|United States Senator|
|Assumed office |
November 16, 1994
Serving with James Lankford
|Preceded by||David Boren|
|Chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee|
|Assumed office |
September 6, 2018[a]
|Preceded by||John McCain|
|Chair of the Senate Environment Committee|
January 3, 2015 – January 3, 2017
|Preceded by||Barbara Boxer|
|Succeeded by||John Barrasso|
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Jim Jeffords|
|Succeeded by||Barbara Boxer|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Oklahoma's 1st district
January 3, 1987 – November 15, 1994
|Preceded by||James R. Jones|
|Succeeded by||Steve Largent|
|32nd Mayor of Tulsa|
May 9, 1978 – May 8, 1984
|Preceded by||Robert LaFortune|
|Succeeded by||Terry Young|
|Member of the Oklahoma Senate|
from the 35th district
January 7, 1969 – January 4, 1977
|Preceded by||L. Beauchamp Selman|
|Succeeded by||Warren Green|
|Member of the Oklahoma House of Representatives|
from the 70th district
January 7, 1967 – January 7, 1969
|Preceded by||Joseph McGraw|
|Succeeded by||Richard Hancock|
James Mountain Inhofe
November 17, 1934
Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.
|Education||University of Tulsa (BA)|
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1956–1958|
James Mountain Inhofe (//; born November 17, 1934) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Oklahoma, a seat he was first elected to in 1994. A member of the Republican Party, he chaired the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW) from 2003 to 2007 and again from 2015 to 2017. Inhofe served as the U.S. Representative for Oklahoma's 1st congressional district from 1987 to 1994 and as mayor of Tulsa from 1978 to 1984.
Inhofe is known for his rejection of the scientific consensus on climate change. He has supported a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage and has proposed the Inhofe Amendment to make English the national language of the United States.
Early life, education, and business career
Inhofe was born in Des Moines, Iowa, the son of Blanche (née Mountain) and Perry Dyson Inhofe. He moved with his family to Tulsa, Oklahoma, as a child. He was a member of the Class of 1953 at Tulsa Central High School, and served in the United States Army from 1957 to 1958. Inhofe received a B.A. in economics from the University of Tulsa in 1973. Until his 1994 campaign for the U.S. Senate, Inhofe's official biographies and news articles about him indicated that he had graduated in 1959. Inhofe initially denied the stories that uncovered the discrepancy, but later acknowledged them. After admitting that the stories were true, Inhofe explained that he had been allowed to take part in graduation ceremonies in 1959 though he was a few credits short of completing his degree, and did not finish his coursework until 1973.
Inhofe worked as a businessman for 30 years before becoming a full-time politician. He worked in aviation, as a real estate developer, and in insurance, eventually becoming the president of Quaker Life Insurance Company. During his curatorship, the company went into receivership; it was liquidated in 1986.
Early political career
Inhofe became active in Oklahoma Republican politics in the mid-1960s. He was a member of the Oklahoma House of Representatives from 1967 to 1969, and a member of the Oklahoma Senate from 1969 until 1977, the last four of those years as minority leader.
1974 gubernatorial election
In 1974, he ran for governor of Oklahoma. In October 1974, then President Gerald Ford visited Oklahoma to campaign for him. A late October poll by the Daily Oklahoman showed Boren leading 74%–25%. He lost to Democratic State Representative David Boren 64%–36%. Inhofe won only four counties in the election. He lost 57 pounds during the campaign and was down to 148 pounds.
1976 congressional election
In 1976 Inhofe ran for Oklahoma's 1st congressional district. In the Republican primary, he defeated State Senator Frank Keating and Mary Warner, 67%–25%–8%. In the general election, he lost to incumbent Democrat James R. Jones, 54%–45%.
Mayor of Tulsa
U.S. House of Representatives
In 1986, when Representative Jones decided to retire to run for the U.S. Senate, Inhofe ran for the 1st District and won the Republican primary with 54%. In the general election, he defeated Democrat Gary Allison 55%–43%. In 1988 he won reelection against Democrat Kurt Glassco, Governor George Nigh's legal counsel, 53%–47%. In 1990 he defeated Glassco again, 56%–44%. After redistricting, the 1st District contained only two counties, all of Tulsa and some parts of Wagoner. In 1992 Inhofe was reelected with 53% of the vote.
He first came to national attention in 1993, when he led the effort to reform the House's discharge petition rule, which the House leadership had long used to bottle up bills in committee.
In 1994, incumbent Senator David Boren, who had been serving in the Senate since 1979, agreed to become president of the University of Oklahoma and announced he would resign as soon as a successor was elected. Inhofe was elected Boren's successor in an election cycle that saw the Republican Party take both houses of Congress and the Oklahoma governorship (the latter for only the third time in state history). Inhofe took office on November 16, giving him more seniority than the incoming class of senators. After serving the last two years of Boren's term, he won his first full term in 1996. He was reelected in 2002, 2008 and 2014.
In the 2008 election cycle, Inhofe's largest campaign donors represented the oil and gas ($446,900 in donations), leadership PACs ($316,720) and electric utilities ($221,654) industries/categories. In 2010, his largest donors represented the oil and gas ($429,950) and electric ($206,654) utilities.
The primary PACs donating to his campaigns were Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association ($55,869), United Parcel Service ($51,850), National Association of Realtors ($51,700), National Rifle Association ($51,050) and American Medical Association ($51,000). Additionally, if company-sponsored PACs were combined with employee contributions, Koch Industries would be Inhofe's largest contributor, with $90,950 (less than 0.6% of total contributions), according to the Center for Responsive Politics.[undue weight? ]
- Armed Services Committee
As a member of the Armed Services Committee, Inhofe was among the panelists questioning witnesses about the 2004 Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse, saying he was "outraged by the outrage" over the revelations of abuse. Although he believed that the individuals responsible for mistreating prisoners should be punished, he said that the prisoners "are not there for traffic violations ... they're murderers, they're terrorists, they're insurgents". In 2006, Inhofe was one of only nine senators to vote against the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, which prohibits "cruel, inhuman or degrading" treatment of individuals in U.S. Government custody.
When chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee John McCain was absent seeking medical treatment for brain cancer from December 2017, Inhofe became acting chairman of the committee. During this time, Inhofe helped secure the passage of the record $716 billion National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019. McCain died in August 2018, and Inhofe lauded him as his "hero". Inhofe also said that McCain was "partially to blame for" the White House's controversial decision to raise flags back to full mast after less than two days, as McCain previously "disagreed with the President in certain areas and wasn't too courteous about it".
On March 6, 2019, Inhofe said he intends to put language in the next defense authorization act to reinforce Trump's decision to withdraw from the Iran nuclear agreement and reintroduce severe sanctions on Tehran.
Inhofe, as of the 115th Congress, is a member of the following committees:
- Committee on Armed Services
- Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
- Committee on Environment and Public Works
- Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship
- International Conservation Caucus
- Senate Army Caucus
- Senate Diabetes Caucus
- Senate General Aviation Caucus
- Senate Rural Health Caucus
- Senate Tourism Caucus
- Sportsmen's Caucus
Ideology and opinions
Inhofe was ranked the most conservative member of Congress on the 2017 GovTrack report card. He received the same ranking for 2018. For 2019, he was ranked as the fifth-most conservative member of the U.S. Senate with a score of 0.91 out of 1, behind Marsha Blackburn (R-TN), Joni Ernst (R-IA), Mike Braun (R-IN), and Ted Cruz (R-TX).
Early years; 2003 Chair of Environment and Public Works committee
Before the Republicans regained control of the Senate in the November 2002 elections, Inhofe had compared the United States Environmental Protection Agency to a Gestapo bureaucracy, and EPA Administrator Carol Browner to Tokyo Rose. In January 2003, he became Chair of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, and continued challenging mainstream science in favor of what he called "sound science", in accordance with the Luntz memo.
Climate change denial
Since 2003, when he was first elected Chair of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Inhofe has been the foremost Republican promoting arguments for climate change denial in the global warming controversy. He famously said in the Senate that global warming is a hoax, and has invited contrarians to testify in Committee hearings, and spread his views via the Committee website run by Marc Morano, and through his access to conservative media. In 2012, Inhofe's The Greatest Hoax: How the Global Warming Conspiracy Threatens Your Future was published by WorldNetDaily Books, presenting his global warming conspiracy theory. He has said that, because "God's still up there", the "arrogance of people to think that we, human beings, would be able to change what He is doing in the climate is to me outrageous", but also that he appreciates that this argument is unpersuasive, and that he has "never pointed to Scriptures in a debate, because I know this would discredit me."
As Environment and Public Works chairman, Inhofe gave a two-hour Senate floor speech on July 28, 2003, in the context of discussions on the McCain-Lieberman Bill. He said he was "going to expose the most powerful, most highly financed lobby in Washington, the far left environmental extremists", and laid out in detail his opposition to attribution of recent climate change to humans, using the word "hoax" four times, including the statement that he had "offered compelling evidence that catastrophic global warming is a hoax" and his conclusion that "manmade global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people". He supported what he called "sound science", citing contrarian scientists such as Patrick Michaels, Fred Singer, Richard Lindzen and Sallie Baliunas as well as some mainstream scientists. Two of these, Tom Wigley and Stephen Schneider, later issued statements that Inhofe had misrepresented their work.
On July 29, the day after his Senate speech, Inhofe chaired an Environment and Public Works hearing with contrarian views represented by Baliunas and David Legates, and praised their "1,000-year climate study", then involved in the Soon and Baliunas controversy, as "a powerful new work of science". Against them, Michael E. Mann defended mainstream science and specifically his work on reconstructions (the hockey stick graph) that they and the Bush administration disputed. During the hearing Senator Jim Jeffords read out an email from Hans von Storch saying he had resigned as editor-in-chief of the journal that published the Soon and Baliunas paper, as the peer review had "failed to detect significant methodological flaws in the paper" and the critique by Mann and colleagues was valid.
In a continuation of these themes, Inhofe had a 20-page brochure published under the Seal of the United States Senate reiterating his "hoax" statement and comparing the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to a "Soviet style trial". In a section headed "The IPCC Plays Hockey" he attacked what he called "Mann's flawed, limited research." The brochure restated themes from Inhofe's Senate speech, and in December 2003 he distributed copies of it in Milan at a meeting about the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, where he met "green activists" with posters quoting him as saying that global warming "is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people". He signed a poster for them, and thanked them for quoting him correctly. In an October 2004 Senate speech he said, "Global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people. It was true when I said it before, and it remains true today. Perhaps what has made this hoax so effective is that we hear over and over that the science is settled and there is a consensus that, unless we fundamentally change our way of life by limiting greenhouse gas emissions, we will cause catastrophic global warming. This is simply a false statement." In January 2005 Inhofe told Bloomberg News that global warming was "the second-largest hoax ever played on the American people, after the separation of church and state", and that carbon dioxide would not be restricted by the Clear Skies Act of 2003. In a Senate Floor "update", he extended his argument against Mann's work by extensively citing Michael Crichton's fictional thriller State of Fear, mistakenly describing Crichton as a "scientist". On August 28, 2005, at Inhofe's invitation, Crichton appeared as an expert witness at a hearing on climate change, disputing Mann's work.
During a July 2006 heat wave Inhofe said that the environmentalist movement reminded him of "the Third Reich, the Big Lie": "You say something over and over and over and over again, and people will believe it, and that's their strategy." In a September 2006 Senate speech Inhofe argued that the threat of global warming was exaggerated by "the media, Hollywood elites and our pop culture". He said that in the 1960s the media had switched from warning of global warming to warning of global cooling and a coming ice age, then in the 1970s had returned to warming to promote "climate change fears". In February 2007 he told Fox News that mainstream science increasingly attributed climate change to natural causes, and only "those individuals on the far left, such as Hollywood liberals and the United Nations", disagreed.
In 2006 Inhofe introduced Senate Amendment 4682 with Kit Bond (R-MO), which would have modified oversight responsibility of the Army Corps of Engineers. The League of Conservation Voters, an environmentalist group, said analyses for corps projects "have been manipulated to favor large-scale projects that harm the environment." During the 109th Congress Inhofe voted to increase offshore oil drilling, to include provisions for drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in the House Budget Amendment, and to deny funding for both low-income energy assistance and environmental stewardship, citing heavy costs and unproven programs.
In May 2009 Inhofe gave support to the idea that black carbon is a significant contributor to global warming.
Inhofe has received monies from the fossil fuel industry. For example: "Exxon's beneficiaries in Congress include the Oklahoma senator Jim Inhofe, who called global warming a hoax, and who has received $20,500 since 2007, according to the Dirty Energy Money database maintained by Oil Change International." 
Climatic Research Unit email controversy
On November 23, 2009, as the Climatic Research Unit email controversy emerged, Inhofe said the emails confirmed his view that scientists were "cooking the science". On December 7 on the CNN program The Situation Room, Inhofe said that the emails showed that the science behind climate change "has been pretty well debunked"; the fact checking organization PolitiFact concluded that Inhofe's statement was false. On the same day, Inhofe said he would lead a three-man "truth squad" consisting of himself and fellow senators Roger Wicker and John Barrasso to the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Inhofe was unable to secure meetings with any negotiators or delegations to the conference and only met with a small group of reporters. The minority group of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works prepared a report on "the CRU Controversy", published in February 2010, which listed as "Key Players" 17 scientists including Mann and Phil Jones. Inhofe said it showed that the controversy was "about unethical and potentially illegal behavior by some of the world's leading climate scientists." On May 26 Inhofe formally requested that the Inspector General of the United States Department of Commerce investigate how the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) had dealt with the emails, and whether the emails showed any wrongdoing; it found no major issues or inappropriate actions.
Global warming temperatures
In July 2010 Inhofe said, "I don't think that anyone disagrees with the fact that we actually are in a cold period that started about nine years ago. Now, that's not me talking, those are the scientists that say that." The Union of Concerned Scientists said that Inhofe was wrong, pointing to a NOAA report indicating that the summer of 2010 had so far been the hottest on record since 1880. Inhofe added, "People on the other side of this argument back in January, they said, 'Inhofe, it has nothing to do with today's or this month or next month. We're looking at a long period of time. We go into twenty year periods.'"
During a House committee hearing in 2011, Inhofe testified, "I have to admit—and, you know, confession is good for the soul ... I, too, once thought that catastrophic global warming was caused by anthropogenic gases—because everyone said it was." Under questioning from committee member Jay Inslee, Inhofe dismissed the notion that he was less knowledgeable than climate scientists, saying that he'd already given "five speeches on the science."
2015: Chair of Environment and Public Works committee
On January 21, 2015, Inhofe returned to chairing the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works as part of a new Republican majority in the Senate. In response to NOAA and NASA reports that 2014 had been the warmest year globally in the temperature record, he said, "we had the coldest in the western hemisphere in the same time frame", and attributed changes to a 30-year cycle, not human activities. In a debate on the same day about a bill for the Keystone XL pipeline, Inhofe endorsed an amendment proposed by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse, "Climate change is real and not a hoax", which passed 98–1. Inhofe clarified his view that "Climate is changing and climate has always changed and always will. There is archaeological evidence of that, there is biblical evidence of that, there is historical evidence of that", but added, "there are some people who are so arrogant to think they are so powerful they can change climate."
On February 26, 2015, Inhofe brought a snowball to the Senate floor and tossed it before delivering remarks in which he said that environmentalists keep talking about global warming even though it keeps getting cold.
On March 19, 2015, Inhofe introduced S.828, "The Fracturing Regulations are Effective in State Hands (FRESH) Act." The bill would transfer regulatory power over hydraulic fracturing from the federal government to state governments. In his announcement of the bill, Inhofe said that hydraulic fracturing has never contaminated ground water in Oklahoma. The U.S. senators from seven states (Arkansas, Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana, South Dakota and Texas) cosponsored the bill.
Inhofe co-authored and was one of 22 senators to sign a letter to President Donald Trump urging him to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Inhofe has received over $529,000 from the oil and gas industry since 2012.
Political positions and controversies
Inhofe wrote the Inhofe Amendment to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006, which was debated in Congress in May 2006. The amendment would make English the national language of the United States and require that new citizens take an English proficiency test. The amendment was passed on May 18, 2006, with 32 Democrats, one independent, and one Republican dissenting. The measure had 11 cosponsors, including one Democrat.
Inhofe has generally been seen as overtly hostile by LGBT advocacy groups, earning a 0% in every one of his terms on Human Rights Campaign's position scorecard. Inhofe is in favor of a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage, against adding sexual orientation to the definition of hate crimes, and voted against prohibiting job discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Inhofe's office has said he "does not hire openly gay staffers due to the possibility of a conflict of agenda."[dead link]
Inhofe campaigned for his Senate seat in 1994 using the phrase "God, guns, and gays." In 2008, his campaign was noted by the Associated Press for running an ad with "anti-gay overtones" featuring a wedding cake with two male figures on top, fading into his opponent's face.
In 1999, along with Republican colleagues Tim Hutchinson and Bob Smith, and Republican Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott, Inhofe stalled the nomination of James Hormel, a gay man, as US Ambassador to Luxembourg for over 20 months specifically because of Hormel's sexual orientation. President Bill Clinton eventually appointed him in a recess appointment, making him the United States' first openly gay ambassador in June 1999, and angering Inhofe, who held up seven more Clinton appointees in retaliation.
Racial and gender civil rights
In 1995, Inhofe voted to ban affirmative action hiring with federal funds. In 1997, he voted to end special funding for minority- and women-owned businesses. The bill he voted for would have abolished a program that helps businesses owned by women and minorities to compete for federally funded transportation; it did not pass. The next year, Inhofe voted to repeal the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program, which is designed to "remedy ongoing discrimination and the continuing effects of past discrimination in federally-assisted highway, transit, airport, and highway safety financial assistance transportation contracting markets nationwide" by allocating 10% of highway funds to benefit the business enterprises of racial minorities and women.
Overall, in 2002, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) rated Inhofe at 20%, indicating that he has an anti-racial civil rights record. Four years later, on December 31, 2006, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) rated Inhofe at 7%, indicating that he has an anti-civil rights and anti-affirmative action record.
In 2001, Inhofe voted to loosen restrictions on cell phone wiretapping. The bill, which passed, removed the requirement that a person or party implementing an order to wiretap a private citizen's cellphone must ascertain that the target of the surveillance is present in the house or using the phone that has been tapped.
Free speech and expression
In 1995, Inhofe co-sponsored a constitutional amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would give Congress and individual U.S. states the power to prohibit the physical desecration of the American flag. The bill's primary sponsor was Orrin Hatch (R-UT).
GI Bill reform
Inhofe, an initial sponsor of Senator Jim Webb's Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008, subsequently withdrew support for this bill to support S 2938, a competing bill that would have provided benefits beyond those offered in Webb's bill. But he voted to enact Webb's legislation in June 2008.
Inhofe agreed to support legislation allowing military mental health specialists to talk with veterans about private firearms in an effort to reduce suicides.
Trained by the U.S. Navy, Inhofe is one of the few members of Congress holding a Commercial Airman certificate. In 1994, when he first ran for the U.S. Senate, he used his plane as a daily campaign vehicle to travel throughout Oklahoma and visit almost every town in the state. He has been influential in Senate and Congressional debates involving aircraft regulation.
Inhofe has said that he has made over 140 trips to Africa over about 20 years and helped to get United States Africa Command established. He has made multiple foreign trips, especially to Africa, on missions that he described as "a Jesus thing" and that were paid for by the U.S. government. He has used these trips for activities on behalf of The Fellowship, a Christian organization. Inhofe has said that his trips included some governmental work but also involved "the political philosophy of Jesus, something that had been put together by Doug Coe, the leader of The Fellowship ... It's all scripturally based." Inhofe used his access as a Senator to pursue religious goals.
Federal disaster relief
Inhofe has consistently voted against federal disaster relief, most notably in the case of relief for the 24 states affected by Hurricane Sandy, but argued for federal aid when natural disasters hit Oklahoma. In defense of his decision to vote against a relief fund for Sandy but not in Oklahoma after tornadoes ravaged it in May 2013, he claimed the situations were "totally different", in that the Sandy funding involved "Everybody getting in and exploiting the tragedy that took place. That won't happen in Oklahoma." Inhofe pointedly did not thank President Obama for his attention to the tragedy in his state, so as to not be compared to Chris Christie.
2016 presidential election
Early during the Republican Party presidential primaries in 2016, Inhofe endorsed fellow Republican John Kasich. Since Trump's election, he has voted in line with Trump's position 94.2% of the time.
Israel Anti-Boycott Act
In October 2017, Inhofe co-sponsored the Israel Anti-Boycott Act (s. 720), which made it a federal crime for Americans to encourage or participate in boycotts against Israel and Israeli settlements in the occupied Palestinian territories if protesting actions by the Israeli government.
Conflict of interest stock transactions
In December 2018, Inhofe bought $50,000 to $100,000 worth of stock in Raytheon, a major defense contractor that has billions of dollars' worth of contracts with the Pentagon. The week before, he had successfully lobbied the Trump administration to increase military spending. Ethics watchdogs said the purchase raised conflict of interest concerns, and noted that members of Congress are not allowed to purchase stocks on the basis of information that is not publicly available. Inhofe sold the stock shortly after reporters asked him about the purchase. He said the purchase was made by a third-party adviser who manages Inhofe's investments on his behalf.
In September 2020, less than two months before the next presidential election, Inhofe supported an immediate vote on Trump's nominee to fill the Supreme Court vacancy caused by the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. In March 2016, around seven months before the next presidential election, he argued that the Senate should not consider Obama's Supreme Court nominee because "we must let the people decide the Supreme Court's future" via the presidential election.
Inhofe was the first recipient of the U.S. Air Force Academy's Character and Leadership Award for his character and leadership in public service.
|Republican||Denzil D. Garrison||62,188||41.2|
|Democratic||David Lyle Boren||514,389||63.9|
|Oklahoma's 1st congressional district Republican primary election, 1986|
|Oklahoma's 1st congressional district Republican primary election, 1992|
|Republican||James Inhofe (inc.)||36,354||67%|
|1986||Gary D. Allison||61,663||43%||James Inhofe||78,919||55%||Carl McCullough Jr. (Ind.)||3,455||2%|
|1988||Kurt G. Glassco||93,101||47%||James Inhofe||103,458||53%|
|1990||Kurt G. Glassco||59,521||44%||James Inhofe||75,618||56%|
|1992||John Selph||106,619||47%||James Inhofe||119,211||53%|
|U.S. Senate Republican primary election, 1994|
|U.S. Senate Republican primary election, 1996|
|Republican||James Inhofe (inc.)||116,241||75%|
|U.S. Senate Republican primary election, 2008|
|Republican||James Inhofe (inc.)||116,371||84%|
|U.S. Senate Republican primary election, 2014|
|Republican||James Inhofe (inc.)||231,291||88%|
|Republican||Erick Paul Wyatt||11,713||4%|
|Year||Democratic||Votes||Pct||Republican||Votes||Pct||Third party||Votes||Pct||Third party||Votes||Pct||Third party||Votes||Pct|
|1994||Dave McCurdy||392,488||40%||James Inhofe||542,390||55%||Danny Corn (Ind.)||47,552||5%|
|1996||James Boren||474,162||40%||James Inhofe||670,610||57%||Bill Maguire (Ind.)||15,092||1%||Agnes Marie Regier (Lib.)||14,595||1%||Chris Nedbalek (Ind.)||8,691||1%|
|2002||David Walters||369,789||36%||James Inhofe||583,579||57%||James Germalic (Ind.)||65,056||6%|
|2008||Andrew Rice||527,736||39%||James Inhofe||763,375||57%||Stephen Wallace (Ind.)||55,708||4%|
|2014||Matt Silverstein||234,307||29%||James Inhofe||558,166||68%||Joan Farr (Ind.)||10,554||1%||Ray Woods (Ind.)||9,913||1%||Aaron DeLozier (Ind.)||7,793||1%|
- Politics of Oklahoma
- List of United States Senators from Oklahoma
- 2020 Congressional insider trading scandal
- Kane, Paul (December 16, 2017). "How the oldest Senate ever is taking a toll on the business of Washington". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- John S. Dryzek; Richard B. Norgaard; David Schlosberg (August 18, 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. Oxford University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-19-956660-0.
The single most prominent Republican when it comes to climate change denial is Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe, famous for claiming in a Senate speech that global warming is 'the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people.'CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "S.J.Res.1 - Marriage Protection Amendment". Congress.gov. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
- Roll Call Vote
- Tritten, Travis J. (September 5, 2018). "Jim Inhofe named chairman of Senate Armed Services Committee, replacing John McCain". Washington Examiner. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Kestenbaum, Lawrence. "The Political Graveyard: Presbyterian Politicians in Oklahoma". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Andrea Eger, "Central grads to be honored", Tulsa World, November 12, 2000.
- "INHOFE, James Mountain – Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov.
- Grenier, John (September 17, 1994). "Degree Disparity Surprises Inhofe". The Oklahoman. Oklahoma City.
- "Senate Candidate Got Degree in '73, not '59". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis, Missouri. Associated Press. September 17, 1994. p. 6A – via Newspapers.com.
- Everett, Dianna. "Jim Inhofe". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- Hyde Mulvihill APC Lawyers – "Insurers in Liquidation, Rehabilitation and under Conservation/Supervision" Archived May 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- "People in the News". Lewiston Evening Journal. September 25, 1974. Retrieved September 26, 2020 – via Google News Archive Search.
- Abramson, Rudy (October 23, 1974). "Democratic Election Gains Could Jeopardize Peace, Ford Asserts".[dead link]
- "Extremism dangerous says Ford". The Daily Sentinel. September 25, 1974. Retrieved September 26, 2020 – via Google News Archive Search.
- "Our Campaigns – OK Governor Race – Nov 05, 1974". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Campaigning is slimming". The Morning Record. April 30, 1974. Retrieved September 26, 2020 – via Google News Archive Search.
- "Our Campaigns – OK District 1 – R Primary Race – Aug 24, 1976". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns – OK District 1 Race – Nov 02, 1976". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns - Mayor - Tulsa, OK Race - Apr 04, 1978". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns - Mayor - Tulsa, OK Race - Mar 04, 1980". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns - Mayor - Tulsa, OK Race - Apr 06, 1982". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns – OK District 1 – R Primary Race – Aug 26, 1986". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns – OK District 1 Race – Nov 04, 1986". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns – OK District 1 Race – Nov 08, 1988". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns – OK District 1 Race – Nov 06, 1990". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Our Campaigns – OK District 1 Race – Nov 03, 1992". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Oklahoma delegation splits over trillion-dollar budget". Daily Leader. July 1, 1987. Retrieved September 26, 2020 – via Google News Archive Search.
- "Top Industries Senator James M Inhofe 2003-2008". opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Krehbiel, Randy (October 26, 2008). "Stances mark differences in Senate race: Energy, national defense, the economy – the contrasts are stark in this race for the U.S. Senate". McClatchy – Tribune Business News. Washington.
- "Top Industries Senator James M Inhofe". opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "Top Contributors Senator James M Inhofe". opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "GOP senator labels abused prisoners 'terrorists'". CNN. May 12, 2004. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- "GOP Sen.: 'Outraged' At Outrage". CBS News. May 11, 2004. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Text of the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 Archived August 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006/Division A/Title X), SEC. 1003. Prohibition on Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of Persons Under Custody of the United States Government: In this section, the term "cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment" means the cruel, unusual, and inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, as defined in the United States Reservations, Declarations and Understandings to the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Babington, Charles; Murray, Shailagh (October 6, 2005). "Senate Supports Interrogation Limits". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Zengerle, Patricia (August 27, 2018). "Trump backer Inhofe in line to chair powerful Senate Armed Services panel". Reuters. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- Demirjian, Karoun. "John McCain's death marks a new era for congressional checks on Trump". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- Killough, Ashley (August 28, 2018). "GOP senator praises McCain but says he's 'partially to blame' for White House flag controversy". CNN. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- Toms, Lauren (March 6, 2019). "Sen. Jim Inhofe seeks to drive stake through Iran nuclear deal". The Washington Times. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- "Report Cards for 2017 – All Senators". GovTrack. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- "Report Cards for 2018 – All Senators". GovTrack. January 20, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "2019 Report Cards: Ideology Score for 2019". GovTrack. January 18, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Myers, Jim (November 30, 2002). "Critics point to Inhofe's record". Tulsa World. Tulsa, Oklahoma. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- Mooney, Chris (April 16, 2004). "Earth Last: James Inhofe proves "flat Earth" doesn't refer to Oklahoma". The American Prospect. Retrieved January 17, 2015.[dead link]
- "I think we have got a Tokyo Rose running the EPA." – Inhofe's remarks to the Oklahoma Farm Bureau, as reported in the Tulsa World, November 18, 1997.
- Kutney 2014, p. 107. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKutney2014 (help)
- Inhofe, James (2012). The greatest hoax : how the global warming conspiracy threatens your future (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: WND Books. ISBN 978-1936488490.
- Kutney 2014, p. 112. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKutney2014 (help)
- Tashman, Brian (March 8, 2012). "James Inhofe Says the Bible Refutes Climate Change". Right Wing Watch. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Leber, Rebecca (November 5, 2014). "Congratulations, Voters; You Just Made This Climate Denier the Most Powerful Senator on the Environment". The New Republic. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- Revkin, Andrew C. (August 5, 2003). "Politics Reasserts Itself in the Debate Over Climate Change and Its Hazards". The New York Times. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Kutney 2014, pp. 107–108. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKutney2014 (help)
- "Congressional Record, Volume 149 Issue 113 (July 28, 2003)". U.S. Government Publishing Office Home Page. July 28, 2003. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
- Mooney, Chris (2007), The Republican War on Science, Basic Books, pp. 84–86, ISBN 978-0-465-00386-0
- Mooney, Chris (2007), The Republican War on Science, Basic Books, pp. 86–91, ISBN 978-0-465-00386-0
- Monastersky, Richard (September 2003). "Storm Brews Over Global Warming". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 50 (2): A16.
- Kutney 2014, p. 108. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKutney2014 (help)
- "The Facts and Science of Climate Change" (PDF). US Senate, Environment and Public Works. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2005. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Congress; U S Congress (November 2009), Congressional Record, V. 150, PT. 17, October 9, 2004 to November 17, 2004, Government Printing Office, pp. 23365–23371, ISBN 9780160844164, GGKEY:03HFGXC06SY
- Newton-Small, Jay (January 21, 2005). "Bush Plans Pollution Rules by March, Disappointing Utilities". Bloomberg News. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
- Pierce, Charles P. (February 23, 2005). "In Praise of Oklahoma". The American Prospect. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Nicks, Denver (July 29, 2009). "The Craziest Senator". The Daily Beast. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- Mooney, Chris (January 11, 2005), Warmed Over, CBS News, retrieved January 19, 2015. Reprinted from The American Prospect, January 10, 2005.
- Inhofe, James M. (January 4, 2005). "Climate Change Update Senate Floor Statement". Office of Senator James M. Inhofe. Archived from the original on January 12, 2005. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Chris Mooney, The Republican War on Science, Basic Books, 2006, page 227.
- Myers, Jim (July 22, 2006). "Heat wave has senator sticking to beliefs". Tulsa World. Tulsa, OK. Archived from the original on May 26, 2010.
- Text of speech by James Inhofe in the Senate on September 25, 2006, on global warming Archived March 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
- Kutney 2014, p. 109. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKutney2014 (help)
- LCV Scorecard Archived November 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- Goldenberg, Suzanne (May 5, 2009). "US climate change denier James Inhofe joins Al Gore in fight against soot". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- Goldenberg, Suzanne (July 15, 2015). "ExxonMobil gave millions to climate-denying lawmakers despite pledge". The Guardian. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- [dead link]
- Gerald Kutney 2014, p. 109.
- Dempsey, Matt (November 23, 2009). "Listen: Inhofe Says He Will Call for Investigation on "Climategate" on Washington Times Americas Morning Show". The Inhofe EPW Press Blog. U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. Archived from the original on November 24, 2009. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- Richert, Catharine (December 11, 2009). "James Inhofe claims that emails 'debunk' science behind climate change". PolitiFact. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- O'Brien, Michael (December 7, 2009). "Wicker joins Inhofe's 'truth squad'". The Hill. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Roug, Louise (December 19, 2009). "Jim Inhofe gets cool reception in Denmark". Politico. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Montopoli, Brian (December 18, 2009). "Sen. James Inhofe Called "Ridiculous"". CBS News. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012.
- Montanaro, Domenico. "First Read – Inhofe a world hit -no". Firstread.msnbc.msn.com. Archived from the original on December 23, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Kutney 2014, pp. 109–111. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKutney2014 (help)
- "Senate EPW Minority Releases Report On CRU Controversy". U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works :: Minority Page : Press Releases. February 23, 2010. Archived from the original on February 27, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
Minority Staff (February 2010). "United States Senate Report; 'Consensus' Exposed: The CRU Controversy". Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- Gerald Kutney 2014, p. 111.
- "U.S. scientists cleared in 'climategate' – Technology & Science". CBC News. February 24, 2011. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Senator Inhofe Erroneously Claims We Are In A Nine-Year Cooling Trend". Union of Concerned Scientists. July 23, 2010. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013.
- "Inhofe:'Global Warming Is Not Occurring". ABC News. July 23, 2010. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Karl, Jonathan; Wolf, Z. Byron (July 23, 2010). "Amid Heat Wave, Senator Talks 'Global Cooling'". ABC News. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Plumer, Bradford (February 10, 2011). "Is This What The Climate-Change Debate Has Come To?". The New Republic. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Cama, Timothy (January 21, 2015). "Sen. Inhofe takes charge of Environment Committee". The Hill. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- Cappiello, Dina (January 21, 2015). "Senate says climate change real, but doesn't agree on cause". Dayton Daily News. The Associated Press. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Casteel, Chris (February 26, 2015). "Sen. Inhofe throws snowball on U.S. Senate floor". Tulsa World. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
- ".: U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works :: Majority Page :". epw.senate.gov. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- "Cosponsors – S.828 – 114th Congress (2015–2016): Fracturing Regulations are Effective in State Hands Act | Congress.gov | Library of Congress". congress.gov. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- "Senator James Inhofe". Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- McCarthy, Tom; Gambino, Lauren (June 1, 2017). "The Republicans who urged Trump to pull out of Paris deal are big oil darlings". The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Weisman, Jonathan; VandeHei, Jim (May 19, 2006). "Senate Votes English as 'National Language' Bill Keeps in Place Multilingual Laws". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- HRC profile of James Inhofe Archived March 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Inhofe On the Issues[permanent dead link]
- Reprinted in Seattle Times Archived September 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, "Senate takes up fight on banning gay marriages" Chicago Tribune – Chicago, Ill. Jill Zuckman and Anastasia Ustinova, Washington Bureau. July 11, 2004
- Freshmen: What Happened to the Republican Revolution?, Linda Killian, 1999. Basic Books. "From there it was on to Hominy, where Inhofe walked up and down Main Street and stopped by the local coffee shop to shake some hands. He told the morning customers the Senate race could be summed up by the "three Gs – God, gays, and guns." Inhofe asserted Dave McCurdy was a liberal Washington insider out of touch with what Oklahomans care about, who was against prayer in schools, for gays in the military and gun control, and who voted with Bill Clinton more than 80 percent of the time."
- Jacob Weisberg. "Why It's Even Worse For Clinton Than You Think", New York Magazine, November 21, 1994, page 41. Inhofe describes how the phrase came to be in The Associated Press via USA Today, Ron Jenkins, September 18, 2008. "Inhofe, in a telephone interview from Washington, recalled that 14 years ago he was told by a small group in Hugo that he would carry McCurtain County, a Democratic stronghold in southeastern Oklahoma. He said he asked the Hugo residents why he would win, "and they said because of the three G's. They're the ones who came up with that and it became almost a chant out there."
- Jenkins, Ron (September 18, 2008). "Oklahoma's Inhofe on attack again in Senate race". Associated Press. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- "Finally, Mr. Hormel Gets the Job". The New York Times. June 5, 1999. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Let Them Vote on Mr. Hormel". The New York Times. June 22, 1998. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- Shenon, Philip (June 9, 1999). "In Protest, Senator Blocks All Nominations". The New York Times. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Senate Vote on 1995-317". On the Issues. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Senate Votes on 1997-275". On the Issues. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Senate Votes on 1998-23". On the Issues. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "02n-ACLU on Dec 31, 2002". On the Issues. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "06n-NAACP on Dec 31, 2006". On the Issues. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Senate Vote on 2001-300". On the Issues. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "S.1510 - USA Act of 2001". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "S.J.Res.31 – A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to grant Congress and the States the power to prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Senate prepares for GI Bill showdown". Army Times. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- States Senate Roll Call Votes, 110th Congress, 2nd Session. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Dao, James (October 7, 2012). "As Military Suicides Rise, Focus Is on Private Weapons". New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- The Freshmen: What Happened to the Republican Revolution?, Linda Killian, 1999. Basic Books. "Inhofe, one of Congress's few certified commercial pilots, has been crisscrossing the state in his 1969 Piper Aztec and managed to visit almost every town in Oklahoma before the end of the campaign."
- The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association says this about Inhofe Archived October 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine: "An active pilot for more than 50 years, aircraft owner and AOPA member, Sen. Jim Inhofe has been at the forefront of every aviation debate since arriving in Congress in 1986, offering his real-world perspective. He was a major force behind passage of the General Aviation Revitalization Act of 1994 that is credited with reviving aviation manufacturing in America. During the current battle over user fees, Inhofe spent countless hours working behind the scenes to educate his colleagues in the Senate about the negative impacts of a user fee-funded system. He even took the unusual step of testifying before the Senate's aviation subcommittee to explain his opposition to user fees and the detrimental impact it would have on general aviation. Oklahoma pilots can be proud of Senator Inhofe's accomplishments and dedication to work on issues affecting pilots."
- Inhofe, Jim (January 19, 2017). "Hugh Hewitt Show" (Interview). Interviewed by Hugh Hewitt.
- Casteel, Chris (December 21, 2008). "U.S. Senator Jim Inhofe's trips to Africa called a 'Jesus thing'". The Oklahoman. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- Sharlet, Jeff (September 27, 2010). "Junkets for Jesus". Mother Jones. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- "Oklahoma tornado: Tom Coburn, James Inhofe voted against 2011 FEMA funds, Sandy aid". Bloomberg News. Retrieved May 22, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- Werner, Rachel; DeLong, Matt (March 21, 2013). "Inhofe: Tornado aid 'totally different' from Hurricane Sandy aid". Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- June, Daniel (May 22, 2013). "Senator Jim Inhofe Voted Against Hurricane Relief Fund, but Says the Oklahoma Tornado Tragedy of His Home State is "Totally Different"". JDJournal. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Cirilli, Kevin (May 28, 2013). "Inhofe: W.H. can't 'Christie' me". Politico. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- "Senator Jim Inhofe announces support for Governor John Kasich". KSWO. March 17, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- Bycoffe, Aaron (January 30, 2017). "Tracking Congress In The Age Of Trump". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Golshan, Tara (October 3, 2017). "Republican senator blames the culture of "sanctuary cities" for mass shootings". Vox. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
- "Cosponsors - S.720 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Israel Anti-Boycott Act". congress.gov. March 23, 2017.
- Levitz, Eric (July 19, 2017). "43 Senators Want to Make It a Federal Crime to Boycott Israeli Settlements". Intelligencer. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
- Edmondson, Catie (December 13, 2018). "James Inhofe Under Fire Over Purchase of Raytheon Stock". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Jalonick, Mary Clare (March 19, 2020). "4 senators sold stock before steep market losses from virus". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- Desjardins, Lisa (September 22, 2020). "What every Republican senator has said about filling a Supreme Court vacancy in an election year". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
- Laviola, Erin. "Senator James Inhofe's Family: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy. Heavy, Inc. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- Joint Committee on Printing (2014). Official Congressional Directory: 113th Congress. Government Printing Office. p. 212. ISBN 9780160919220.
- Lynch, Kerry. "NTSB On Scene Of Perry Inhofe Crash". Aviation Week. Retrieved July 8, 2014.[dead link]
- "Inhofe Honored with Air Force Leadership Award". inhofe.senate.gov. The Office of Senator James M. Inhofe. March 5, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- "Election documents 1968-1974" (PDF). ok.gov.
- "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- "State Election Results, General Election, November 4, 2014". Oklahoma Secretary of State. January 5, 2015. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- Gerald Kutney (February 3, 2014). Carbon Politics and the Failure of the Kyoto Protocol. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-91466-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: James Inhofe|
- Senator James Inhofe official U.S. Senate website
- Reports and White Papers from the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, many of which were produced by Sen. Inhofe's staff
- Jim Inhofe at Curlie
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
- Voices of Oklahoma interview with Jim Inhofe. First person interview conducted on September 29, 2011, with Jim Inhofe.