Kelulus or kalulus is a type of rowing boat used in Indonesia. It is typically small in size and propelled using oar or paddle. However, for long distance voyages, this boat can be equipped with sails.:261 It is not the same as prahu kalulis of the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago.
The earliest report of kelulus is from Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai (Chronicle of the Kings of Pasai) of the 14th century, in which they are mentioned as one type of vessel used by the Majapahit empire. Although they are not well described, kelulus is one of Majapahit's main vessel types after jong and malangbang.
"...but they are not fit to go out of the shelter of the land. Kelulus were specialty of Java. They are carved in a thousand and one ways, with figures of serpents, and gilt; they are ornamental. Each of them has many of these, and they are very much painted, and they certainly look well and are made in a very elegant way, and they are for kings to amuse themselves in, away from the common people. They are rowed with paddles."
In 1537, Javanese kelulus encountered in Patani are described as having two rows of oars: one is made of paddles, the other one is "as galleys"; they carried 100 soldiers, with much artillery and firearms. Gonçalo de Souza, in his Coriosidades writes that they have 27 oars (54 rowers?) and 20 soldiers and are armed with small swivel guns (falconselhos) at bow and stern.:158
Portuguese historian António Galvão in 1544 made a treatise about Maluku, which lists the types of boats from the region, including the kalulus. He described the hull as being egg shaped at the middle but sloping upwards at both ends. At the prow they are shaped like high snake neck with the head of a serpent and the horns of a deer.
Kelulus were used as transport vessel or war boat. Majapahit overseas invasion used kelulus, usually in uncountable numbers. The pati of Java had many war kelulus for raiding coastal villages. During the Demak Sultanate attack on Portuguese Malacca of 1513, kelulus were used as armed troop transports for landing alongside penjajap and lancaran, as the Javanese junks were too large to approach shore.
In 1600, king Chiay Masiuro (or Chiaymasiouro) of Demak embarked in a calelus from Blambangan which has been equipped with oar and sail, to the south. After 12 days, he arrived at Luca Antara or Java Major, which is believed to be Australia. There he received by the syahbandar, and stayed for several days. Chiaymasiuro found out that the inhabitants were Javanese, but with mixed culture of Java, Sunda, and Bali. After he returned to Blambangan, the news of the voyage made great astonishment and public notoriety in Java.:61–63
- Salisipan, a rowing boat from the Philippines
- Waka taua
- Lancaran (ship)
- Javanese contact with Australia
- Mills, J. V. (1930). "Eredia's Description of Malaca, Meridional India, and Cathay". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 8.
- Yule, Sir Henry (1996). Hobson-Jobson: The Anglo-Indian Dictionary. Wordsworth Editions. p. 143. ISBN 9781853263637.
- Hill (June 1960), p. 157: Then he directed them to make ready all the equipment and munitions of war needed for an attack on the land of Pasai - about four hundred of the largest junks, and also many barges (malangbang) and galleys, also Nugroho (2011). p. 286, quoting Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai, 3: 98: "Sa-telah itu, maka disuroh baginda musta'idkan segala kelengkapan dan segala alat senjata peperangan akan mendatangi negeri Pasai itu, sa-kira-kira empat ratus jong yang besar-besar dan lain daripada itu banyak lagi daripada malangbang dan kelulus." (After that, he is tasked by His Majesty to ready all the equipment and all weapons of war to come to that country of Pasai, about four hundred large jongs and other than that much more of malangbang and kelulus.)
- Pinto, Fernão Mendes (2013). The Travels of Mendes Pinto. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226923239.
- Catz, Rebecca D. (1989). The travels of Mendes Pinto. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Pires, Tome (1944). The Suma oriental of Tomé Pires : an account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, the book of Francisco Rodrigues, rutter of a voyage in the Red Sea, nautical rules, almanack and maps, written and drawn in the East before 1515. The Hakluyt Society. ISBN 9784000085052. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Coriosidades de Gonçalo de Souza, manuscript in the Biblioteca da Universidade de Coimbra, Ms. 3074, fol. 38vo.
- Reid, Anthony (2012). Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-9814311960.
- Jacobs, Hubert (1971). A Treatise on the Moluccas (c. 1544), probably the preliminary version of António Galvão's lost Historia das Moluccas. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society.
- Adam (2019). h. 128: "Setelah itu maka disuruh baginda musta'ibkan segala kelengkapan dan segala alat senjata peperangan akan mendatangi negeri Pasai itu; sekira-kira empat ratus jong yang besar-besar; dan lain daripada itu banyak lagi daripada melangbang [melambang] dan kelulus."
- Winstedt, Sir Richard (1962). A History of Malaya. Marican.
- Marsden, William (2012). The History of Sumatra: Containing an Account of the Government, Laws, Customs, and Manners of the Native Inhabitants. Cambridge University Press. p. 431.