Koliada or Koleda is a Slavic mythological deity, that personalizes the newborn winter infant Sun and impersonates the New Year's cycle. It is connected with the solar cycle, passing through the four seasons and from one substantial condition into another.
In the different Slavic countries at the Koliada winter festival were performed rituals with games and songs in its honour - like koleduvane. In some regions of Russia the ritual gifts (usually buns) for the koledari are also called "kolyada". In the lands of the Croats it was symbolized by a doll, called Koled. In the ancient times Slavs used to sacrifice horses, goats, cows, bears or other animals that personify fertility. Koliada is mentioned either as male or a female deity in the songs.
In modern culture
There are many traditions that recall both the deity and the ritual of Koliada. All of them are on or around Winter Solstice:
- Koleduvane is a ceremony with pagan roots that is still performed on Christmas Eve in many Slavic countries.
- Koleda is the modern Bulgarian word for Christmas.
- Kolyadka, Kolyada or Kaleda is a traditional song usually sung in Eastern Slavic countries (Belarus, Russia and Ukraine) only on Orthodox Christmas holidays, between the 7 and 14 of January
- Crăciun is the Romanian and Karácsony - the Hungarian word for Christmas. They are both derived from Korochun/Krachun - one of the names of the pagan holiday Koliada, although both Romania and Hungary are not Slavic countries.
- Kalėdos is the Lithuanian word for Christmas.
There are Slavic neopagan communities in most of the Slavic countries whose goal is to popularize ancient pagan belief and practice in present-day society.
- Song of the Russian folk band Ivan Kupala, called Kolyada 
- Song of the Russian pagan metal band Arkona, called Kolyada 
- Song of the Belarusian pagan metal band Kolo Pravi - Goy Kolyada 
- Song Kolyada of the Russian band Veter vody
- Song Kolyada of the Ukrainian female singer Iryna Fedyshyn
- Song Kolyada my of the Ukrainian female singer Iryna Fedyshyn
- Song Kolyada-kolyadka of the Ukrainian female singer Iryna Dolya
- България, славянски богове in Bulgarian
- Мифы народов мира (второe издание)/изд. "Советская Энциклопедия"/Москва/1987, том 1/стр.665
- Мифологический словарь/Гл.ред. Е.М. Мелетинский - М.:'Советская энциклопедия', 1990 г.- 672 с.
- List of the songs from the album Kostroma from the official site of the band Ivan Kupala
- List of songs from the album Noch' Velesova (The Night Of Veles) of the Russian band Arkona in Encyclopaedia Metallum
- Demo album of Kolo Pravi from 2009
- Iryna Fedyshyn. Ukrajina koljaduje! (Ukraine Singing Carols!)
- Apple Music Preview. Iryna Fedyshyn
- Kolyada-kolyadka Iryna Dolya
- Koliada // Russian mythological calendar
- Kozlov, M.М. God–baby Koljada in pagan consciousness of east Slavs