جمعیت علمائے ہند
|Formation||19 November 1919|
|Legal status||Religious organisation|
|Purpose||Initially to carry on non-violent freedom struggle against the British rule in India, currently development of Indian Muslim community|
|Headquarters||1, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi|
|Over 1 Million, and millions of followers.|
|Urdu and English|
Leader (Amir in Urdu language)
|Maulana Arshad Madani|
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind or Jamiat Ulama-I-Hind (transl. "Council of Indian Muslim Theologians") is one of the leading organizations of Islamic scholars belonging to the Deobandi school of thought in India. It was founded in 1919 by a group of Deobandi scholars. Mufti Kifayatullah Dehlavi was elected the first president of the organization.
The Jamiat was an active participant in the Khilafat Movement in collaboration with the Indian National Congress. It also opposed the Partition of India, taking the position that Muslims and non-Muslims form one nation. As a result, this organisation had a small break-away faction known as the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, which decided to support the Pakistan movement.
Inception and founders
The founders of the Jamiat in 1919 were the scholars Sheikh ul Hind Maulana Mehmood Hasan, Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani, Maulana Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, Mufti Kifayatullah Dehlavi, Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi, Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori, Maulana Bashir Ahmad Bhatta, Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Abdul Haq Akorwi, Maulana Abdul Haleem Siddiqui, Maulana Noor u Din Bihari and Maulana Abdul Bari Firangi Mahali.
During the British Raj, the Deobandi and Deoband-based organization was against the British rule in India and for a united India, opposing the formation of a separate homeland for Indian Muslims. The Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind was a member of the All India Azad Muslim Conference, which contained several Islamic organisations standing for a united India.
Partition of India
Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani, the principal of the Darul Uloom Deoband (1927–1957) and the leading Deobandi scholar, held that Muslims were unquestionably part of a united India and that Hindu-Muslim unity was necessary for the country's freedom. He worked closely with the Indian National Congress until the Partition of India was carried out. A faction under Shabbir Ahmad Usmani supporting the creation of Pakistan parted ways in 1945 to support the All Indian Muslim League. This faction came to be known as the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, and is currently a political party in Pakistan.
Scholar Ishtiaq Ahmed states that, in return for their support, the Jamiat obtained a pledge from the Indian leadership that the state would not interfere with the Muslim Personal Law in India. So far, the Indian state has kept its word, but it has led to the isolationism of the Indian Muslims according to Ishtiaq Ahmed.
The Jamiat has an organisational network which is spread all over India. It also has an Urdu daily Al-Jamiyat. The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. The thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India, since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract. This is known in Urdu as a mu'ahadah. Accordingly, as the Muslim community's elected representatives supported and swore allegiance to this mu'ahadah, so it is the responsibility of Indian Muslims to support the Indian Constitution. This mu'ahadah is similar to a previous similar contract signed between the Muslims and the Jews in Medina. In 2009, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind said that Hindus should not be called kafirs (infidels), even though the term only means a "Non-Muslim," because its use may hurt someone.
In 2008, in a surprise incident, Jamiat-Ulema-e-Hind split into two factions. The interim President Maulana Arshad Madani took steps to constitute a new executive council to replace the old one. This triggered the old faction led by Maulana Mahmood Madani to remove Maulana Arshad Madani as interim President by initiating a no-confidence motion against him. Maulana Arshad Madani's group claims that the no-confidence motion is itself null and void, as the executive council in question had already been dissolved and a new council constituted, while the other group claims that the constitution of the new council was without legal basis. Both sides claim that the sequence of events was such that it favours their cause and the two are working for the cause of the country and Community. In 2008, Maulana Qari Syed Mohammad Usman Mansoorpuri was elected as unopposed President.
Scholarly works about Jamiat Ulama Hind
- Tarikh Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind: Maulana Nizamuddin Asir Adrawi wrote Tarikh Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind (Urdu) in 2 volumes which is spread over 941 pages. The first volume was completed on 2 June 1981 and the second volume on 5 April 1999.
- A Study of Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind with special reference to Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madani In Freedom Movement (A.D. 1919-A.D.1947). PhD thesis of Syeda Lubna Shireen on Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind under the supervision of Syeda Rizwana Tabassum from Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University.
A century of existence
In 2019, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind will be observing its 100th anniversary since it was founded back in 1919.
- Khan, Feisal (2015). Islamic Banking in Pakistan: Shariah-Compliant Finance and the Quest to make Pakistan more Islamic. Routledge. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-317-36652-2.
- Moj, The Deoband Madrassah Movement 2015, pp. 8–10.
- History of Jamiat Ulama
- Vikas Pathak (23 June 2018). "Century not out, Jamiat still bats for an India with a composite culture". The Hindu (newspaper). Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Why did the Pak Maulana visit Deoband?". Rediff India Abroad. 18 July 2003. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- Qasmi, Ali Usman; Robb, Megan Eaton (2017). Muslims against the Muslim League: Critiques of the Idea of Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781108621236.
- McDermott, Rachel Fell; Gordon, Leonard A.; T. Embree, Ainslie; Pritchett, Frances W.; Dalton, Dennis (2013). Sources of Indian Tradition Modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Third edition. ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. p. 457. ISBN 9780231510929.
- [https://web.archive.org/web/20171226203010/http://www.islamopediaonline.org/country-profile/pakistan/islam-and-politics/jamiat-ulema-e-islam-jui Archived 26 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) at Islamopedia Online]
- Ishtiaq Ahmed, The Pathology of Partition The Friday Times (newspaper), Published 6 November 2015, Retrieved 22 August 2019
- Islam in Modern History. By Wilfred Cantwell Smith, Pg 285.
- Alistair Scrutton (10 November 2008). "India, Muslims and a new anti-terrorism fatwa". Reuters website. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Hindus can't be dubbed 'kafir', says Jamiat". The Times of India (newspaper). 24 February 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- Asīr Adravī. "Tareekh Jamiat Ulama i Hind By Maulana Nizamuddin Aseer Adravi Sahib". islamicbookscity.com (in Urdu). Al-Jamiat Book Depot, Delhi. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
- Ms. Syeda Lubna Shireen. A Study of Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind with special reference to Hussain Ahmed Madani In Freedom Movement (A.D. 1919-A.D.1947). Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,Aurangabad-431004. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- Metcalf, Barbara (2012), Husain Ahmad Madani: The Jihad for Islam and India's Freedom, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 978-1-78074-210-6
- Moj, Muhammad (2015), The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3