|Birth name||John William Coltrane|
|Born||September 23, 1926|
Hamlet, North Carolina, U.S.
|Died||July 17, 1967 (aged 40)|
Huntington, New York, U.S.
John William Coltrane (September 23, 1926 – July 17, 1967) was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Working in the bebop and hard bop idioms early in his career, Coltrane helped pioneer the use of modes and was at the forefront of free jazz. He led at least fifty recording sessions and appeared on many albums by other musicians, including trumpeter Miles Davis and pianist Thelonious Monk. Over the course of his career, Coltrane's music took on an increasingly spiritual dimension. He remains one of the most influential saxophonists in music history. He received numerous posthumous awards, including a Pulitzer Prize in 2007, and was canonized by the African Orthodox Church. His second wife was pianist and harpist Alice Coltrane. The couple had three children: John Jr. (1964–1982), a bassist; Ravi (born 1965), a saxophonist; and Oran (born 1967), also a saxophonist.
1926–1954: Early life and career
Coltrane was born in his parents' apartment at 200 Hamlet Avenue in Hamlet, North Carolina, on September 23, 1926. His father was John R. Coltrane and his mother was Alice Blair. He grew up in High Point, North Carolina and attended William Penn High School. Beginning in December 1938, his father, aunt, and grandparents died within a few months of each other, leaving him to be raised by his mother and a close cousin. In June 1943, he moved to Philadelphia. In September, his mother bought him his first saxophone, an alto. He played clarinet and alto horn in a community band before beginning alto saxophone in high school. From early to mid-1945 he had his first professional work: a "cocktail lounge trio" with piano and guitar.
To avoid being drafted by the Army, Coltrane enlisted in the Navy on August 6, 1945, the day the first U.S. atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. He was trained as an apprentice seaman at Sampson Naval Training Station in upstate New York before he was shipped to Pearl Harbor, where he was stationed at Manana Barracks, the largest posting of African-American servicemen in the world. By the time he got to Hawaii in late 1945, the Navy was downsizing. Coltrane's musical talent was recognized, and he became one of the few Navy men to serve as a musician without having been granted musician's rating when he joined the Melody Masters, the base swing band. As the Melody Masters was an all-white band, however, Coltrane was treated merely as a guest performer to avoid alerting superior officers of his participation in the band. He continued to perform other duties when not playing with the band, including kitchen and security details. By the end of his service, he had assumed a leadership role in the band. His first recordings, an informal session in Hawaii with Navy musicians, occurred on July 13, 1946. He played alto saxophone on a selection of jazz standards and bebop tunes. He was officially discharged from the Navy on August 8, 1946. He was awarded the Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal, American Campaign Medal, and the World War II Victory Medal.
After being discharged from the Navy as a seaman first class in August 1946, Coltrane returned to Philadelphia, where he "plunged into the heady excitement of the new music and the blossoming bebop scene." After touring with King Kolax, he joined a band led by Jimmy Heath, who was introduced to Coltrane's playing by his former Navy buddy, trumpeter William Massey, who had played with Coltrane in the Melody Masters. He studied jazz theory with guitarist and composer Dennis Sandole and continued under Sandole's tutelage through the early 1950s. Although he started on alto saxophone, he began playing tenor saxophone in 1947 with Eddie Vinson.
Coltrane called this a time when "a wider area of listening opened up for me. There were many things that people like Hawk [Coleman Hawkins], and Ben [Webster] and Tab Smith were doing in the '40s that I didn't understand, but that I felt emotionally." A significant influence, according to tenor saxophonist Odean Pope, was the Philadelphia pianist, composer, and theorist Hasaan Ibn Ali. "Hasaan was the clue to...the system that Trane uses. Hasaan was the great influence on Trane's melodic concept." Coltrane became fanatical about practicing and developing his craft, practicing "25 hours a day" according to Jimmy Heath. Heath recalls an incident in a hotel in San Francisco when after a complaint was issued, Coltrane took the horn out of his mouth and practiced fingering for a full hour. Such was his dedication it was common for him to fall asleep with the horn still in his mouth or practice a single note for hours on end.
An important moment in the progression of Coltrane's musical development occurred on June 5, 1945, when he saw Charlie Parker perform for the first time. In a DownBeat magazine article in 1960 he recalled, "the first time I heard Bird play, it hit me right between the eyes." Parker became an idol, and they played together occasionally in the late 1940s. He was a member of groups led by Dizzy Gillespie, Earl Bostic, and Johnny Hodges in the early to mid-1950s.
1955–1957: Miles and Monk period
In 1955, Coltrane was freelancing in Philadelphia while studying with guitarist Dennis Sandole when he received a call from trumpeter Miles Davis. Davis had been successful in the 40s, but his reputation and work had been damaged in part by heroin addiction; he was again active and about to form a quintet. Coltrane was with this edition of the Davis band (known as the "First Great Quintet"—along with Red Garland on piano, Paul Chambers on bass, and Philly Joe Jones on drums) from October 1955 to April 1957 (with a few absences). During this period Davis released several influential recordings that revealed the first signs of Coltrane's growing ability. This quintet, represented by two marathon recording sessions for Prestige in 1956, resulted in the albums Cookin', Relaxin', Workin', and Steamin'. The "First Great Quintet" disbanded due in part to Coltrane's heroin addiction.
During the later part of 1957 Coltrane worked with Thelonious Monk at New York's Five Spot Café, and played in Monk's quartet (July–December 1957), but, owing to contractual conflicts, took part in only one official studio recording session with this group. Coltrane recorded many albums for Prestige under his own name at this time, but Monk refused to record for his old label. A private recording made by Juanita Naima Coltrane of a 1958 reunion of the group was issued by Blue Note Records as Live at the Five Spot—Discovery! in 1993. A high quality tape of a concert given by this quartet in November 1957 was also found later, and was released by Blue Note in 2005. Recorded by Voice of America, the performances confirm the group's reputation, and the resulting album, Thelonious Monk Quartet with John Coltrane at Carnegie Hall, is widely acclaimed.
Blue Train, Coltrane's sole date as leader for Blue Note, featuring trumpeter Lee Morgan, bassist Paul Chambers, and trombonist Curtis Fuller, is often considered his best album from this period. Four of its five tracks are original Coltrane compositions, and the title track, "Moment's Notice", and "Lazy Bird", have become standards. Both tunes employed the first examples of his chord substitution cycles known as Coltrane changes.
1958: Davis and Coltrane
Coltrane rejoined Davis in January 1958. In October of that year, jazz critic Ira Gitler coined the term "sheets of sound" to describe the style Coltrane developed with Monk and was perfecting in Davis's group, now a sextet. His playing was compressed, with rapid runs cascading in hundreds of notes per minute. Coltrane recalled: "I found that there were a certain number of chord progressions to play in a given time, and sometimes what I played didn't work out in eighth notes, sixteenth notes, or triplets. I had to put the notes in uneven groups like fives and sevens in order to get them all in."
Coltrane stayed with Davis until April 1960, working with alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley; pianists Red Garland, Bill Evans, and Wynton Kelly; bassist Paul Chambers; and drummers Philly Joe Jones and Jimmy Cobb. During this time he participated in the Davis sessions Milestones and Kind of Blue, and the concert recordings Miles & Monk at Newport (1963) and Jazz at the Plaza (1958).
1959–1961: Period with Atlantic Records
At the end of this period Coltrane recorded Giant Steps (1959), his first album as leader for Atlantic which contained only his compositions. The album's title track is generally considered to have one of the most difficult chord progressions of any widely played jazz composition. Its altered chord progression cycles came to be known as Coltrane changes. His development of these cycles led to further experimentation with improvised melody and harmony that he continued throughout his career.
Coltrane formed his first quartet for live performances in 1960 for an appearance at the Jazz Gallery in New York City. After moving through different personnel, including Steve Kuhn, Pete La Roca, and Billy Higgins, he kept pianist McCoy Tyner, bassist Steve Davis, and drummer Elvin Jones. Tyner, a native of Philadelphia, had been a friend of Coltrane for some years, and the two men had an understanding that Tyner would join the band when he felt ready. My Favorite Things (1961) was the first album recorded by this band. It was Coltrane's first album on soprano saxophone, which he began practicing while with Miles Davis. It was considered an unconventional move because the instrument was not as popular in jazz as other types of saxophone.
1961–1962: First years with Impulse Records
In May 1961, Coltrane's contract with Atlantic was bought by Impulse!. The move to Impulse! meant that Coltrane resumed his recording relationship with engineer Rudy Van Gelder, who had recorded his and Davis's sessions for Prestige. He recorded most of his albums for Impulse! at Van Gelder's studio in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
By early 1961, bassist Davis had been replaced by Reggie Workman, while Eric Dolphy joined the group as a second horn. The quintet had a celebrated and extensively recorded residency at the Village Vanguard, which demonstrated Coltrane's new direction. It included the most experimental music he had played, influenced by Indian ragas, modal jazz, and free jazz. John Gilmore, a longtime saxophonist with musician Sun Ra, was particularly influential; after hearing a Gilmore performance, Coltrane is reported to have said, "He's got it! Gilmore's got the concept!" The most celebrated of the Vanguard tunes, the 15-minute blues "Chasin' the 'Trane", was strongly inspired by Gilmore's music.
Starting in 1961, Coltrane also began pairing Workman with a second bassist, usually Art Davis or Donald Garrett. Garrett recalled playing a tape for Coltrane where "...I was playing with another bass player. We were doing some things rhythmically, and Coltrane became excited about the sound. We got the same kind of sound you get from the East Indian water drum. One bass remains in the lower register and is the stabilizing, pulsating thing, while the other bass is free to improvise, like the right hand would be on the drum. So Coltrane liked the idea." Coltrane also recalled: "I thought another bass would add that certain rhythmic sound. We were playing a lot of stuff with a sort of suspended rhythm, with one bass playing a series of notes around one point, and it seemed that another bass could fill in the spaces..." According to Eric Dolphy, one night "Wilbur Ware came in and up on the stand so they had three basses going. John and I got off the stand and listened..." Coltrane employed two basses on the 1961 albums Olé Coltrane and Africa/Brass, and later on The John Coltrane Quartet Plays and Ascension.
During this period, critics were divided in their estimation of Coltrane, who had radically altered his style. Audiences, too, were perplexed; in France he was booed during his final tour with Davis. In 1961, Down Beat magazine called Coltrane and Dolphy players of "anti-jazz" in an article that bewildered and upset the musicians. Coltrane admitted some of his early solos were based mostly on technical ideas. Furthermore, Dolphy's angular, voice-like playing earned him a reputation as a figurehead of the "New Thing", also known as free jazz, a movement led by Ornette Coleman which was denigrated by some jazz musicians (including Davis) and critics. But as Coltrane's style developed, he was determined to make every performance "a whole expression of one's being".
1962–1965: Classic Quartet period
In 1962, Dolphy departed and Jimmy Garrison replaced Workman as bassist. From then on, the "Classic Quartet", as it came to be known, with Tyner, Garrison, and Jones, produced searching, spiritually driven work. Coltrane was moving toward a more harmonically static style that allowed him to expand his improvisations rhythmically, melodically, and motivically. Harmonically complex music was still present, but on stage Coltrane heavily favored continually reworking his "standards": "Impressions", "My Favorite Things", and "I Want to Talk About You".
The criticism of the quintet with Dolphy may have affected Coltrane. In contrast to the radicalism of his 1961 recordings at the Village Vanguard, his studio albums in the following two years (with the exception of Coltrane, 1962, which featured a blistering version of Harold Arlen's "Out of This World") were much more conservative. He recorded an album of ballads and participated in album collaborations with Duke Ellington and singer Johnny Hartman, a baritone who specialized in ballads. The album Ballads (recorded 1961–62) is emblematic of Coltrane's versatility, as the quartet shed new light on old-fashioned standards such as "It's Easy to Remember". Despite a more polished approach in the studio, in concert the quartet continued to balance "standards" and its own more exploratory and challenging music, as can be heard on the Impressions (recorded 1961–63), Live at Birdland and Newport '63 (both recorded 1963). Impressions consists of two extended jams including the title track along with "Dear Old Stockholm", "After the Rain" and a blues. Coltrane later said he enjoyed having a "balanced catalogue."
On March 6, 1963, the group entered Van Gelder Studio in New Jersey and recorded a session that was lost for decades after its master tape was destroyed by Impulse Records to cut down on storage space. On June 29, 2018, Impulse! released Both Directions at Once: The Lost Album, made up of seven tracks made from a spare copy Coltrane had given to his wife. On March 7, 1963, they were joined in the studio by Hartman for the recording of six tracks for the John Coltrane and Johnny Hartman album, released that July.
The Classic Quartet produced their best-selling album, A Love Supreme, in December 1964. A culmination of much of Coltrane's work up to this point, this four-part suite is an ode to his faith in and love for God. These spiritual concerns characterized much of Coltrane's composing and playing from this point onwards—as can be seen from album titles such as Ascension, Om and Meditations. The fourth movement of A Love Supreme, "Psalm", is, in fact, a musical setting for an original poem to God written by Coltrane, and printed in the album's liner notes. Coltrane plays almost exactly one note for each syllable of the poem, and bases his phrasing on the words. The album was composed at Coltrane's home in Dix Hills on Long Island.
The quartet played A Love Supreme live only once—in July 1965 at a concert in Antibes, France. A recording of this concert was released by Impulse! in 2002 on the remastered Deluxe Edition of A Love Supreme, and again in 2015 on the "Super Deluxe Edition" of The Complete Masters.
1965: Avant-garde jazz and the second quartet
In his late period, Coltrane showed an interest in the avant-garde jazz of Ornette Coleman, Albert Ayler, and Sun Ra. He was especially influenced by the dissonance of Ayler's trio with bassist Gary Peacock, who had worked with Paul Bley, and drummer Sunny Murray, whose playing was honed with Cecil Taylor as leader. Coltrane championed many young free jazz musicians such as Archie Shepp, and under his influence Impulse! became a leading free jazz label.
After A Love Supreme was recorded, Ayler's style became more prominent in Coltrane's music. A series of recordings with the Classic Quartet in the first half of 1965 show Coltrane's playing becoming abstract, with greater incorporation of devices like multiphonics, use of overtones, and playing in the altissimo register, as well as a mutated return of Coltrane's sheets of sound. In the studio, he all but abandoned soprano saxophone to concentrate on tenor. The quartet responded by playing with increasing freedom. The group's evolution can be traced through the albums The John Coltrane Quartet Plays, Living Space, Transition, New Thing at Newport, Sun Ship, and First Meditations.
In June 1965, he went into Van Gelder's studio with ten other musicians (including Shepp, Pharoah Sanders, Freddie Hubbard, Marion Brown, and John Tchicai) to record Ascension, a 38-minute piece that included solos by young avant-garde musicians. The album was controversial primarily for the collective improvisation sections that separated the solos. After recording with the quartet over the next few months, Coltrane invited Sanders to join the band in September 1965. While Coltrane frequently used overblowing as an emotional exclamation-point, Sanders "was involved in the search for 'human' sounds on his instrument," employing "a tone which blasted like a blow torch" and drastically expanding the vocabulary of his horn by employing multiphonics, growling, and "high register squeals [that] could imitate not only the human song but the human cry and shriek as well." Regarding Coltrane's decision to add Sanders to the band, Gary Giddins wrote "Those who had followed Coltrane to the edge of the galaxy now had the added challenge of a player who appeared to have little contact with earth."
1965–1967: Adding to the quartet
By late 1965, Coltrane was regularly augmenting his group with Sanders and other free jazz musicians. Rashied Ali joined the group as a second drummer. This was the end of the quartet. Claiming he was unable to hear himself over the two drummers, Tyner left the band shortly after the recording of Meditations. Jones left in early 1966, dissatisfied by sharing drumming duties with Ali and stating that, concerning Coltrane's latest music, "only poets can understand it". In interviews, Tyner and Jones both voiced their displeasure with the music's direction; however, they would incorporate some of the intensity of free jazz in their solo work. Later, both musicians expressed tremendous respect for Coltrane: regarding his late music, Jones stated: "Well, of course it's far out, because this is a tremendous mind that's involved, you know. You wouldn't expect Einstein to be playing jacks, would you?" Tyner recalled: "He was constantly pushing forward. He never rested on his laurels, he was always looking for what's next... he was always searching, like a scientist in a lab, looking for something new, a different direction... He kept hearing these sounds in his head..." Jones and Tyner both recorded tributes to Coltrane, Tyner with Echoes of a Friend (1972) and Blues for Coltrane: A Tribute to John Coltrane (1987), and Jones with Live in Japan 1978: Dear John C. (1978) and Tribute to John Coltrane "A Love Supreme" (1994).
There is speculation that in 1965 Coltrane began using LSD, informing the "cosmic" transcendence of his late period. Nat Hentoff wrote: "it is as if he and Sanders were speaking with 'the gift of tongues' - as if their insights were of such compelling force that they have to transcend ordinary ways of musical speech and ordinary textures to be able to convey that part of the essence of being they have touched." After the departure of Tyner and Jones, Coltrane led a quintet with Sanders on tenor saxophone, his second wife Alice Coltrane on piano, Garrison on bass, and Ali on drums. When touring, the group was known for playing long versions of their repertoire, many stretching beyond 30 minutes to an hour. In concert, solos by band members often extended beyond fifteen minutes.
The group can be heard on several concert recordings from 1966, including Live at the Village Vanguard Again! and Live in Japan. In 1967, Coltrane entered the studio several times. Although pieces with Sanders have surfaced (the unusual "To Be" has both men on flute), most of the recordings were either with the quartet minus Sanders (Expression and Stellar Regions) or as a duo with Ali. The latter duo produced six performances that appear on the album Interstellar Space.
Coltrane died of liver cancer at the age of 40 on July 17, 1967, at Huntington Hospital on Long Island. His funeral was held four days later at St. Peter's Lutheran Church in New York City. The service was started by the Albert Ayler Quartet and finished by the Ornette Coleman Quartet. Coltrane is buried at Pinelawn Cemetery in Farmingdale, New York.
Biographer Lewis Porter speculated that the cause of Coltrane's illness was hepatitis, although he also attributed the disease to Coltrane's heroin use at a previous period in his life. Frederick J. Spencer wrote that Coltrane's death could be attributed to his needle use "or the bottle, or both." He stated that "[t]he needles he used to inject the drugs may have had everything to do with" Coltrane's liver disease: "If any needle was contaminated with the appropriate hepatitis virus, it may have caused a chronic infection leading to cirrhosis or cancer." He noted that despite Coltrane's "spiritual awakening" in 1957, "[b]y then, he may have had chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis... Unless he developed a primary focus elsewhere in later life and that spread to his liver, the seeds of John Coltrane’s cancer were sown in his days of addiction."
Coltrane's death surprised many in the music community who were unaware of his condition. Miles Davis said, "Coltrane's death shocked everyone, took everyone by surprise. I knew he hadn't looked too good... But I didn't know he was that sick—or even sick at all."
In 1947, when he joined King Kolax's band, Coltrane switched to tenor saxophone, the instrument he became known for playing. In the early 1960s, during his engagement with Atlantic, he played soprano saxophone.
His preference for playing melody higher on the range of the tenor saxophone is attributed to his training on alto horn and clarinet. His "sound concept", manipulated in one's vocal tract, of the tenor was set higher than the normal range of the instrument. Coltrane also noted how his experience playing the soprano saxophone gradually affected his style on the tenor, stating "the soprano, by being this small instrument, I found that playing the lowest note on it was like playing... one of the middle notes in the tenor... I found that I would play all over this instrument... And on tenor, I hadn't always played all over it, because I was playing certain ideas which would just run in certain ranges... By playing on the soprano and becoming accustomed to playing from that low B-flat on up, it soon got so when I went to tenor, I found myself doing the same thing... And this caused... the willingness to change and just try to play... as much of the instrument as possible."
Toward the end of his career, he experimented with flute in his live performances and studio recordings (Live at the Village Vanguard Again!, Expression). After Eric Dolphy died in June 1964, his mother gave Coltrane his flute and bass clarinet.
According to drummer Rashied Ali, Coltrane had an interest in the drums. He would often have a spare drum set on concert stages that he would play. His interest in the drums and his penchant for having solos with the drums resonated on tracks such as "Pursuance" and "The Drum Thing" from A Love Supreme and Crescent, respectively. It resulted in the album Interstellar Space with Ali. In an interview with Nat Hentoff in late 1965 or early 1966, Coltrane stated: "I feel the need for more time, more rhythm all around me. And with more than one drummer, the rhythm can be more multi-directional." In an August 1966 interview with Frank Kofsky, Coltrane repeatedly emphasized his affinity for drums, saying "I feel so strongly about drums, I really do." Later that year, Coltrane would record the music released posthumously on Offering: Live at Temple University, which features Ali on drums supplemented by three percussionists.
Coltrane's tenor (Selmer Mark VI, serial number 125571, dated 1965) and soprano (Selmer Mark VI, serial number 99626, dated 1962) saxophones were auctioned on February 20, 2005 to raise money for the John Coltrane Foundation.
Although he rarely played alto, he owned a prototype Yamaha alto saxophone given to him by the company as an endorsement in 1966. He can be heard playing it on live albums recorded in Japan, such as Second Night in Tokyo, and is pictured using it on the cover of the compilation Live in Japan. He can also be heard playing the Yamaha alto on the album Stellar Regions.
Personal life and religious beliefs
Coltrane was born and raised in a Christian home. He was influenced by religion and spirituality beginning in childhood. His maternal grandfather, the Reverend William Blair, was a minister at an African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in High Point, North Carolina, and his paternal grandfather, the Reverend William H. Coltrane, was an A.M.E. Zion minister in Hamlet, North Carolina. Critic Norman Weinstein noted the parallel between Coltrane's music and his experience in the southern church, which included practicing music there as a youth.
In 1955, Coltrane married Naima (née Juanita Grubbs). Naima Coltrane, a Muslim convert, heavily influenced his spirituality. When they married, she had a five-year-old daughter named Antonia, later named Syeeda. Coltrane adopted Syeeda. He met Naima at the home of bassist Steve Davis in Philadelphia. The love ballad he wrote to honor his wife, "Naima", was Coltrane's favorite composition. In 1956 the couple left Philadelphia with their six-year-old daughter in tow and moved to New York City. In August 1957, Coltrane, Naima and Syeeda moved into an apartment on 103rd St. and Amsterdam Ave. in New York. A few years later, John and Naima Coltrane purchased a home at 116-60 Mexico Street in St. Albans, Queens. This is the house where they would break up in 1963.
About the breakup, Naima said in J. C. Thomas's Chasin' the Trane, "I could feel it was going to happen sooner or later, so I wasn't really surprised when John moved out of the house in the summer of 1963. He didn't offer any explanation. He just told me there were things he had to do, and he left only with his clothes and his horns. He stayed in a hotel sometimes, other times with his mother in Philadelphia. All he said was, 'Naima, I'm going to make a change.' Even though I could feel it coming, it hurt, and I didn't get over it for at least another year." But Coltrane kept a close relationship with Naima, even calling her in 1964 to tell her that 90% of his playing would be prayer. They remained in touch until his death in 1967. Naima Coltrane died of a heart attack in October 1996.
In 1957, Coltrane had a religious experience that may have helped him overcome the heroin addiction and alcoholism he had struggled with since 1948. In the liner notes of A Love Supreme, Coltrane states that in 1957 he experienced "by the grace of God, a spiritual awakening which was to lead me to a richer, fuller, more productive life. At that time, in gratitude, I humbly asked to be given the means and privilege to make others happy through music." The liner notes appear to mention God in a Universalist sense and do not advocate one religion over another. Further evidence of this universal view can be found in the liner notes of Meditations (1965) in which Coltrane declares, "I believe in all religions."
In 1963, he met pianist Alice McLeod. He and Alice moved in together and had two sons before he became "officially divorced from Naima in 1966, at which time [he] and Alice were immediately married." John Jr. was born in 1964, Ravi in 1965, and Oranyan ("Oran") in 1967. According to the musician Peter Lavezzoli, "Alice brought happiness and stability to John's life, not only because they had children, but also because they shared many of the same spiritual beliefs, particularly a mutual interest in Indian philosophy. Alice also understood what it was like to be a professional musician."
After A Love Supreme, many of the titles of his songs and albums had spiritual connotations: Ascension, Meditations, Om, Selflessness, "Amen", "Ascent", "Attaining", "Dear Lord", "Prayer and Meditation Suite", and "The Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost". His collection of books included The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, the Bhagavad Gita, and Paramahansa Yogananda's Autobiography of a Yogi. The last of these describes, in Lavezzoli's words, a "search for universal truth, a journey that Coltrane had also undertaken. Yogananda believed that both Eastern and Western spiritual paths were efficacious, and wrote of the similarities between Krishna and Christ. This openness to different traditions resonated with Coltrane, who studied the Qur'an, the Bible, Kabbalah, and astrology with equal sincerity." He also explored Hinduism, Jiddu Krishnamurti, African history, the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle, and Zen Buddhism.
In October 1965, Coltrane recorded Om, referring to the sacred syllable in Hinduism, which symbolizes the infinite or the entire universe. Coltrane described Om as the "first syllable, the primal word, the word of power". The 29-minute recording contains chants from the Hindu Bhagavad Gita and the Buddhist Tibetan Book of the Dead, and a recitation of a passage describing the primal verbalization "om" as a cosmic/spiritual common denominator in all things.
Coltrane's spiritual journey was interwoven with his investigation of world music. He believed in not only a universal musical structure that transcended ethnic distinctions, but also being able to harness the mystical language of music itself. His study of Indian music led him to believe that certain sounds and scales could "produce specific emotional meanings." According to Coltrane, the goal of a musician was to understand these forces, control them, and elicit a response from the audience. He said, "I would like to bring to people something like happiness. I would like to discover a method so that if I want it to rain, it will start right away to rain. If one of my friends is ill, I'd like to play a certain song and he will be cured; when he'd be broke, I'd bring out a different song and immediately he'd receive all the money he needed."
|Born||September 23, 1926|
Hamlet, North Carolina, US
|Died||July 17, 1967 (aged 40)|
Huntington, New York, US
|Venerated in||African Orthodox Church|
|Canonized||1982, St. John Coltrane Church, 2097 Turk Blvd, San Francisco, CA 94115 by African Orthodox Church|
|Feast||December 8 (AOC)|
After Coltrane's death, a congregation called the Yardbird Temple in San Francisco began worshiping him as God incarnate. The group was named after Charlie Parker, whom they equated to John the Baptist. The congregation became affiliated with the African Orthodox Church; this involved changing Coltrane's status from a god to a saint. The resultant St. John Coltrane African Orthodox Church, San Francisco, is the only African Orthodox church that incorporates Coltrane's music and his lyrics as prayers in its liturgy.
Rev. F. W. King, describing the African Orthodox Church of Saint John Coltrane, said "We are Coltrane-conscious...God dwells in the musical majesty of his sounds."
Samuel G. Freedman wrote in The New York Times that
... the Coltrane church is not a gimmick or a forced alloy of nightclub music and ethereal faith. Its message of deliverance through divine sound is actually quite consistent with Coltrane's own experience and message. ... In both implicit and explicit ways, Coltrane also functioned as a religious figure. Addicted to heroin in the 1950s, he quit cold turkey, and later explained that he had heard the voice of God during his anguishing withdrawal. ... In 1966, an interviewer in Japan asked Coltrane what he hoped to be in five years, and Coltrane replied, "a saint".
Coltrane is depicted as one of the 90 saints in the Dancing Saints icon of St. Gregory of Nyssa Episcopal Church in San Francisco. The icon is a 3,000-square-foot (280 m2) painting in the Byzantine iconographic style that wraps around the entire church rotunda. It was executed by Mark Dukes, an ordained deacon at the Saint John Coltrane African Orthodox Church who painted other icons of Coltrane for the Coltrane Church. Saint Barnabas Episcopal Church in Newark, New Jersey, included Coltrane on its list of historical black saints and made a "case for sainthood" for him in an article on its website.
The discography below lists albums conceived and approved by Coltrane as a leader during his lifetime. It does not include his many releases as a sideman, sessions assembled into albums by various record labels after Coltrane's contract expired, sessions with Coltrane as a sideman later reissued with his name featured more prominently, or posthumous compilations, except for the one he approved before his death. See main discography link above for full list.
Prestige and Blue Note Records
- Coltrane (debut solo LP) (1957)
- Blue Train (1958)
- John Coltrane with the Red Garland Trio (1958)
- Soultrane (1958)
- Africa/Brass (1961)
- Live! at the Village Vanguard (1962)
- Coltrane (1962)
- Duke Ellington & John Coltrane (1963)
- Ballads (1963)
- John Coltrane and Johnny Hartman (1963)
- Impressions (1963)
- Live at Birdland (1964)
- Crescent (1964)
- A Love Supreme (1965)
- The John Coltrane Quartet Plays (1965)
- Ascension (1966)
- New Thing at Newport (1966)
- Meditations (1966)
- Live at the Village Vanguard Again! (1966)
- Kulu Sé Mama (1967)
- Expression (1967)
Awards and honors
In 1965, Coltrane was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame. In 1972, A Love Supreme was certified gold by the RIAA for selling over half a million copies in Japan. This album was certified gold in the United States in 2001. In 1982 he was awarded a posthumous Grammy for Best Jazz Solo Performance on the album Bye Bye Blackbird, and in 1997 he was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante named him one of his 100 Greatest African Americans. He was awarded a special Pulitzer Prize in 2007 citing his "masterful improvisation, supreme musicianship and iconic centrality to the history of jazz." He was inducted into the North Carolina Music Hall of Fame in 2009.
A former home, the John Coltrane House in Philadelphia, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1999. His last home, the John Coltrane Home in the Dix Hills district of Huntington, New York, where he resided from 1964 until his death, was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 29, 2007. Their son Ravi, named after Ravi Shankar, is also a saxophonist.
Chasing Trane: The John Coltrane Documentary, is a 2016 American film directed by John Scheinfeld. Narrated by Denzel Washington, the film chronicles the life of Coltrane in his own words and includes interviews with such admirers as Wynton Marsalis, Sonny Rollins, Bill Clinton, and Cornel West.
- "In 1982, the church officially joined the African Orthodox Church denomination, changed its moniker, and canonized Coltrane as a saint". Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- "The 2007 Pulitzer Prize Winners: Special Awards and Citations". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved June 29, 2009. With reprint of short biography.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. p. 272.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. p. 294.
- Berkman, Franya (2010). Monument Eternal: The Music of Alice Coltrane. Wesleyan University Press. p. 47.
- DeVito et al., p. 1
- DeVito et al., p. 2
- DeVito et al.\, p. 3
- Porter, pp. 15–17
- DeVito et al., p. 5
- "Orlando Style Magazine July/August 2016 Issue". issuu. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Porter, Lewis (January 1998). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10161-0. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- "John Coltrane: Legendary and Revolutionary Saxophonist in the History of Jazz Music". Blackthen.com. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
- Ratliff, Ben (October 28, 2008). Coltrane: The Story of a Sound. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-1-4299-9862-8. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- DeVito et al., p. 367
- DeVito et al., pp. 367–368
- Porter, Lewis (January 1998). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10161-7.
- Wilson, Joe (October 30, 1945). "Musically Speaking". The Mananan.
- Alexander, Leslie M.; Rucker Jr., Walter C. (February 9, 2010). Encyclopedia of African American History [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 178–. ISBN 978-1-85109-774-6. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- "John Coltrane Biography". The John Coltrane Foundation. May 11, 2007. Archived from the original on December 6, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- Armstrong, Rob (February 8, 2013). "There Was No End to the Music". Hidden City Philadelphia. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- "John Coltrane's Work Ethic". YouTube. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
- Woideck, Carl (1998). The John Coltrane Companion: Five Decades of Commentary. Schirmer Books. p. 29. ISBN 9780028647906.
- Ratliff, Ben (December 7, 2001). "CRITIC'S NOTEBOOK; The Miracle of Coltrane: Dead at 40, Still Vital at 75". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- "John Coltrane: Legendary and Revolutionary Saxophonist in the History of Jazz Music". Blackthen.com. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- "Jazz news: John Coltrane: Sheets of Sound". News.allaboutjazz.com. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- Coltrane, John; DeMicheal, Don (September 29, 1960). "Coltrane on Coltrane". DownBeat: 27.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. p. 145.
- Nisenson, Eric (2009). Ascension: John Coltrane And His Quest. Da Capo. p. 171.
- Berkman, David (2013). The Jazz Harmony Book. Sher Music. p. 145.
- Ratliff, Ben (2007). Coltrane: The Story of a Sound. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 52–53.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. pp. 173–178.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. pp. 178–180.
- Ratliff, Ben (2007). Coltrane: The Story of a Sound. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 57–59.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. p. 177.
- Ratliff, Ben (2007). Coltrane: The Story of a Sound. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 58.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. p. 180.
- Nisenson, Eric (2009). Ascension: John Coltrane And His Quest. Da Capo. pp. 212–213.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. pp. 180–182.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. p. 181.
- Ratliff, Ben (2007). Coltrane: The story of a Sound (1st ed.). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-12606-3.
- Corbett, John. "John Gilmore: The Hard Bop Homepage". Down Beat.
- Kofsky, Frank (1970). Black Nationalism and the Revolution in Music: John Coltrane: An Interview. Pathfinder Press. p. 235.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. pp. 198–199.
- Wilmer, Val (2010). "Conversation with Coltrane". In DeVito, Chris (ed.). Coltrane on Coltrane: The John Coltrane Interviews. Chicago Review Press. p. 115.
- Nisenson, p. 179
- The History of Jazz and the Jazz Musicians. Lulu Press, Inc. March 13, 2013. ISBN 9781257544486. Retrieved March 29, 2019 – via Google Books.
- Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (June 8, 2018). "'A new room in the Great Pyramid': lost 1963 John Coltrane album discovered". The Guardian. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
- Vincent, Alice (June 8, 2018). "Long-lost John Coltrane album set for release". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
- Porter, Lewis; DeVito, Chris; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Wild, David; Schmaler, Wolf (2008). The John Coltrane Reference. Routledge. pp. 733–735.
- "John Coltrane – A Love Supreme: Deluxe Edition". discogs.com. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- "John Coltrane – A Love Supreme (The Complete Masters): Super Deluxe Edition". discogs.com. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- Richardson, Mark (April 28, 2016). "New York Is Killing Me: Albert Ayler's Life and Death in the Jazz Capital". Pitchfork. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Beta, Andy (September 25, 2015). "Astral Traveling: The Ecstasy of Spiritual Jazz". Pitchfork. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Whitehead, Kevin (May 8, 2001). "Albert Ayler: Testifying The Breaking Point". NPR. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Bray, Ryan (March 2, 2016). "Jazz Legend Archie Shepp Reflects On John Coltrane's Quest For Musical Freedom". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Aceves, Rusty (January 27, 2017). "A Look Back At John Coltrane's Ascension". SFJAZZ Center. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Wilmer, Val (2018). As Serious as your Life. Serpent's Tail. p. 43.
- Reid, Graham (April 26, 2009). "Pharoah Sanders Interviewed (2004): Creative man without a masterplan". Elsewhere.co.nz. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Anderson, Iain (2007). This Is Our Music: Free Jazz, the Sixties, and American Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 111.
- Giddins, Gary (1998). Visions of Jazz: The First Century. Oxford University Press. p. 488.
- Thomas, J.C. (1976). Chasin' the Trane. Da Capo. p. 207.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. The University of Michigan Press. p. 267.
- Maita, Joe (November 8, 2001). "The A Love Supreme Interviews: pianist McCoy Tyner". Jerry Jazz Musician. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
- Porter, pp. 265–266.
- Mandel, Howard (January 30, 2008). "John Coltrane: Divine Wind". The Wire (221). Archived from the original on September 29, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- Meditations (liner notes). John Coltrane. Impulse!. 1966. A-9110.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
- Porter, p. 293
- "John William Coltrane". www.findagrave.com. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- Porter, p. 292
- Spencer, M.D., Frederick J. (2002). Jazz and Death: Medical Profiles of Jazz Greats. University Press of Mississippi. p. 6.
- Spencer, M.D., Frederick J. (2002). Jazz and Death: Medical Profiles of Jazz Greats. University Press of Mississippi. p. 7.
- Porter, p. 290
- Ruhlmann, William. "John Coltrane". AllMusic. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- "Secret of John Coltrane's high notes revealed", Roger Highfield, The Telegraph, Sunday June 12, 2011
- Kofsky, Frank (2010). "Interview with John Coltrane". In DeVito, Chris (ed.). Coltrane on Coltrane: The John Coltrane Interviews. A Cappella. p. 306.
- Densmore, John (April 29, 2017). "Exclusive: Doors drummer John Densmore on 'Chasing Trane' and the price musicians pay chasing their art". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- Cole, Bill (2001). John Coltrane (2nd ed.). New York: Da Capo Press. p. 158. ISBN 030681062X.
- Mandel, Howard (August 13, 2009). "Rashied Ali (1935 – 2009), multi-directional drummer, speaks". artsjournal.com. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
[Coltrane] was in a drummer thing. He just wanted to free himself from playing these strict changes. The bass player and the piano player would lay these chords down, you know, and he played just about everything he could play on these chords. He played 'em upside down. He'd turn 'em around. He played 'em sideways. He did just about everything he could to 'em. And playing with the drums he didn't have to deal with chord changes and keys and stuff like that. So he was free to play however he wanted to play. There were times I played with Trane, he had a battery of drummers, like about three conga players, guys playing batas, shakers and barrels and everything. On one of his records he did that. At the Village Vanguard, live, we had a whole bunch of drummers plus the traps. And then sometimes he would have double traps. Like in Chicago, I played double traps with a young drummer coming up there, named Jack DeJohnette.
- Mandel, Howard (August 13, 2009). "Rashied Ali (1935 – 2009), multi-directional drummer, speaks". artsjournal.com. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
[Coltrane] loved drums so much, if we would have a second set of drums on the stage, sometimes he would come up there and play them. I mean, he would sit behind the drums and play with the band, you know. He really had something about drums that he loved.
- Jazz, All About. "Rashied Ali". All About Jazz. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- Kofsky, Frank (2010). "Interview with John Coltrane". In DeVito, Chris (ed.). Coltrane on Coltrane: The John Coltrane Interviews. A Cappella. p. 294.
- "John Coltrane's Saxophones". drrick.com. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- "John Coltrane - Owned & Stage Played Alto Saxophone With Full Documentation". Recordmecca.
- Porter, pp. 5-6
- Lavezzoli, p. 270
- Weinstein, Norman C. (1933). A Night in Tunisia: Imaginings of Africa in Jazz. Hal Leonard. p. 61. ISBN 0-87910-167-9.
- Porter, Lewis; DeVito, Chris; Wild, David (April 26, 2013). The John Coltrane Reference. Routledge. pp. 323–. ISBN 978-1-135-11257-8. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- "John Coltrane: Naima". JazzWax.com. June 15, 2009. Archived from the original on January 21, 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- Porter, p. 61
- Lavezzoli, p. 271
- Lavezzoli, pp. 272–273
- John Coltrane's liner notes to A Love Supreme, December 1964 Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Lavezzoli, p. 286
- Lavezzoli, p. 281
- Lavezzoli, pp. 280–281
- Emmett G. Price III. "John Coltrane, "A Love Supreme" and GOD". allaboutjazz.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
- Lavezzoli, pp. 286–287
- Porter, p. 265
- Lavezzoli, p. 285: "Coltrane and one or two other musicians begin and end the piece by chanting in unison a verse from chapter nine ("The Yoga of Mysticism") of the Bhagavad Gita: Rites that the Vedas ordain, and the rituals taught by the scriptures: all these I am, and the offering made to the ghosts of the fathers, herbs of healing and food, the mantram, the clarified butter. I the oblation, and I the flame into which it is offered. I am the sire of the world, and this world's mother and grandsire. I am he who awards to each the fruit of his action. I make all things clean. I am Om!"
- Nisenson, p. 183
- Porter, p. 211
- 1982, the church officially joined the African Orthodox Church denomination, changed its moniker, and canonized Coltrane as a saint.|publisher=|accessdate=July 2, 2020|url-status=|archiveurl=|archivedate=|df=
- Freedman, Samuel G. (December 1, 2007). "Sunday religion, inspired by Saturday nights". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- Polatnick, Gordon. "The Jazz Church". www.elvispelvis.com. Archived from the original on August 12, 2006.
- Hyena, Hank (June 16, 1998). "The Church of St. John Coltrane: Jazz and German Tourists". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- "The Dancing Saints". Saint Gregory's of Nyssa Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on December 18, 2010.
- "John Coltrane: The case for sainthood". St. Barnabas Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- "The Church of Saint Coltrane". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Baseline & All Movie Guide. 2012. Archived from the original on December 30, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- "Alan Klingenstein". Huffington Post. February 5, 2008. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- "Saint John Coltrane African Orthodox Church". Diverse.tv. BBC documentary. 2004. See also wikipedia article: Saint John Coltrane African Orthodox Church.
- Rosen, Jody (June 25, 2019). "Here Are Hundreds More Artists Whose Tapes Were Destroyed in the UMG Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- "2009 Inductees". North Carolina Music Hall of Fame. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- "ABC-Paramount Records Story", by David Edwards, Patrice Eyries, and Mike Callahan, Both Sides Now website. Retrieved January 29, 2007.
- McNary, Dave (March 16, 2017). "John Coltrane Documentary 'Chasing Trane' Gets Release Date". Variety. ISSN 0042-2738.
- DeVito, Chris; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Schmaler, Wolf; Wild, David (2008). The John Coltrane Reference. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-97755-5.
- Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1815-5.
- Nisenson, Eric (1995). Ascension: John Coltrane and His Quest. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80644-4.
- Porter, Lewis (1999). John Coltrane: His Life and Music. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08643-X.
- Baham III, Nicholas (2015) . The Coltrane Church: Apostles of Sound, Agents of Social Justice. McFarland. ISBN 978-0786494965.
- Kahn, Ashley (2003) . A Love Supreme: The Story of John Coltrane's Signature Album. Elvin Jones. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-200352-2.
- Margry, Peter Jan and Wojcik, Daniel. (2017) "A Saxophone Divine. The Transformative Power of Saint John Coltrane's Jazz Music in San Francisco's Fillmore District', in: V. Hegner and P. J. Margry (editors), Spiritualizing the City: Agency and Resilience of the Urban and Urbanesque Habitat. Milton Park: Routledge, 169–194.
- Simpkins, Cuthbert (1989) . Coltrane: A Biography. New York: Herndon House Publishers. ISBN 0-915542-82-X.
- Thomas, J.C. (1975). Chasin' the Trane. New York: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80043-8.
- Woideck, Carl (1998). The John Coltrane Companion. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-864790-4.
- Official website
- John Coltrane at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- John Coltrane at Curlie
- John Coltrane discography at Discogs
- John Coltrane infography
- John Coltrane discography
- Coltrane Church Website site
- John Coltrane 1957 Carnegie Hall performance in transcription and analysis
- John Coltrane Images of Trane by Lee Tanner in Jazz Times, June 1997
- John Coltrane at Library of Congress Authorities, with 220 catalog records
- Interviews from 1958-1966