|Justice Society of America|
Cover of Justice Society of America vol. 3 #1
(February 2007) by Alex Ross.
|First appearance||All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940–1941)|
|See: List of Justice Society of America members|
The Justice Society of America (JSA) is a superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The team was conceived by editor Sheldon Mayer and writer Gardner Fox during the Golden Age of Comic Books. The JSA first appeared in All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940–1941), making it the first team of superheroes in comic books. The original members of the Justice Society of America were Doctor Fate, Hour-Man, Spectre, Sandman, Atom, Flash, Green Lantern, and Hawkman.
The team was initially popular, but after the popularity of superhero comics waned in the late 1940s, the JSA's adventures ceased with issue #57 of the title (March 1951). During the Silver Age of Comic Books, DC Comics reinvented several Justice Society members and banded many of them together in a new team, the Justice League of America. JSA members remained absent from comics for ten years until Jay Garrick appeared alongside Barry Allen, his Silver Age counterpart, in The Flash #123 (September 1961). The Justice Society was established as existing on "Earth-Two" and the Justice League on "Earth-One", different versions of Earth located in different universes. This allowed for annual cross-dimensional team-ups of the teams between 1963 and 1985. New series, such as All-Star Squadron, Infinity, Inc. and a new All-Star Comics featured the JSA, their children and their heirs. These series explored the issues of aging, generational differences, and contrasts between the Golden Age and subsequent eras.
The 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series merged all of the company's various alternate realities into one, placing the JSA as World War II-era predecessors to the company's modern characters. A JSA series was published from 1999 to 2006, and a Justice Society of America series ran from 2007 to 2011. As part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of its entire line of monthly books an unnamed version of the team appears in the Earth 2 Vol 1 (2012–2015), Earth 2 World's End (2014–2015), and Earth 2: Society (2015–2017).
All Star Comics
The Justice Society of America first appeared in All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940–1941) written by Gardner Fox and edited by Sheldon Mayer during the Golden Age of Comic Books. The team initially included: Doctor Fate, Hour-Man (as his name was then spelled), the Spectre, the Sandman, the Atom, Flash, Green Lantern, and Hawkman. Because some of these characters (the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern, and Hawkman) were published by All-American Publications rather than DC Comics, All-Star Comics #3 is the first inter-company superhero title, as well as the first team-up title. Comics' historian Les Daniels noted that: "This was obviously a great notion, since it offered readers a lot of headliners for a dime, and also the fun of watching fan favorites interact."
The JSA's adventures were written by Gardner Fox as well as by John Broome and Robert Kanigher. The series was illustrated by a legion of artists including: Martin Nodell, Joe Kubert, Jack Kirby, Harry Lampert, Joe Simon, Alex Toth, Sheldon Moldoff, Carmine Infantino, Joe Giella, Win Mortimer, Bernard Baily, Frank Giacoia, H. G. Peter, Jack Burnley, Lee Elias, Irwin Hasen, Bob Oksner, Paul Reinman, Everett E. Hibbard, and Bernard Sachs.:21–34
The first JSA story featured the team's first meeting, with a framing sequence for each member telling a story of an individual exploit. In the next issue, the team worked together on a common case, but each story from there on still featured the members individually on a mission involving part of the case, and then banding together in the end to wrap things up. An in-house rule explicitly laid out on the last page of All Star Comics #5, reprinted on page 206 of All Star Comics Archives Vol. 1, required that whenever a member received his or her own title, that character would leave All Star Comics, becoming an "honorary member" of the JSA. Thus, the Flash was replaced by Johnny Thunder after #6, and Green Lantern left shortly thereafter for the same reason. For this reason, Superman and Batman were established as already being "honorary" members prior to All Star Comics #3. How these two heroes helped found the JSA before becoming honorary members was not explained until DC Special #29 in 1977. Hawkman is the only member to appear in every JSA adventure in the original run of All Star Comics.:178
All Star Comics #8 (December 1941/January 1942) featured the first appearance of Wonder Woman. Unlike the other characters who had their own titles, she was allowed to appear in the series, but only as the JSA's secretary from #11 onward, and did not actively take part in most adventures until much later in the series. She was excluded from the title because of the same rules that had excluded the Flash, Green Lantern, Superman, and Batman from the title, though in #13 it was claimed she had become an active member.
A fan club for the team called the "Junior Justice Society of America" was introduced in All Star Comics #14 (Dec. 1942-Jan. 1943). The membership kit included a welcome letter, a badge, a decoder, a four-page comic book, and a membership certificate.
By All Star Comics #24 (Spring 1945), a real-world schism between National Comics and All-American Publications—a nominally independent company run by Max Gaines and Jack Liebowitz—had occurred, which resulted in the Detective Comics, Inc. (National Comics) heroes being removed from the title. As a result, the Flash and Green Lantern returned to the team. With issue #27 (Winter 1945), National Comics bought out Max Gaines' share of All-American and the two companies merged to form Detective Comics, Inc.:84–89 The JSA roster remained mostly the same for the rest of the series. Gardner Fox left the series with issue #34 (April–May 1947) with a story that introduced a new super-villain, the Wizard. The Injustice Society first battled the JSA in issue #37 in a tale written by Robert Kanigher. The team's second female member Black Canary first helped the group in All Star Comics #38 and became a full member in #41.
All Star Comics and the JSA's Golden Age adventures ended with issue #57, the title becoming All-Star Western, with no superheroes. A good amount of artwork has survived from an unpublished All Star Comics story titled "The Will of William Wilson" and has been reprinted in various publications from TwoMorrows Publishing.
The explanation for the team's disappearance, and the inactivity of most of its roster after the early 1950s, was first given in Adventure Comics #466 ("The Defeat of the Justice Society!", December 1979) by writer Paul Levitz, which explained that most of the Society chose to disband and retire rather than appear in front of the Joint Un-American Activities Committee, which demanded that they unmask themselves.
The chairmanship of the Justice Society mostly resided with Hawkman, although initially the Flash, and later Green Lantern, took turns leading the team. For a brief period in 1942, they were known as the Justice Battalion, as they became an extension of the armed forces of the United States of America during World War II. It was later explained that the reason the JSA did not invade Europe and end the war was because of the influence of the Spear of Destiny, which caused the JSA's most powerful members to fall under the control of its wielder, Adolf Hitler. In the 1980s, it was established that the JSA had a loose affiliation with the All-Star Squadron. The All-Star Squadron's adventures were set in the 1940s, and were considered to have happened concurrently with the Justice Society's in a "retcon".
The headquarters for the JSA was a hotel suite in New York City initially and, after the war, the team settled on a brownstone building in Gotham City, and later in Civic City.:157 For a very brief period, the JSA was provided a satellite[clarification needed] headquarters, much like their later counterparts, the JLA. This turned out to be a deathtrap orchestrated by a crooked senator's henchman from Eliminations, Inc. The Gotham City brownstone remained unoccupied until years later, when the team was active again. The headquarters used in the 2000s was a brownstone in Morningside Heights.
The Silver Age
Having successfully introduced new versions of several characters (the Flash, Green Lantern, etc.) during the late 1950s, DC tapped industry veteran, and former Justice Society writer, Gardner Fox to create a new version of the Justice Society. Editor Julius Schwartz, influenced by the popularity of Major League Baseball's National League and American League, decided to change the name of the team from Justice Society to Justice League.
In The Flash #123 (September 1961) "The Flash of Two Worlds", the Silver Age Flash meets his Golden Age counterpart, Jay Garrick who, along with the rest of the original Justice Society, is said to inhabit an alternative universe. This historic meeting thus became one of the classic DC comics of the Silver Age. Fan letters on the pages of following issues were wildly enthusiastic about the revival of the original Flash, both from older fans who remembered the old JSA tales, and younger fans eager to learn more about these new heroes. Further meetings occurred in The Flash #129 "Double Danger on Earth" (June 1962), and The Flash #137 "Vengeance of the Immortal Villain" (June 1963). The Flash #129 contains the first mention of the JSA in the Silver Age, and refers directly to their last adventure in All-Star Comics #57, while in The Flash #137 the JSA re-form.
These stories set the stage for "Crisis on Earth-One" (Justice League of America #21, August 1963) and "Crisis on Earth-Two" (Justice League of America #22, September 1963), a two-part tale where the Golden Age Justice Society teams up with the Silver Age Justice League to combat a team of villains from both worlds. The following year, Earth-Three was introduced with Justice League of America #29, "Crisis on Earth-Three", (August 1964).
This Earth features an evil version of the Justice League known as the Crime Syndicate of America, whose lineup consists of Superwoman (an evil version of Wonder Woman), Owlman (an evil version of Batman), Ultraman (an evil version of Superman), Johnny Quick (an evil version of the Flash), and Power Ring (an evil version of Green Lantern). These stories became the first in a long series of team-ups of the two supergroups, an annual summer tradition which continued until 1985. These meetings produced a considerable number of notable events and characters in JSA history, including Black Canary leaving to join the Justice League, the return of the Golden Age team the Seven Soldiers of Victory, the creation of the Freedom Fighters, which incorporated several Quality Comics characters into DC continuity after the characters were purchased by DC Comics, and the introduction of a number of other alternative Earths to house these other teams.
As well as the annual Justice League of America appearances, members of the JSA guest-starred in other titles over the next several years: the Golden Age Atom in The Atom #29 and #36, and the Golden Age Green Lantern in several issues of Green Lantern. In addition, a number of the characters appeared in team-up stories in issues of the DC titles The Brave and the Bold and Showcase, while the Spectre was given a solo run in the latter which led to his own series.
Some JSA members during this period, residing on "Earth-Two", were portrayed as middle-aged versions of their younger, contemporary "Earth-One" counterparts; the "Earth-Two" characters' portrayal as older than their counterparts eased incorporation of the existing fictional history of the Justice Society of America into newly-written stories about the "Earth-Two" characters. Later, this fictional age gap was to become a major theme for character development, with the fictional histories of different versions of the same characters deviating significantly from each other in ways impacted by their differences in age, including even the deaths of popular characters such as Batman in one setting while different, contemporary versions of the characters lived on as inhabitants of a different fictional "Earth".
The Bronze Age
The JSA's popularity grew until they regained their own title. All Star Comics #58 (January/February 1976) saw the group return as mentors to a younger set of heroes briefly called the "Super Squad" until they were integrated into the JSA proper. This run lasted until #74, with a brief run thereafter in Adventure Comics #461–466, but it had three significant developments: it introduced Power Girl in All Star Comics #58, chronicled the death of the Golden Age Batman in Adventure Comics #461–462, and, after nearly 40 years, it finally provided the JSA with an origin story in DC Special #29. The Huntress was introduced in DC Super Stars #17 (Nov.-Dec. 1977) which told her origin, and All Star Comics #69 (Nov.-Dec. 1977), which was published the same day. The 1970s run of All Star Comics was written by Gerry Conway and Paul Levitz, and artists included Ric Estrada, Wally Wood, Keith Giffen, Joe Staton, and Bob Layton.
The series was noteworthy for depicting the heroes as having aged into their 50s. The artwork gave them graying hair and lined faces. It was highly unusual, then or now, for a comic book to have heroes this old. Most comic books obscure the timelines or periodically relaunch the series to keep the characters youthful. This depiction was a consequence of the fact that the heroes were closely linked to the era of World War II. This became problematic in the 1980s when the heroes would logically be well into their 60s. The explanation given for this by writer Roy Thomas in All-Star Squadron Annual #3 is that the team, and several friends, have absorbed energy from the magical villain Ian Karkull during an adventure in the 1940s that stunts their aging process.
Meanwhile, the JSA continued their annual team-ups with the Justice League. Notable events include meeting the Fawcett Comics heroes, including Captain Marvel, the death of Mr. Terrific, and the origin of the Black Canary.
The JLA/JSA crossovers often involved a third team as well such as the Legion of Super-Heroes, the New Gods, the Secret Society of Super Villains, and the All-Star Squadron.
All-Star Squadron was a series taking place in the JSA's original setting of the wartime 1940s. This led to a spinoff, modern day series entitled Infinity, Inc. which starred the children and heirs of the JSA members. Both series were written by noted JSA fan Roy Thomas and featured art by Rich Buckler, Jerry Ordway, Todd McFarlane, and others.
In 1985, DC retconned many details of the DC Universe in Crisis on Infinite Earths. Among the changes, the Golden Age Superman, Batman, Robin, and Wonder Woman ceased to exist, and the Earth-One/Earth-Two dichotomy was resolved by merging the Multiverse into a single universe. This posed a variety of problems for the JSA, whose history—especially in the 1980s comics—was strongly tied up in these four characters.
After Crisis on Infinite Earths
One of Roy Thomas's efforts to resolve the Crisis-created inconsistencies was to introduce some analogues to Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, in a sequel to All-Star Squadron titled Young All-Stars.
In 1986, DC decided to write off the JSA from active continuity. The Last Days of the Justice Society one-shot involved most of the team battling the forces of evil while merged with the Norse gods in an ever-repeating Ragnarök-like Limbo, written by Thomas, with art by David Ross and Mike Gustovich. Only Power Girl, the Star-Spangled Kid, the Spectre, and Doctor Fate escaped the cataclysm. This is later revealed to be a simulation created by Odin searching for a way to thwart the real Ragnarök. Roy Thomas revised the JSA's origin for post-Crisis continuity in Secret Origins vol. 2 #31.
Justice Society of America (vols. 1 and 2) (1991–1993)
|Justice Society of America (vols. 1 and 2)|
Cover to Justice Society of America vol. 2 #1. Art by Mike Parobeck.
|Format||Vol. 1 limited series|
Vol. 2 – ongoing series
|Publication date||(Vol. 1)|
April 1991 – November 1991
August 1992 – May 1993
|No. of issues||Vol. 1 8|
Vol. 2 10
|Written by||Len Strazewski|
Fan interest resulted in the revival of the JSA in 1991. An eight-issue Justice Society of America limited series featuring a previously untold story set in the 1950s was published in 1991. In the final issues of the four-issue Armageddon: Inferno limited series, the JSA returns to the modern-day DC Universe when Waverider transported the "daemen" of the interdimensional Abraxis to Asgard as a substitute for the JSA in the Ragnarök cycle, allowing the team to return to Earth.
In 1992, the JSA was given an ongoing monthly series titled Justice Society of America, written by Len Strazewski with art by Mike Parobeck, featuring the original team adjusting to life after returning from Ragnarök. Though Justice Society of America was intended as an ongoing series, and was popular with readers, the decision was made to cancel the book after the third issue's release. Twelve issues of the new series were ultimately commissioned, though publication itself ended with issue #10. Portions of the remaining two issues originally intended for #11–12, which were part of a planned crossover with Justice League Europe, were published in Justice League Europe #49–50.
Strazewski, in an interview explaining the cancellation of this series, said, "It was a capricious decision made personally by Mike Carlin because he didn't like Mike's artwork or my writing and believed that senior citizen super-heroes was not what DC should be publishing. He made his opinion clear to me several times after the cancellation."
Justice Society of America included the first appearance of Jesse Quick, the daughter of All-Star Squadron members Liberty Belle and Johnny Quick, who would go on to be a major figure in Flash, Teen Titans, and later Justice Society comics.
Not long after, most of the team was incapacitated or killed in the 1994 crossover series Zero Hour: Crisis in Time. During the battle between the Justice Society and the villain Extant, the latter removes the chronal energies keeping the Justice Society young. The Atom, Doctor Mid-Nite, and Hourman die immediately. Hawkman and Hawkgirl, who were separated from the rest of the Justice Society after being pulled into the timestream, merge into a new Hawkgod being, resulting in their deaths. Doctor Fate dies of the resulting aging shortly after Zero Hour. Green Lantern is kept young because of the mystical effects of the Starheart, but loses his ring and subsequently changes his name to Sentinel.
The rest of the team is now too physically old to continue fighting crime and retires. Starman retires and passes on the Starman legacies to his sons, resulting in the creation of one of the new series following Zero Hour, James Robinson's Starman.
|Publication date||August 1999 – September 2006|
|No. of issues||87|
|Written by||James Robinson, David S. Goyer, Geoff Johns, Paul Levitz|
The JSA remained inactive for some time after the events of "Zero Hour", but the surviving members of the Flash, Wildcat, and Alan Scott (now going by the name Sentinel) have remained active throughout the DC Universe, having been placed as reserve JLI members, as evidenced in Justice League Europe #50.
The Justice Society was revived as a monthly series called JSA in 1999 which mixed the few remaining original members with younger counterparts. This incarnation of the team focused on the theme of generational legacy and of carrying on the heroic example established by their predecessors. The series was launched by James Robinson and David S. Goyer. Goyer later co-wrote the series with Geoff Johns, who continued to write the series solo after Goyer's departure. The series featured the art of Stephen Sadowski, Leonard Kirk, and Don Kramer, among others. It featured a story by Pulitzer Prize winner Michael Chabon.
During the events of Infinite Crisis, some of the surviving Golden Age characters, such as Wildcat and the Flash, are transported to the new "Earth-Two," as created by Alexander Luthor Jr., and seem to recall the existence of the original one, albeit vaguely.
JSA: Classified (2005–2008)
|Publication date||September 2005 – August 2008|
|No. of issues||39|
|Created by||Harvey Richards|
|Written by||Geoff Johns|
In September 2005, JSA's popularity led to a spinoff series, JSA: Classified, which tells stories of the team at various points in its existence, as well as spotlighting specific members in solo stories. The first arc, written by Geoff Johns with art by Amanda Conner, featured Power Girl's origin. The series was cancelled with issue #39 (August 2008).
One Year Later
Justice Society of America vol. 3 (2006–2011)
|Justice Society of America vol. 3|
Variant incentive cover to
Justice Society of America vol. 3 #1 (February 2007).
Art by Dale Eaglesham.
|Publication date||February 2007 – October 2011|
|No. of issues||54|
|Colorist(s)||Jeromy Cox, Hi-Fi|
On December 6, 2006, a new series was launched with the creative team of Geoff Johns (writer), Dale Eaglesham (pencils), and Alex Ross (cover art). The beginning of the new series showed JSA veterans the Flash, Green Lantern, and Wildcat choosing members of the new generation of superheroes to train. Continuing a major theme from the previous JSA title, this new series focused on the team being the caretakers of the superhero legacy from one generation to the next.
The crossovers between the JLA and JSA began again with "The Lightning Saga" (see below) in JLA vol. 4 #8–10 and JSA #5–6 and an epilogue in issue #7.
Justice Society of America Annual #1 (September 2008) featured the Justice Society Infinity, a team continuing from an analogous post-Crisis Earth-Two. Most of the members of the Justice Society Infinity are either original members of Earth-Two's Justice Society, such as the Atom and Robin (Dick Grayson), but the Society includes characters that are normally associated with Infinity, Inc., such as Jade and Nuklon (Albert Rothstein).
Johns' run as writer of Justice Society of America ended with issue #26. Following a two-issue story by Jerry Ordway, Bill Willingham and Lilah Sturges took over as writers with issue #29 in July 2009.
Another JLA/JSA crossover was chronicled in Justice League of America #44–48 and Justice Society of America #41–42 under the Brightest Day banner. James Robinson, the writer who co-wrote the 1999 JSA relaunch, took over as the book's writer for the crossover while Mark Bagley illustrated the entire event. After the crossover, Robinson wrote one final issue with artist Jesus Merino, which dealt with the relationship between Green Lantern and his son Obsidian.
Following the Brightest Day story arc, Marc Guggenheim became the new writer with issue #44, and Scott Kolins took over art duties from Merino. During his first several issues, Guggenheim introduced a number of new characters to the team, such as Blue Devil and Manhunter. In issue #49, he expanded the JSA's roster by bringing back all of the JSA All-Stars except for Magog, who had been killed in Justice League: Generation Lost, and Power Girl, who had unofficially departed from the JSA during the same maxi-series, as well as the original Liberty Belle. In addition, Guggenheim introduced a new character named Red Beetle (a gadget-wielding heroine clad in a red variation of the Silver Age Blue Beetle's costume), and brought in Ri and Darknight, two Chinese superheroes that he had created for his Batman Confidential run.
JSA All-Stars vol. 2 (2009–2011)
|JSA All-Stars (vol. 2)|
Cover to JSA All-Stars vol. 2 #1 (February 2010). Art by Freddie Williams II.
|Publication date||February 2010 – July 2011|
|No. of issues||18|
|Created by||Matthew Sturges|
Freddie Williams II
|Written by||Matthew Sturges|
|Artist(s)||Freddie Williams II|
An ongoing series titled JSA All-Stars debuted with a February 2010 cover date and should not be confused with the JSA: All Stars, a limited series published from July 2003 to February 2004. The series focused on a second team that formed after the JSA split. Calling themselves the "All-Stars", the group included more of the newer, younger members of the JSA. The roster consisted of: Magog, Damage, Power Girl, Hourman, Atom Smasher, Sand, Stargirl, Cyclone, Wildcat (Ton Bronson), Citizen Steel, Judomaster, King Chimera, Anna Fortune, and the A.I. Roxy, with Damage and Magog later being killed.
DC cancelled JSA All-Stars with issue #18 (July 2011) because of the events of Flashpoint, the DC 2011 summer event. As a result of the title's cancellation, writer Marc Guggenheim had all of the All-Stars except Power Girl and Magog rejoin the JSA in Justice Society of America #49.
In the DC Universe Rebirth one-shot, Johnny Thunder is in a nursing home. He's trying to escape, but Kid Flash Wally West appears to Johnny trying to establish a link to return from the Speed Force. Johnny admits he threw away the magic pen containing Thunderbolt. In The Flash Rebirth series, the interaction between Pre-New 52 Wally West and New 52 Wally West triggers a disturbance in the Speed Force, which causes Barry to have a strange vision. In the vision, Barry sees Johnny Quick's Speed formula and Jay Garrick's Flash helmet. Johnny Thunder is seen again during the Button crossover, where he is on a roof shouting for his Thunderbolt and that it's his fault they lost the Justice Society. At the end of the crossover, it is revealed that the Pre-New 52 Jay Garrick was also stuck in the Speed Force, and Barry is able to momentarily free him. However, when Barry tries to secure him to the universe just as he did to Wally, Jay instead is transported back into the Speed Force in a blast of blue energy.
In the "Watchmen" sequel "Doomsday Clock," Doctor Manhattan recalls various events in which he indirectly killed Alan Scott and thus brought about changes in the timeline. On July 16, 1940, Alan Scott was riding on a train over a collapsing bridge, but he survived by grabbing onto a green lantern. He continues his life, eventually "sitting at a round table wearing a mask" and later testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee but refusing to implicate anyone in his employ. On July 16, 1940 again, Doctor Manhattan moves the lantern six inches out of Alan Scott's reach so that Scott dies in the train accident and leaves no family behind. At the Daily Planet, Lois Lane finds a flash-drive showing footage of various members of the Justice Society of America such as Alan Scott, Jay Garrick, Doctor Fate, Hawkman, Hourman, Sandman, and Spectre. Lois didn't know about the Justice Society until now. When Doctor Manhattan first arrived in the DC Universe, he witnesses the creation of the JSA and each of its founding members superhero personas. In one timeline (Golden Age/Earth-2), Doctor Manhattan watches as the JSA wait for the arrival of Superman to formally create their team. This then changes to a timeline (Post-Crisis/New Earth) where Superman wasn't a founding member and didn't arrive until 1956. Curious about the importance of Superman and what would happen if time were to be changed and how it would affect him, Doctor Manhattan prevented Alan Scott from becoming Green Lantern. This in turn created the New 52 Universe, and with it, the creation of the Justice Society of America was erased. When Doctor Manhattan undoes the experiment that erased the Justice Society and the Legion of Super-Heroes, the Justice Society (consisting of Atom-Smasher, Cyclone, Damage, Doctor Fate, Doctor Mid-Nite II, Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Hourman II, Jade, Jakeem Thunder and Johnny Thunderbolt, Liberty Belle, Mister Terrific, Obsidian, Power Girl, Sandman II, Stargirl, S.T.R.I.P.E., Wildcat I, and Wildcat II) appears to help Superman fight the rampaging metahumans. Afterwards, the Justice Society investigates the Department of Metahuman Affairs which led to the arrest of those involved.
The Justice Society returns in the pages of Justice League. The League splits up to retrieve fragments on the Totality from the past and future. Flash and Green Lantern are transported to 1941 to retrieve a fragment. They arrive in December 1941 to discover that the Legion of Doom has already travelled to the past and meddled in history, attacking and seemingly conquering the United States. They encounter the Justice Society, much to their surprise, as they are not aware of any superheroes active in the 1940s. However, they begin to develop an affinity for their Golden Age counterparts, and feel that there is an intricate shared history they cannot fully remember.
In the pages of "Dark Nights: Death Metal," Justice Society members Green Lantern, Flash, Doctor Fate, and Wildcat were shown to be guarding the Valhalla Cemetery. The password to get in was "Ma Hunkel" where Green Lantern mentioned that she was the first guardian of the JSA's first headquarters. As Superman and his allies prepare for their final fight against both Perpetua and the Darkest Night, Justice Society members Damage, Green Lantern, and Flash were present. In addition, Batman used the Black Lantern ring to revive JSA members Atom, Hourman, Ma Hunkel, and Sandman.
|Title||Material collected||Pub. date||ISBN|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 0||All Star Comics #1–2||March 2006||978-1401207915|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 1||All Star Comics #3–6||November 1997||978-1563890192|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 2||All Star Comics #7–10||November 1997||978-0930289126|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 3||All Star Comics #11–14||November 1997||978-1563893704|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 4||All Star Comics #15–18||December 1998||978-1563894336|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 5||All Star Comics #19–23||December 1999||978-1563894978|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 6||All Star Comics #24–28||October 2000||978-1563896361|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 7||All Star Comics #29–33||July 2001||978-1563897207|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 8||All Star Comics #34–38||August 2002||978-1563898129|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 9||All Star Comics #39–43||August 2004||978-1401200015|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 10||All Star Comics #44–49||August 2004||978-1401201593|
|All Star Comics Archives Vol. 11||All Star Comics #50–57||March 2005||978-1401204037|
Most of the Silver Age and Bronze Age stories depicting the annual team-up adventures of the Justice League and the Justice Society were collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 1||Justice League of America #21–22, #29–30, #37–38, #46–47||August 2002||978-1563898952|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 2||Justice League of America #55–56, #64–65, #72–73, #83–84||November 2003||978-1401200039|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 3||Justice League of America #91–92, #100–102, #107–108, #113||August 2004||978-1401202316|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 4||Justice League of America #122–124, #135–137, #147–148||May 2006||978-1401209575|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 5||Justice League of America #159–160, #171–172, #183–185||April 2010||978-1401226237|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 6||Justice League of America #195–197, 207–209, All-Star Squadron #14–15||June 2013||978-1401238223|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths: The Team-Ups Vol. 1||The Flash #123, #129, #137, #151; Green Lantern vol. 2 #40; Showcase #55–56,||January 2006||978-1401204709|
|Crisis on Multiple Earths, The Team-Ups Vol. 2||The Flash #170, #173; Green Lantern vol. 2 #45, #52; The Brave and the Bold #62;||March 2007||978-1401212285|
The Bronze Age continuation of All Star Comics (1976–1978), along with the subsequent JSA series in Adventure Comics and a related special, has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|Justice Society Volume 1||All Star Comics #58–67; DC Special #29||August 2006||978-1401209704|
|Justice Society Volume 2||All Star Comics #68–74; Adventure Comics #461–466||February 2007||978-1401211943|
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|JLA v. 5: Justice for All||JLA #24–33||December 1999||978-1563895111|
The JSA (1999–2006) series was collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Vol. #||Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|1||Justice Be Done||JSA #1–5; JSA Secret Files #1||April 2000||978-1563896200|
|2||Darkness Falls||JSA #6–15||August 2002||978-1563897399|
|3||Return of Hawkman||JSA #16–25; JSA Secret Files #1||November 2002||978-1563899126|
|4||Fair Play||JSA #26–31; JSA Secret Files #2||May 2003||978-1563899591|
|5||Stealing Thunder||JSA #32–38||October 2003||978-1563899942|
|6||Savage Times||JSA #39–45||November 2004||978-1401202538|
|7||Princes of Darkness||JSA #46–55||March 2005||978-1401204693|
|8||Black Reign||JSA #56–58; Hawkman vol. 4 #23–25||July 2005||978-1401204808|
|9||Lost||JSA #59–67||September 2005||978-1401207229|
|10||Black Vengeance||JSA #68–75||March 2006||978-1401209667|
|11||Mixed Signals||JSA #76–81||September 2006||978-1401209674|
|12||Ghost Stories||JSA #82–87||January 2007||978-1401211967|
The third Justice Society of America series was collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Vol. #||Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|1||The Next Age||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #1–4||September 2007
|2||Justice League of America: The Lightning Saga||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #5–6; Justice League of America vol. 2 #0, 8–12||February 2008
|3||Thy Kingdom Come, Part One||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #7–12||April 2008
|4||Thy Kingdom Come, Part Two||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #13–18, Annual #1||December 2008
|5||Thy Kingdom Come, Part Three||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #19–22; Justice Society Kingdom Come Special: Superman;
Justice Society Kingdom Come Special: Magog; Justice Society Kingdom Come Special: The Kingdom
|6||Black Adam and Isis||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #23–28||September 2009
|7||The Bad Seed||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #29–33||May 2010||978-1401227142 (TPB)|
|8||Axis of Evil||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #34–40||December 2010||978-1401229016 (TPB)|
|9||Justice League of America: The Dark Things||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #41–42; Justice League of America vol. 2 #44–48||March 2011||978-1401230111 (HC)|
|10||Justice League of America: The Rise of Eclipso||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #43; Justice League of America vol. 2 #54–60||October 2012||978-1401234133 (TPB)|
|11||Super Town||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #44–49||September 2011||978-1401232849 (TPB)|
|12||Monument Point||Justice Society of America vol. 3 #50–54, Annual #2||February 21, 2012||978-1401233686 (TPB)|
A new JSA team, the JSA All Stars, spun off from the original and was collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|Constellations||JSA All Stars vol. 2 #1–6||November 2010||978-1401229009|
|Glory Days||JSA All-Stars vol. 2 #7–13||May 2011||978-1401231576|
|The Puzzle Men||JSA All-Stars vol. 2 #14–18||Publishing cancelled||978-1401232979|
The New 52 series Earth 2 was collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Vol. #||Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|1||The Gathering||Earth 2 #1–6||October 2013||978-1401242817|
|2||The Tower of Fate||Earth 2 #0,7–10||April 2014||978-1401246143|
|3||Battle Cry||Earth 2 #13–16, Annual #1||October 2014||978-1401249380|
|4||The Dark Age||Earth 2 #17–20, Annual #2||April 2015||978-1401254179|
|5||The Kryptonian||Earth 2 #21–26, Earth 2: Futures End #1||December 2015||978-1401257576|
|6||Collision||Earth 2 #27-32||December 2015||978-1401257583|
|1||Earth 2: World's End Vol. 1||Earth 2: World's End #1–11||May 2015||978-1401256036|
|2||Earth 2: World's End Vol. 2||Earth 2: World's End #12–26||December 2015||978-1401258443|
|1||Planetfall||Earth 2: Society #1-7||March 2016||978-1401261238|
|2||Indivisible||Earth 2: Society #8-12||August 2016||978-1401264710|
|3||Whole New World||Earth 2: Society #13-16, Earth 2: Society Annual #1||April 2017||978-1401267971|
|4||Life After Death||Earth 2: Society #17-22||August 2017||978-1401271435|
Several JSA miniseries, Elseworlds (non-canon) graphic novels, Silver Age collections, and one-shots were collected in the following trade paperbacks:
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|The Justice Society Returns||All Star Comics vol. 2 #1–2; Adventure Comics vol. 2 #1; All-American Comics vol. 2 #1; National Comics vol. 2 #1;
Golden Age Secret Files #1; JSA Secret Files #1
|JSA: The Liberty Files (Elseworlds)||JSA: The Liberty File #1–2; JSA: The Unholy Three #1–2||April 2004||978-1401202033|
|JSA Liberty Files: The Whistling Skull (Elseworlds)||JSA Liberty Files: The Whistling Skull #1–6||November 2013||978-1401242510|
|JSA All Stars||JSA All Stars #1–8||June 2004||978-1401202194|
|JSA: The Golden Age (Elseworlds)||The Golden Age #1–4||June 2005||978-1401207113|
|Power Girl||JSA #32, #39; JSA: Classified #1–4; Showcase #97–99; Secret Origins vol. 2 #11||June 2006||978-1401209681|
|The Huntress: Darknight Daughter||DC Super Stars #17; Batman Family #18–20; Wonder Woman #271–287, #289–290, #294–295||December 2006||978-1401209131|
|JSA Classified: Honor Among Thieves||JSA: Classified #5–9||January 2007||978-1401212186|
|JSA Presents: Green Lantern||Green Lantern: Brightest Day, Blackest Night (one-shot); JSA: Classified #25, #32–33||September 2008||978-1401219727|
|Doctor Mid-Nite||Doctor Mid-Nite #1–3||April 2009||978-1563896071|
|JSA vs. Kobra||JSA vs. Kobra #1–6||August 2010||978-1401227296|
JSA: The Golden Age
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With The New 52, the JSA was relaunched by writer James Robinson and artist Nicola Scott in the Earth-2 series. Additionally, the Worlds' Finest title featured the Huntress and Power Girl, from the new Earth 2, stranded on the main DC Earth. Worlds' Finest was written by Paul Levitz, and was drawn initially by George Pérez and Kevin Maguire on a rotating basis.
Under James Robinson, Earth 2 featured new versions of the classic Justice Society members, including a young unmarried Jay Garrick, a gay version of Alan Scott, an African-American version of Hawkgirl, and a version of the Atom who was a soldier and possessed powers similar to his protege Atom Smasher where they are members of the Wonders of the World and working for the World Army. The series revolved around an Earth 2 that had been devastated by an invasion from Apokolips, led by Steppenwolf, that ended with Superman, Wonder Woman, and Batman dead and Power Girl and Robin (a.k.a. Helena Wayne a.k.a. the Huntress) exiled on Earth-0. Worlds' Finest dealt with Power Girl and Huntress's quest to return home, and the rescue of Michael Holt who had been exiled to Earth 2 by Desaad, who was now impersonating him on Earth-0. Mister Miracle and Big Barda later joined the cast, with Mister Miracle having just escaped from the villainous Darkseid. His relationship with Barda was strained because of a mutual mistrust as the result of Barda being a former member of the Female Furies.
Robinson quit Earth 2 with issue #16. DC wished to launch a second weekly Earth 2 book to tie into Future's End, which told of a future where Earth 2 is destroyed by Darkseid, and the surviving residents flee to Earth-0 for sanctuary. The tie-in series World's End saw Darkseid terraform Earth 2 into a new Apokolips as the heroes are barely able to get several ships full of survivors off-world.
Robinson's replacement on Earth 2, Tom Taylor, would promptly phase out the Justice Society characters, replacing them with Batman (who was replaced by a still-alive Thomas Wayne using Miraclo), Dick Grayson, Barbara Gordon, Lois Lane (who was dead under Robinson but resurrected by Taylor as the new Red Tornado), and a new Superman named Val-Zod (a black Kryptonian). Power Girl and Huntress would join the cast as well once Worlds' Finest was cancelled.
Several characters from Earth 2 were the main characters of Convergence, which saw them trapped in the war between the imprisoned cities of previous incarnations of the DC Universe. One of the cities was the Pre-Crisis Earth 2 New York City, where the original JSA and Infinity Inc. participated in the war against their fellow heroes and later Telos and Deimos. When the war ended, a repentant Telos sacrificed the last of his energies to stabilize the planet so that the heroes could lead those who escaped Apokolips to it in order to start anew.
The new series Earth 2: Society chronicles the heroes' attempt to recreate Earth on this new world. At one point in issue #11, the Wonders of the World were referred to by Green Lantern in the final scene as the "Justice Society."
On Earth 3, the Justice Society All-Stars is a superhero team and is the good counterpart of the Injustice Society. It consists of Lion-Miss (an Earth 3 amalgam of Cheetah and Lion-Mane), Pinkerton Ghost (Earth 3's version of Gentleman Ghost), Matter Mage (Earth 3's version of Matter Master), and Shadow Sheriff (Earth 3's version of Shadow Thief).
Injustice: Year Zero
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In other media
- A Justice League two-part episode titled "Legends" pays homage to the Justice Society, with a team of imaginary comic book superheroes in a perfect world. The team was called the Justice Guild of America. The members are Green Guardsman (who is based on the Green Lantern), Streak (who is based on Flash), Black Siren (who is based on Black Canary), Catman (who is based on Wildcat with elements of the Golden Age Batman), and Tom Turbine (who is based on the Atom with elements of the Golden Age Superman). Green Lantern states that comic books about the adventures of the Justice Guild taught him to be a hero. It is later revealed that the Guild died in 1962 in a nuclear war that devastated Seaboard City. For the past 40 years, a boy mutated by the radiation named Ray Thompson has used his mental powers to make them appear alive. The Justice Guild sacrifice themselves to restore reality. According to the writers, the creative team originally intended to use the JSA for the episode, but DC Comics declined as their portrayal clashed with their comic counterparts' post-Crisis on Infinite Earths portrayal.
- Many members of the JSA have been featured in Justice League Unlimited including Black Canary (Dinah Laurel Lance), Johnny Thunder, Hawkman (Carter Hall), Doctor Fate (Kent Nelson), Atom Smasher, Stargirl and S.T.R.I.P.E., Sand, Mister Terrific (Michael Holt), Doctor Mid-Nite (Charles McNider), Wildcat, Obsidian, and Hourman (Rick Tyler). Stargirl and Mister Terrific are the two with the most exposure. Stargirl has a speaking part in at least two episodes while Mister Terrific takes over Martian Manhunter's job of manning the Watchtower. Wildcat is prominently featured in one episode "Cat and the Canary". A version of Power Girl appears as Galatea and Jay Garrick's helmet can be seen in the episode "Flash and Substance." Hawkman appears in the series and believes that he and Hawkgirl are reincarnations of a king and queen of Egypt.
- A few members of the Justice Society have appeared in various episodes of Batman: The Brave and the Bold including Flash, Wildcat, and Doctor Fate. The Justice Society appear in the episode "Golden Age of Justice", with members including Flash, Wildcat, Hourman, Doctor Mid-Nite, and Hawkman. It is revealed that they tutored Batman during his early superhero days. In the present day, Batman helps them when an old foe Per Degaton comes out of stasis. A flashback reveals that the original Black Canary was a member until she died during a mission to save people from a burning building. Before the original Black Canary died, she told Wildcat to watch over her daughter. The Justice Society appears in "The Siege of Starro! Part One", fighting Per Degaton's army of robots in Washington, D.C. The flashback reveals that Doctor Fate was a member of the Justice Society. The Justice Society later appears in "Crisis: 22,300 Miles Above Earth!" with the Spectre, Doctor Fate, the Flash, Wildcat, Mister Terrific, Sandman, Starman, and Green Lantern now shown as the featured members. They arrive at the Justice League Satellite in order to have a party with the Justice League International, but instead fight their youthful counterparts. Both teams end up working together to combat Ra's al Ghul.
- Several members of the JSA appear in Young Justice. According to the show's producers, most of the original JSA members are either dead or retired by the time the series takes place. The team itself appears in a flashback sequence in the episode "Humanity" with a lineup consisting of Green Lantern, Flash, Sandman, Wildcat, Doctor Fate and Red Tornado. Firebrand was a member for a short time as well before she was revealed to be an android created by T.O. Morrow.
- The Justice Society of America was featured in Season 9 of Smallville, during the two-hour dual episode/television movie Absolute Justice (the episode was written by Geoff Johns, who wrote the episode Legion, which introduced the Legion of Super-Heroes). The episode featured JSA members Hawkman (played by Michael Shanks), Doctor Fate (Brent Stait), and Stargirl (Britt Irvin). Several other members appear briefly, or in flashback, including the original Star-Spangled Kid, Sandman, Wildcat, the Flash, the Atom, Green Lantern, and Red Tornado. Hawkgirl, Hourman, Doctor Mid-Nite, Mister Terrific, Spectre, and the original Black Canary, appear in a painted group portrait. The JSA are portrayed much like their post-Crisis incarnation as an earlier generation of superheroes who have re-emerged to aid the new superheroes, having been forced to retire when the government tried to take control of the JSA after determining their real identities. Hawkman and Stargirl both appear in additional episodes in Seasons 9 and 10, with Hawkman sacrificing himself in the tenth season mid-finale to save Lois Lane from Slade Wilson.
- The Justice Society of America appears in The CW's Arrowverse show Legends of Tomorrow as a World War II-era team. In the season one finale, Rex Tyler appears, introducing himself as a member of the Justice Society. The team appears in the second season premiere and is featured in the self-titled second episode. The team is made up of Tyler, Commander Steel, Obsidian, Stargirl, Vixen – an ancestor of the modern day Vixen – and Doctor Mid-Nite. In 1942, the JSA works with the time-traveling Legends to stop a group of Nazis after they obtain a super-power granting serum from Eobard Thawne. After his plan is foiled, Thawne kills Tyler, leading to Vixen joins the Legends to avenge his death. In 1956, the JSA became inactive when everyone but Obsidian were believed to be killed during a covert mission. In reality, they recovered the Spear of Destiny, a powerful artifact with the ability to rewrite reality, with the help of Time Master Rip Hunter. After recovering the Spear, Hunter transports Stargirl, Commander Steel, and Doctor Mid-Nite to Camelot in 507, Manhattan in 1965, and Detroit in 3000, respectively, to guard fragments of the Spear to prevent its reassembly. However, the Legion of Doom brainwashes Hunter into joining them and recovering each fragment, killing Mid-Nite and Steel deaths in the process.
- Two iterations of the Justice Society of America appeared in the DC Universe series Stargirl.
- The original line-up consists of Starman, Doctor Fate, Doctor Mid-Nite, the Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Hawkgirl, Hourman, Johnny Thunder and Thunderbolt, Sandman and Wildcat. 10 years ago prior as seen in the pilot episode, the Justice Society was attacked by the Injustice Society. When Pat Dugan arrived, most of the team had been killed and he only had time to evacuate a fatally wounded Starman. Before he died, the latter told the former to find someone worthy of the Cosmic Staff to keep the JSA's legacy alive.
- By the present day, Courtney Whitmore finds the Cosmic Staff, becomes Stargirl, and rebuilds the Justice Society with Pat as S.T.R.I.P.E. and her friends Yolanda Montez, Beth Chapel and Rick Tyler as the new Wildcat, Doctor Mid-Nite, and Hourman respectively.
- Ahead of the series premiere, Stargirl's iteration of the JSA made a cameo appearance in the Arrowverse crossover event "Crisis on Infinite Earths" which used footage from the Stargirl episode "The Justice Society."
- The JSA appears in the opening credits of the 2008 animated film Justice League: The New Frontier. In this story, Hourman has apparently been killed and the Justice Society have retired. Ted Grant has retired as a crime fighter, but is still a professional boxer. Additional members shown are Green Lantern, Flash, Black Canary, Hawkman, and Doctor Mid-Nite.
- The JSA will appear in the upcoming Black Adam film set in the DC Extended Universe as confirmed by Dwayne Johnson. The team will consist of Hawkman, Doctor Fate, Cyclone, and Atom Smasher (Noah Centineo).
- The Illuminerdi reported that a JSA movie is in development by the studio.
- During DC Fandom's Superman: Man of Tomorrow panel, ING announced a upcoming direct-to-video movie titled Justice Society: World War II for a Spring 2021 release as part of the DC Universe Animated Original Movies.
- The JSA makes an appearance in the Hall of Justice level in Injustice: Gods Among Us. In the trophy room, there are displays of members Doctor Mid-Nite, Sandman, Wildcat, and Doctor Fate.
- Doctor Fate and Jay Garrick are playable characters in Injustice 2. They reference the Society in their interactions. While being an alternative skin for Barry Allen, Jay also mentions working with Black Canary's mother in the Justice Society of America.
- The Catalog of Copyright Entries 1940 Periodicals Jan–Dec New Series Vol 35 Pt 2. Washington, D.C.: United States Copyright Office. 1940. p. 373.
- "All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940–1941)". Grand Comics Database.
- Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1940s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
DC took the 'greatest hits' premise of the comic to its logical conclusion in All Star Comics #3 by teaming the Flash, the Atom, Doctor Fate, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Hourman, Sandman, and the Spectre under the banner of the Justice Society of America for an ongoing series.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Levitz, Paul (2010). "The Golden Age 1938–1956". 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. p. 56. ISBN 9783836519816.
Mayer and Fox cooked up one of the biggest ideas in superhero history: What if the varied stars of All-Star Comics actually met and worked together?
- Markstein, Don (2010). "The Justice Society of America". Don Markstein's Toonopedia.
- Daniels, Les (1995). DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York, New York: Bulfinch Press. p. 54. ISBN 0821220764.
- Thomas, Roy (2000). All-Star Companion Volume 1. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 978-1893905054.
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 40: "Wonder Woman...took the lead in Sensation Comics following a sneak preview in All Star Comics #8."
- Pasko, Martin (2008). The DC Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the DC Universe. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0762432578.
- Morrissey, Richard (August 1981). "The Justice Society of America". Amazing Heroes. Fantagraphics Books (3): 36.
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 55: "Gardner Fox penned his last story about the Justice Society of America in this issue. The writer...introduced an ill-tempered illusionist called the Wizard."
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 56: "In Robert Kanigher's story...a cabal of villains united as the Injustice Society of the World and took revenge on the JSA's assembled do-gooders."
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 57: "Black Canary made her first appearance outside of Flash Comics in a feature by writer Robert Kanigher and artist Alex Toth...By the story's end, Black Canary was considered for JSA membership but wouldn't officially join until All Star Comics #41."
- Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 66: "As superhero comics continued to decline in popularity, many of them mutated into Western, crime, and horror titles. The superhero omnibus All Star Comics was one such series, becoming All-Star Western as of issue #58."
- Thomas, Roy (December 11, 2006). "From All-Star Companion v. 2 – Where There's a 'Will' — There's 'William Wilson'!". Newsarama. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
- Reid, Jeff (May 2, 2012). "DC Histories: Justice Society of America". IFanboy. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015.
- Booker, M. Keith (2010). Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 19. ISBN 978-0313357466.
- Markstein, Don (2010). "All-Star Squadron". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012.
- Jimenez, Phil (2004). "JSA Headquarters". In Dougall, Alastair (ed.). The DC Comics Encyclopedia. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 132. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5. OCLC 213309017.
- Eury, Michael (2005). The Justice League Companion. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 1-893905-48-9.
- McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 103: "This classic Silver Age story resurrected the Golden Age Flash and provided a foundation for the Multiverse from which he and the Silver Age Flash would hail."
- Morrissey p. 37
- Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Crisis on Earth-One!" Justice League of America 21 (August 1963)
- Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Crisis on Earth-Two!" Justice League of America 22 (September 1963)
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 109: "The two-part 'Crisis on Earth-One!' and 'Crisis on Earth-Two!' saga represented the first use of the term 'Crisis' in crossovers, as well as the designations 'Earth-1' and 'Earth-2'. In it editor Julius Schwartz, [writer Gardner] Fox, and artist Mike Sekowsky devised a menace worthy of the World's Greatest Heroes."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 112: "Writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky crafted a tale in which the Crime Syndicate...ambushed the JLA on Earth-1."
- Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Crisis on Earth-Three" Justice League of America 29 (August 1964)
- Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "The Most Dangerous Earth of All" Justice League of America 30 (September 1964)
- Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe (i). "The Unknown Soldier of Victory!" Justice League of America 100 (August 1972)
- Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe (i). "The Hand That Shook the World" Justice League of America 101 (September 1972)
- Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe; Giordano, Dick (i). "..And One of Us Must Die!" Justice League of America 102 (October 1972)
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 156 "The annual Justice League-Justice Society get-together resulted in scribe Len Wein and artist Dick Dillin transporting both teams to the alternate reality of Earth-X. There, Nazi Germany ruled after winning a prolonged World War II and only a group of champions called the Freedom Fighters remained to oppose the regime."
- Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Crisis on Earth-X!" Justice League of America 107 (September–October 1973)
- Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Thirteen Against the Earth!" Justice League of America 108 (November–December 1973)
- Morrissey pp. 37–38
- DC Editorial (April 28, 2015). "Convergence Confidential: Detective Comics". DC Comics. DC Comics. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
- "Only Legends Live Forever!" Adventure Comics 462 ((Mar 1979)), DC Comics
- Wells, John (October 24, 1997), "'Lost' DC: The DC Implosion", Comics Buyer's Guide, Iola, Wisconsin (1249), pp. 131–132,
The contents of All-Star Comics #75 were split into a two-part Justice Society story published in Adventure Comics #461–462.
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 169: "Along with artist Ric Estrada, [Gerry] Conway also introduced the DC Universe to the cousin of Earth-2's Superman, Kara Zor-L a.k.a. Power Girl."
- Conway, Gerry (w), Estrada, Ric (p), Wood, Wally (i). "The Super Squad!" All Star Comics 58 (February 1976)
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 175: "The genesis of comics' first superhero team...had been a mystery since the JSA's debut...Writer Paul Levitz and artist Joe Staton decided to present the definitive origin story."
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 175: "While writer Paul Levitz and artist Joe Staton introduced the Huntress to the JSA in this month's All Star Comics #69, they concurrently shaped her origin in DC Super-Stars."
- "DC Super Stars #17". Grand Comic Database. Archived from the original on September 18, 2016.
- Morrissey p. 45 "[Paul] Levitz had announced his intention to have the JSA members age naturally."
- Neumann, Caryn E.; Jones, Norma, ed.; Batchelor, Bob, ed. (2015). "Babes and Crones: Women Growing Old in Comics". Aging Heroes: Growing Old in Popular Culture. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-1442250062.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Thomas, Roy; Thomas, Dann (w), Ordway, Jerry; Hoberg, Rick; Buckler, Rich; Boring, Wayne; Howell, Richard; Infantino, Carmine; Newton, Don; Nodell, Martin; Pérez, George; Giffen, Keith (p), Ordway, Jerry; Howell, Richard; Giacoia, Frank; Machlan, Mike; Giella, Joe; Giffen, Keith; Collins, Bill (i). "Midnight in Manhattan-- Late February 1942" All-Star Squadron Annual 3 (1984)
- Bridwell, E. Nelson; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in Eternity!" Justice League of America 135 (October 1976)
- Bridwell, E. Nelson; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on Earth-S!" Justice League of America 136 (November 1976)
- Bridwell, E. Nelson; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in Tomorrow!" Justice League of America 137 (December 1976)
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 182: "Writer Gerry Conway and artist Dick Dillin crafted a tale of foul play aboard the JLA satellite, during the team's annual get-together with Earth-2's JSA. Mr. Terrific...was murdered before he could expose a turncoat among the heroes."
- Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "The Murderer Among Us: Crisis Above Earth-One!" Justice League of America 171 (October 1979)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "I Accuse..." Justice League of America 172 (November 1979)
- Thomas, Roy; Conway, Gerry (w), Patton, Chuck (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Crisis in the Thunderbolt Dimension!" Justice League of America 219 (October 1983)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Patton, Chuck (p), Tanghal, Romeo; Marcos, Pablo (i). "The Doppelganger Gambit" Justice League of America 220 (November 1983)
- Levitz, Paul; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in the 30th Century!" Justice League of America 147 (October 1977)
- Levitz, Paul; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in Triplicate!" Justice League of America 148 (November 1977)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on New Genesis or "Where Have All the New Gods Gone?"" Justice League of America 183 (October 1980)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). ""Crisis Between Two Earths" or Apokolips Now!" Justice League of America 184 (November 1980)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on Apokolips or Darkseid Rising!" Justice League of America 185 (December 1980)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), Beatty, John (i). "Targets on Two Worlds" Justice League of America 195 (October 1981)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Countdown to Crisis!" Justice League of America 196 (November 1981)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Pollard, Keith; Pérez, George (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Crisis in Limbo!" Justice League of America 197 (December 1981)
- Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 198: "The Justice League of America teamed up with the Justice Society of America on a large-scale with 'Crisis on Earth-Prime', a five-part saga that crossed from the pages of Justice League of America into All-Star Squadron."
- Conway, Gerry (w), Heck, Don (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Crisis Times Three!" Justice League of America 207 (October 1982)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Gonzales, Adrian (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "The "Mystery Men" of October!" All-Star Squadron 14 (October 1982)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Heck, Don (p), Trapani, Sal (i). "The Bomb-Blast Heard 'Round the World!" Justice League of America 208 (November 1982)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Gonzales, Adrian (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "Master of Worlds and Time!" All-Star Squadron 15 (November 1982)
- Conway, Gerry (w), Heck, Don (p), Heck, Don (i). "Let Old Acquaintances Be Forgot..." Justice League of America 209 (December 1982)
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 203: The children of the original Justice Society of America made their smash debut in this issue by writer Roy Thomas and penciler Jerry Ordway...All-Star Squadron #25 marked the first appearances of future cult-favorite heroes Jade, Obsidian, Fury, Brainwave Jr., the Silver Scarab, Northwind, and Nuklon."
- "Rich Buckler". Lambiek Comiclopedia. December 6, 2015. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015.
Buckler launched All-Star Squadron with Roy Thomas in 1981.
- "Jerry Ordway". Lambiek Comiclopedia. August 27, 2010. Archived from the original on September 27, 2015.
His art credits include...All-Star Squadron.
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He then worked for DC for a while, pencilling titles like All-Star Squadron and Infinity, Inc. until 1987.
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DC Comics publisher Paul Levitz had some concerns with the story. He felt the story as written disrespected the JSA and was overall an inappropriate use of the characters.
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