J. Paul Getty
Getty in 1944
Jean Paul Getty
December 15, 1892
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
|Died||June 6, 1976 (aged 83)|
|Burial place||Getty Villa, Pacific Palisades, California|
|Alma mater||University of Oxford |
University of California, Berkeley
University of Southern California
|Net worth||US$6 billion at the time of his death (approximately $27 billion inflation adjusted, equivalent to 1/893rd of US GNP in 1976)|
Jean Paul Getty (//; December 15, 1892 – June 6, 1976), known widely as J. Paul Getty, was an American-born British petrol-industrialist, and the patriarch of the Getty family. He founded the Getty Oil Company, and in 1957 Fortune magazine named him the richest living American, while the 1966 Guinness Book of Records named him as the world's richest private citizen, worth an estimated $1.2 billion (approximately $7.2 billion in 2018). At his death, he was worth more than $6 billion (approximately $21 billion in 2018). A book published in 1996 ranked him as the 67th richest American who ever lived, based on his wealth as a percentage of the concurrent gross national product.
Despite his vast wealth, Getty was infamously frugal, notably negotiating his grandson's Italian kidnapping ransom in 1973. Getty was an avid collector of art and antiquities. His collection formed the basis of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California, and more than $661 million of his estate was left to the museum after his death. He established the J. Paul Getty Trust in 1953. The trust is the world's wealthiest art institution, and operates the J. Paul Getty Museum Complexes: The Getty Center, The Getty Villa and the Getty Foundation, the Getty Research Institute, and the Getty Conservation Institute.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Marriages, divorces and children
- 4 Kidnapping of grandson John Paul Getty III
- 5 Reputation for frugality
- 6 Later years and death
- 7 Media portrayals
- 8 Published works
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Early life and education
Getty was born into a Christian Scottish American family in Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Sarah Catherine McPherson (Risher) and George Getty, who was an attorney in the insurance industry. Getty was raised as a Methodist by his parents. His father was a devout Christian Scientist and both were strict teetotalers. In 1903, when Getty was 10 years old, George Getty travelled to Bartlesville, Oklahoma and bought the mineral rights for 1,100 acres of land. Within a few years Getty had established wells on the land which were producing 100,000 barrels of crude oil a month.
As newly minted millionaires, the family moved to Los Angeles to escape the harsh Minnesota winters. At age 14, Getty attended Harvard Military School for a year, followed by Polytechnic High School, where he was given the nickname "Dictionary Getty" because of his love of reading. He became fluent in French, German and Italian. Getty was also conversational in Spanish, Greek, Arabic and Russian. A love of the classics led Getty to acquire reading proficiency in Ancient Greek and Latin.
He enrolled at the University of Southern California, then at the University of California, Berkeley, but left both before obtaining a degree. Enamored with Europe after traveling abroad with his parents in 1910, Getty enrolled at the University of Oxford on November 28, 1912. A letter of introduction by then-President of the United States William Howard Taft enabled him to gain independent instruction from tutors at Magdalen College. Although he was not registered at Magdalen, he claimed the aristocratic students "accepted me as one of their own" and he fondly boasted of the friends he made, including Edward VIII, the future King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India. He obtained degrees in economics and political science from Oxford in June 1913, then spent months traveling throughout Europe and Egypt before meeting his parents in Paris and returning with them to America in June 1914.
In the autumn of 1914, George Getty gave his son $10,000 to invest in expanding the family's oil field holdings in Oklahoma. The first lot he bought, the Nancy Taylor No. 1 Oil Well Site near Haskell, Oklahoma was crucial to his early financial success. The well struck oil in August 1915 and by the next summer the 40 percent net production royalty he accrued from it had made him a millionaire.
In 1919, Getty returned to business in Oklahoma. During the 1920s, he added about $3 million to his already sizable estate. His succession of marriages and divorces so distressed his father that Getty inherited only $500,000 of the $10 million fortune his father left at the time of his death in 1930. Getty was left with one-third of the stock from George Getty Inc., while his mother received the remaining two-thirds, giving her a controlling interest.
In 1936, Getty's mother convinced him to contribute to the establishment of a $3.3 million investment trust, called the Sarah C. Getty Trust, to ensure the family's ever-growing wealth could be channeled into a tax-free, secure income for future generations of the Getty family. The trust enabled Getty to have easy access to ready capital, which he was funneling into the purchase of Tidewater Petroleum stock.
Shrewdly investing his resources during the Great Depression, Getty acquired Pacific Western Oil Corporation and began the acquisition (completed in 1953) of the Mission Corporation, which included Tidewater Oil and Skelly Oil. In 1967, Getty merged these holdings into Getty Oil.
Beginning in 1949, Getty paid Ibn Saud $9.5 million in cash and $1 million a year for a 60-year concession to a tract of barren land near the border of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, although no oil had been discovered there. Since 1953, Getty's gamble produced 16 million barrels a year, which contributed greatly to the fortune responsible for making him one of the richest people in the world.
|The meek shall inherit the earth, but not its mineral rights.|
|— dictum attributed to Jean Paul Getty|
Getty's wealth and ability to speak Arabic enabled his unparalleled expansion into the Middle East. Getty owned the controlling interest in about 200 businesses, including Getty Oil. Getty owned Getty Oil, Getty Inc., George F. Getty Inc., Pacific Western Oil Corporation, Mission Corporation, Mission Development Company, Tidewater Oil, Skelly Oil, Mexican Seaboard Oil, Petroleum Corporation of America, Spartan Aircraft Company, Spartan Cafeteria Company, Minnehoma Insurance Company, Minnehoma Financial Company, Pierre Hotel, Pierre Marques Hotel, a 15th-century palace and nearby castle at Ladispoli on the coast northwest of Rome, a Malibu ranch home, and Sutton Place, a 72-room mansion near Guildford, Surrey.
Getty moved to Britain in the 1950s and became a prominent admirer of England, its people, and its culture. He lived and worked at his 16th-century Tudor estate, Sutton Place, which became the center of Getty Oil and his associated companies. Getty used the estate to entertain his British and Arabian friends, including the Rothschild family and numerous rulers of Middle Eastern countries.
Getty's first forays into collecting began in the late 1930s, when he took inspiration from the collection of 18th-century French paintings and furniture owned by the landlord of his New York City penthouse, Amy Guest, a relation of Sir Winston Churchill. A fan of 18th-century France, Getty began buying furniture from the period at reduced prices because of the depressed art market. He wrote several books on collecting, including Europe and the 18th Century (1949), Collector's Choice: The Chronicle of an Artistic Odyssey through Europe (1955) and The Joys of Collecting (1965). His stinginess limited the range of his collecting because he refused to pay full price. Getty's companion in later life, Penelope Kitson, said "Paul was really too mean ever to allow himself to buy a great painting." Nonetheless, at the time of his death he owned more than 600 items valued at more than $4 million, including paintings by Rubens, Titian, Gainsborough, Renoir, Tintoretto, Degas, and Monet. During the 1950s, Getty's interests shifted to Greco-Roman sculpture, which led to the building of the Getty Villa in the 1970s to house the collection. These items were transferred to the Getty Museum and the Getty Villa in Los Angeles after his death.
Marriages, divorces and children
Getty was a notorious womanizer from the time of his youth, something which horrified his conservative Christian parents. His lawyer Robin Lund once said that "Paul could hardly ever say 'no' to a woman, or 'yes' to a man." Lord Beaverbrook had called him "Priapic" and "ever-ready" in his sexual habits.
In 1917, when he was 25, a paternity suit was filed against Getty in Los Angeles by Elsie Eckstrom, who claimed he was the father of her daughter Paula. Eckstrom claimed that Getty had taken her virginity and fathered the child, while his legal team tried to undermine her credibility by claiming that she had a history of promiscuity. Getty agreed to a settlement of $10,000, upon which Eckstrom left town with the baby.
- Jeanette Demont (married 1923 – divorced 1926); one son George F. Getty II (1924–1973)
- Allene Ashby (1926–1928) no children Getty met 17-year-old Ashby, the daughter of a Texas rancher, in Mexico City while he was studying Spanish and overseeing his family's business interests. They eloped to Cuernavaca, Mexico, but the marriage was bigamous as he was not yet divorced from Jeanette. The two quickly decided to dissolve the union while still in Mexico.
- Adolphine Helmle (1928–1932); one son Jean Ronald Getty (1929–2009), whose son, Christopher Ronald Getty, married Pia Miller, sister of Marie-Chantal, Crown Princess of Greece. Like his first and second wives, Adolphine was 17 years old when Getty met her in Vienna. Helmle was the daughter of a prominent German doctor who was opposed to her marrying the twice-divorced, 36-year-old Getty. The two eloped to Cuernavaca, where he had married Allene Ashby, then settled in Los Angeles. Following the birth of their son, Getty lost interest in her and her father convinced her to return to Germany with their child in 1929. After a protracted and contentious battle, their divorce was finalized in August 1932, with Adolphine receiving a huge sum for punitive damages and full custody of Ronald.
- Ann Rork (1932–1936); two sons John Paul Getty Jr. (1932–2003) and Gordon Peter Getty (born 1934). Getty was introduced to Rork when she was 14 years old, but she did not become his romantic partner until she was 21 in 1930. Because he was in the midst of his divorce from Adolphine, the couple had to wait two years before they married. He was largely absent during their marriage, staying for long stretches of time in Europe. She sued him for divorce in 1936 alleging emotional abuse and neglect. She described an incident while the two were abroad in Italy in which she claimed Getty forced her to climb to view the crater of Mount Vesuvius while she was pregnant with their first son. The court decided in her favor and she was awarded $2,500 per month alimony plus $1,000 each in child support for her sons.
- Louise Dudley "Teddy" Lynch (1939–1958); one son Timothy Ware Getty (1946–1958)
In 2013 at age 99, Getty's fifth wife, Louise, known as Teddy Getty Gaston, published a memoir reporting how Getty had scolded her for spending money too freely in the 1950s on the treatment of their six-year-old son, Timmy, who had become blind from a brain tumor. Timmy died at age 12, and Getty, living in England apart from his family who were in the U.S., did not attend the funeral. Gaston divorced Getty that year. Teddy Gaston died in April 2017 at the age of 103.
Getty was quoted as saying "A lasting relationship with a woman is only possible if you are a business failure", and "I hate to be a failure. I hate and regret the failure of my marriages. I would gladly give all my millions for just one lasting marital success."
Kidnapping of grandson John Paul Getty III
In Rome on July 10, 1973, 'Ndrangheta kidnappers abducted Getty's 16-year-old grandson, John Paul Getty III, and demanded a $17 million (equivalent to $98 million in 2019) payment for his safe return. However, the family suspected a ploy by the rebellious teenager to extract money from his miserly grandfather. John Paul Getty Jr. asked his father for the money, but was refused, arguing that his 13 other grandchildren could also become kidnap targets if he paid.
In November 1973, an envelope containing a lock of hair and a human ear arrived at a daily newspaper. The second demand had been delayed three weeks by an Italian postal strike. The demand threatened that Paul would be further mutilated unless the victims paid $3.2 million. The demand stated "This is Paul's ear. If we don't get some money within 10 days, then the other ear will arrive. In other words, he will arrive in little bits."
When the kidnappers finally reduced their demands to $3 million, Getty agreed to pay no more than $2.2 million (equivalent to $12.7 million in 2019), the maximum that would be tax-deductible. He lent his son the remaining $800,000 at four percent interest. Getty's grandson was found alive on December 15, 1973, in a Lauria filling station, in the province of Potenza, shortly after the ransom was paid. After his release, the younger Getty called his grandfather to thank him for paying the ransom but Getty refused to come to the phone. Nine people associated with 'Ndrangheta were later arrested for the kidnapping, but only two were convicted. Getty III was permanently affected by the trauma and became a drug addict. After a stroke brought on by a cocktail of drugs and alcohol in 1981, Getty III was rendered speechless, nearly blind and partially paralyzed for the rest of his life. He died on February 5, 2011, at the age of 54.
Getty defended his initial refusal to pay the ransom on two points. He argued that his 13 other grandchildren could also become kidnap targets if he paid, and also stated, "The second reason for my refusal was much broader-based. I contend that acceding to the demands of criminals and terrorists merely guarantees the continuing increase and spread of lawlessness, violence and such outrages as terror-bombings, "skyjackings" and the slaughter of hostages that plague our present-day world."
Nine of the kidnappers were apprehended, including Girolamo Piromalli and Saverio Mammoliti, high-ranking members of the 'Ndrangheta, a Mafia organization in Calabria. Two of the kidnappers were convicted and sent to prison; the others were acquitted for lack of evidence, including the 'Ndrangheta bosses. Most of the ransom money was never recovered.
Reputation for frugality
Many anecdotal stories exist of Getty's reputed thriftiness and parsimony, which struck observers as comical, even perverse, because of his extreme wealth. The two most widely known examples are his reluctance to pay his grandson's $17 million Italian kidnapping ransom and a notorious pay-phone he had installed at Sutton Place. A darker incident was his fifth wife's claim that Getty had scolded her for spending too much on their terminally ill son's medical treatment, though he was worth tens of millions of dollars at the time. He was well known for bargaining on almost everything to obtain the lowest possible price, including suites at luxury hotels and virtually all purchases of art work and real estate. In 1959, Sutton Place, a 72-room mansion, was purchased from George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 5th Duke of Sutherland, for £60,000, about half of what the Duke paid for it 40 years earlier.
- Getty's secretary claimed that Getty did his laundry by hand because he didn't want to pay for his clothes to be laundered. When his shirts became frayed at the cuffs, he would trim the frayed part instead of purchasing new shirts.
- Re-using stationery was another obsession of Getty's. He had a habit of writing responses to letters on the margins or back sides and mailing them back, rather than use a new sheet of paper. He also carefully saved and re-used manila envelopes, rubber bands and other office supplies.
- When Getty took a group of friends to a dog show in London, he made them walk around the block for 10 minutes until the tickets became half-priced at 5 pm, because he didn't want to pay the full 5 shillings per head.
- Getty moved to Sutton Place in part because the cost of living was cheaper than in London, where he had resided at the Ritz. He once boasted to American columnist Art Buchwald that it cost 10 cents for a rum and coke at Sutton Place, whereas at the Ritz it was more than a dollar.
Author John Pearson attributed part of Getty's extreme penny-pinching to the Methodist sensibility of Getty's upbringing, which emphasized modest living and personal economy. His business acumen was also a major factor in Getty's thriftiness. "He would allow himself no self-indulgence in the purchase of a place to live, a work of art, even a piece of furniture, unless he could convince himself that it would appreciate in value."  Getty claimed his frugality towards others was a response to people taking advantage of him and not paying their fair share. "It's not the money I object to, it's the principle of the thing that bothers me ..."
Getty famously had a pay phone installed at Sutton Place, helping to seal his reputation as a miser. Getty placed dial-locks on all the regular telephones, limiting their use to authorized staff, and the coin-box telephone was installed for others. In his autobiography, he described his reasons:
Now, for months after Sutton Place was purchased, great numbers of people came in and out of the house. Some were visiting businessmen. Others were artisans or workmen engaged in renovation and refurbishing. Still others were tradesmen making deliveries of merchandise. Suddenly, the Sutton Place telephone bills began to soar. The reason was obvious. Each of the regular telephones in the house has direct access to outside lines and thus to long-distance and even overseas operators. All sorts of people were making the best of a rare opportunity. They were picking up Sutton Place phones and placing calls to girlfriends in Geneva or Georgia and to aunts, uncles and third cousins twice-removed in Caracas and Cape Town. The costs of their friendly chats were, of course, charged to the Sutton Place bill.
When speaking in a televised interview with Alan Whicker in February 1963, Getty said that he thought guests would want to use a payphone. After 18 months, Getty explained, "the in-and-out traffic flow at Sutton subsided. Management and operation of the house settled into a reasonable routine. With that, the pay-telephone [was] removed, and the dial-locks were taken off the telephones in the house."
Later years and death
On June 30, 1960, Getty threw a 21st birthday party for a relation of his friend, the 16th Duke of Norfolk, which served as a housewarming party for the newly purchased Sutton Place. Party goers were irritated by Getty's stinginess, such as not providing cigarettes and relegating everyone to using creosote portable toilets outside. At about 10 p.m. the party descended into pandemonium as party crashers arrived from London, swelling the already overcrowded halls and causing an estimated £20,000 in damages. A valuable silver ewer by the 18th century silversmith Paul de Lamerie was stolen, but returned anonymously when the London newspapers began covering the theft. The failure of the event made Getty the object of ridicule and he never threw another large party again.
Getty remained an inveterate hard worker, boasting at age 74 that he often worked 16 to 18 hours per day overseeing his operations across the world. The value of Getty Oil shares quadrupled during the Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur War of October 1973 which caused a worldwide oil shortage for years. Getty's earnings topped $25.8 million in 1975.
Getty's insatiable appetite for sex also continued into his 80s. He used an experimental drug, H3, to maintain his potency. Getty met the English interior designer Penelope Kitson in the 1950s and entrusted her with decorating his homes and the public rooms of the oil tankers he was launching. From 1960, Kitson resided in a cottage on the grounds of Sutton Place. Getty and Kitson maintained a platonic relationship and Getty held her in high respect and trust. Other mistresses who resided at Sutton Place included the married Mary Teissier, a distant cousin of the last Tsar of Russia, Lady Ursula d'Abo, who had close connections to the British Royal Family, and Nicaraguan-born Rosabella Burch.
The New York Times wrote of Getty's domestic arrangement "[Getty] ended his life with a collection of desperately hopeful women, all living together in his Tudor mansion in England, none of them aware that his favorite pastime was rewriting his will, changing his insultingly small bequests: $209 a month to one, $1,167 to another." Only Kitson received a significant bequest upon Getty's death, receiving 5,000 shares of Getty Oil, which doubled in value during the 1980s, and a $1,167 monthly income.
Getty died of heart failure at the age of 83 on June 6, 1976 in Sutton Place near Guildford, Surrey. He was buried in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles County, California at the Getty Villa. The gravesite is not open to the public.
The 2017 film All the Money in the World, directed by Ridley Scott and adapted from the book Painfully Rich: The Outrageous Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Heirs of J. Paul Getty by John Pearson, is a dramatization of the abduction of Getty's grandson. Kevin Spacey originally portrayed Getty. However, after multiple sexual assault allegations against the actor, Spacey's scenes were cut and re-shot with Christopher Plummer, who was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance.
- Getty, J. Paul. The history of the bigger oil business of George F.S. F. and J. Paul Getty from 1903 to 1939. Los Angeles?, 1941, OCLC 693373380
- Getty, J. Paul. Europe in the Eighteenth Century. [Santa Monica, Calif.]: privately printed, 1949, OCLC 1539420
- Le Vane, Ethel, and J. Paul Getty. Collector's Choice: The Chronicle of an Artistic Odyssey through Europe. London: W.H. Allen, 1955, OCLC 901152222
- Getty, J. Paul. My Life and Fortunes. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1963, OCLC 804426417
- Getty, J. Paul. The Joys of Collecting. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1965, OCLC 756465638
- Getty, J. Paul. How to be Rich. Chicago: Playboy Press, 1965, OCLC 702557306
- Getty, J. Paul. The Golden Age. New York: Trident Press, 1968, OCLC 3039906
- Getty, J. Paul. How to be a Successful Executive. Chicago: Playboy Press, 1971, OCLC 11409794
- Getty, J. Paul. As I See It: The Autobiography of J. Paul Getty. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, 1976. ISBN 0-13-049593-X, OCLC 1078950701
- Klepper, Michael; Gunther, Michael (1996), The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates—A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present, Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, p. xiii, ISBN 978-0-8065-1800-8, OCLC 33818143
- Whitman, Alden (June 6, 1976). "J. Paul Getty Dead at 83; Amassed Billions From Oil". On This Day. The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016.
- Lubar, Robert (March 17, 1986). "The Odd Mr. Getty: The possibly richest man in the world was mean, miserly, sexy, fearful of travel and detergents". Fortune. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- McWhirter, Norris; McWhirter, Ross (1966). Guinness Book of Records. London, England: Jim Pattison Group. p. 229.
- Lenzner, Robert. The great Getty: the life and loves of J. Paul Getty, richest man in the world. New York: Crown Publishers, 1985. ISBN 0-517-56222-7
- Klepper, Michael M.; Gunther, Robert E. (1996). The wealthy 100: from Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates: a ranking of the richest Americans, past and present. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1800-6.
- Wyatt, Edward (April 30, 2009). "Getty Fees and Budget Reassessed". The New York Times. New York City. p. C1. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Creag Dubh The Annual of the Clan MacPherson Association, no 71, p62 The McPherson ancestry of the Getty Family
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 20.
- Alden Whitman (June 6, 1976). "J. Paul Getty Dead at 83; Amassed Billions from Oil". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Tran, Mark (July 12, 2001). "The Getty fortune". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Museum, J. Paul Getty (2007). The J. Paul Getty Museum: Handbook of the Collections. Getty Publications. ISBN 9780892368877.
- Pearson, John (1995). Painfully Rich. New York City: Harper Collins. p. 29.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 34.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 47.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 63–5.
- Manser, Martin H. (April 2007). The Facts on File dictionary of proverbs. Infobase Publishing. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-8160-6673-5. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Farnsworth, Clyde H. (July 30, 1964). "Surrey Estate Seat of Getty Empire". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 72.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 84.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 86–7.
- Miller, Julie (March 25, 2018). "Yes, J. Paul Getty Reportedly Had as Many Live-In Girlfriends as FX's Trust Claims". Vanity Fair. New York City. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Pearson, John (1995). Painfully Rich. New York City: Harper Collins. p. 36–7.
- Pearson, John (1995). Painfully Rich. New York City: Harper Collins. p. 37.
- Bevis Hillier (March 26, 1986). "The Great Getty : THE LIFE AND LOVES OF J. PAUL GETTY—RICHEST MAN IN THE WORLD by Robert Lenzner (Crown: $18.95; 304 pp.) : THE HOUSE OF GETTY by Russell Miller (Henry Holt: $17.65; 362 pp.)". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
- Vallely, Paul (July 19, 2007). "Don't keep it in the family". The Independent. London, England: Independent Print Ltd. Archived from the original on December 26, 2010 – via The Wayback Machine.
- Getty, Jean Paul (1976). As I see it: the autobiography of J. Paul Getty. Los Angeles, California: Getty Publications. p. 91. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- Pearson, John (1995). Painfully Rich. New York City: Harper Collins. p. 42.
- Pearson, John (1995). Painfully Rich. New York City: Harper Collins. p. 45.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 48,59–60.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 71.
- Newman, Judith (August 30, 2013). "His Favorite Wife: 'Alone Together,' by Teddy Getty Gaston". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- Miller, Mike (April 10, 2017). "J. Paul Getty's Ex-Wife Teddy Getty Gaston Dies at 103". People. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Bloom, Linda; Bloom, Charlie (April 24, 2012). "The Price of Success". Psychology Today. New York City: Sussex Publishers. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- "Sir Paul Getty (obituary)". The Daily Telegraph. London, England. April 17, 2003. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Profile: Sir John Paul Getty II". BBC News. London, England. June 13, 2001. Archived from the original on February 18, 2007. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Il rapimento di Paul Getty". Il Post (in Italian). July 10, 2013. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Weber, Bruce (February 7, 2011). "J. Paul Getty III, 54, Dies; Had Ear Cut Off by Captors". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on March 24, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Getty, 1976, p. 139
- Catching the Kidnappers, Time, 28 January 1974
- J. Paul Getty III, 54, Dies; Had Ear Cut Off by Captors, The New York Times, 7 February 2011
- "J. Paul Getty III dies at 54; scion of oil dynasty", Los Angeles Times, 7 February 2011
- Nicolaou, Elana (March 25, 2018). "Was J Paul Getty Really THAT Cheap?". New York City: Refinery29. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 113.
- Jackson, Debbie (December 10, 2017). "Throwback Tulsa: Billionaire J. Paul Getty got his start in Tulsa". Tulsa World. Tulsa, Oklahoma. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 69, 121.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 42.
- Miller, Julie (December 22, 2017). "The Enigma of J. Paul Getty, the One-Time Richest Man in the World". Vanity Fair. New York City. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Getty, 1976, pg.319
- "The Solitary Billionaire J. Paul Getty". Talk at the BBC. BBC. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
- Talk at the BBC, BBC Four, April 5, 2012
- Getty, 1976, p. 320
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 119.
- Anthony Haden-Guest (September 27, 2015). "How Wild Was J. Paul Getty's Notorious British Party?". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on September 20, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- John Pearson (1995). Painfully Rich. Harper Collins. p. 199.
- O'Reilly, Jane (March 30, 1986). "Isn't It Funny What Money Can Do?". The New York Times. New York City. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- "J. Paul Getty (1892–1976)". Find a Grave.[non-primary source needed]
- Giardina, Carolyn (December 18, 2017). "Ridley Scott Reveals How Kevin Spacey Was Erased From 'All the Money in the World'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- "Oscars: 'Shape of Water' Leads With 13 Noms". The Hollywood Reporter. January 23, 2018. Archived from the original on January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- Petski, Denise (January 5, 2018). "FX Sets 'Atlanta' & 'The Americans' Return Dates, 'Trust' Premiere – TCA". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 6, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- Hewins, Ralph. The Richest American: J. Paul Getty. New York: Dutton, 1960.
- Lund, Robina. The Getty I Knew. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1977. ISBN 0-8362-6601-3.
- Miller, Russell. The House of Getty. New York: Henry Holt, 1985. ISBN 0-8050-0023-2.
- de Chair, Somerset Struben. Getty on Getty: a man in a billion. London: Cassell, 1989. ISBN 0-304-31807-8.
- Pearson, John. Painfully Rich: J. Paul Getty and His Heirs. London: Macmillan, 1995. ISBN 0-333-59033-3.
- Wooster, Martin Morse. Philanthropy Hall of Fame, J. Paul Getty. philanthropyroundtable.org.
- J. Paul Getty diaries, 1938–1946, 1948–1976 finding aid, Getty Research Institute.
- J. Paul Getty family collected papers, 1880s–1989, undated (bulk 1911–1977) finding aid, Getty Research Institute.