Roane was born in Essex County, Virginia to politician John Roane. After completing preparatory studies, Roane attended Rumford Academy in King William County, Virginia and later Princeton College in New Jersey, but did not graduate. He engaged in agricultural pursuits and served as a private in the Fourth Regiment of the Virginia Militia during the War of 1812. He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1820 to 1823 and was later elected a Jacksonian to the United States House of Representatives in 1830, succeeding his father, serving from 1831 to 1833. Roane was a clerk in the United States Patent Office from 1836 to 1851 and a special agent for the United States Treasury Department from 1855 to 1867. He died in Washington D.C. on December 18, 1869 and was interred there at Glenwood Cemetery.
- Bailey, Morgan & Taylor 1986, p. 1816.
- Bailey, N. Louise; Morgan, Mary L.; Taylor, Carolyn R. (1986). Biographical Directory of the South Carolina Senate: 1776-1985. Volume 1. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0872494799.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- United States Congress. "John J. Roane (id: R000292)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- John J. Roane at Find a Grave
- John J. Roane at The Political Graveyard
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 12th congressional district
March 4, 1831 – March 3, 1833 (obsolete district)
William F. Gordon
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