14 to reach 6-0". www.espn.com. October 10, 2019. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
- "Patriots blitz Darnold, Jets 33-0 to remain undefeated". www.espn.com. October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "Unbeaten no more, Patriots fall to Jackson and Ravens 37-20". www.espn.com. November 3, 2019. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
- Steves, Talo. "Best friends, different sports". Scout.com. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- Petersen, Sarah (December 2, 2013). "BYU's linebacker Kyle Van Noy engaged to Miss Utah USA, Marissa Powell". DeseretNews.com. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "Kyle Van Noy on Instagram: "This woman is my rock! She has helped me over come so many obstacles. She's everything you could ask for and more! I'm excited to spend the…"". Instagram. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
- "Super Bowl 2019: Kyle Van Noy's mysterious, wonderful life and his path to the Patriots". CBSSports.com. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
- "2-Time Super Bowl Champ and Latter-day Saint Kyle Van Noy Testifies of God and Prayer on Game Day". LDS Living. February 4, 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2019.