He studied theology in Halle, Tübingen and Berlin, subsequently becoming a Hilfsprediger (curate) in the city of Höxter in 1847. In 1851 he became a pastor at Sankt Kiliani church in Höxter and six years later was appointed superintendent of the Paderborn church district.
He was the author of a popular book on the flora of Westphalia, titled Flora von Westfalen. die in der Provinz Westfalen wild wachsenden Gefäss-Pflanzen, published posthumously in 1893. Taxa with the specific epithet of beckhausii commemorate his name.
- Lexikon deutschsprachiger Bryologen, Volume 1 by Jan-Peter Frahm, Jens Eggers
- UNI-Goettingen Department of Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution of Plants (with Herbarium)
- "Sentence based on translated text from an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia".
- Google Books Flora von Westfalen
- Natur und Heimat; Floristische, faunistische und ökologische Berichte Westfälisches Museum für Naturkunde, Münster
- IPNI. Beckh.