The Ituri conflict (French: Guerre d'Ituri) was a major conflict between the agriculturalist Lendu and pastoralist Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). While the two groups had fought since as early as 1972, the name 'Ituri conflict' refers to the period of intense violence between 1999 and 2003. Armed conflict continues to the present day.
The conflict was largely set off by the Second Congo War, which had led to increased ethnic consciousness, a large supply of small arms, and the formation of various armed groups. More long-term factors include land disputes, natural resources, and the existing ethnic tensions throughout the region. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) while the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) claimed to be fighting for the Hema.
The conflict was extremely violent. Large-scale massacres were perpetrated by members of both ethnic factions. In 2006, the BBC reported that as many as 60,000 people had died in Ituri since 1998. Médecins Sans Frontières said "The ongoing conflict in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), has led to more than 50,000 deaths, more than 500,000 displaced civilians and continuing, unacceptably high, mortality since 1999." Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes, becoming refugees.
In June 2003, the European Union began Operation Artemis, sending a French-led peacekeeping force to Ituri. The EU force managed to take control of the regional capital of Bunia. Despite this, fighting and massacres continued in the countryside. In December 2003, the Hema-backed UPC split and fighting decreased significantly.
"[L]ong-dormant" land disputes between "Hema herders and Lendu farmers" were re-ignited in December 2017 resulting in a surge of massacres with entire Hema villages razed and over a hundred casualties. Tens of thousands fled to Uganda. While the massacres by Lendu militia ceased in mid-March 2018, "crop destruction, kidnappings, and killings" continued. The UN estimated that as many as 120 Hema villages were attacked by Lendu militia from December 2017 through August 2018.
- 1 Background
- 2 Main conflict
- 3 Peacekeeping operations (2003–2006)
- 4 Aftermath (2006–2008)
- 5 2008–present
- 6 Since December 2017 (ongoing)
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Ethnic tension between the Lendu and Hema can be traced to the colonial period, when the area was part of the Belgian Congo. The Belgian colonial administrators favored the pastoralist Hema, resulting in education and wealth disparities between the two groups. This divergence continued into modern times. Despite this, the two peoples have largely lived together peacefully and extensively intermarried. While the southern Hema speak their own language, the northern Hema speak Lendu.
The Hema and Lendu have longstanding grievances about land issues that had erupted into conflict on at least three previous occasions: 1972, 1985 and 1996. Much of the animosity revolves around the 1973 land use law, which allows people to buy land they do not inhabit and, if their ownership is not contested for two years, evict any residents from the land. Some wealthy Hema used this law to force Lendu off their land, leading to a growing sense of resentment.
The 1994 Rwandan genocide sent psychological shockwaves throughout the Great Lakes region. The murder of 800,000 people on the basis of ethnicity served to make people even more aware of their tribal and linguistic affiliations. The subsequent influx of Hutu refugees into the region, which led to the First Congo War, served as further emphasis. However, it was not until the Second Congo War, which began in 1998, that the situation between the Hema and Lendu reached the level of regional conflict. Much of the northern DRC, including Orientale Province (of which Ituri is a part), was occupied by the invading Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF) and the Ugandan-backed Kisangani faction of the rebel Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD-K) under the leadership of Ernest Wamba dia Wamba. The widespread conflict was accompanied by an influx of assault rifles and other firearms.
UPDF splits off Ituri province (June 1999)
In June 1999 James Kazini, the commander of UPDF forces in the DRC, over the protests of the RCD-K leadership created a new province, Ituri, out of eastern Orientale Province. He then named a Hema as governor. This apparently convinced the Lendu that Uganda and the RCD-K were backing the Hema against them, and violence erupted between the two groups, resulting in the Blukwa massacre in which more than 400 ethnic Hemas were massacred by Lendu militias. The UPDF did little to stop the fighting but did, in some cases, aid the Hema. However, even as the fighting intensified the UPDF continued to train both Hema and Lendu. Reports indicate that Lendu trainees refused to join the RCD-K and instead set up ethnically-based militias.
Temporary cessation of hostilities (1999–2001)
The fighting did not begin to slow until the RCD-K named a neutral replacement to head the provincial government in late 1999. In the months prior approximately 200,000 people were displaced from their homes and 7,000 were killed in the fighting. An unknown number died of conflict-related disease and malnutrition, but mortality rates as high as fifteen percent were recorded during two measles outbreaks in the affected regions.
Renewed fighting (2001–2003)
The fighting flared again in 2001 after the UPDF replaced the neutral governor with a Hema appointee. The RCD-K appointed governor was taken to Kampala and held by the Ugandan government without explanation. In this period, an internal power struggle in the RCD-K resulted in a splitting of the organization into the RCD-K of Ernest Wamba dia Wamba and the RCD-Mouvement de Libération (RCD-ML) of Mbusa Nyamwisi, which had prominent Hema among its leadership. Wamba dia Wamba returned to Bunia to denounce a proposed merger of the three major Ugandan-backed rebel groups, the RCD-K, the RCD-ML and Movement for the Liberation of Congo, as a Ugandan imposition. The quick collapse of Wamba dia Wamba's military base without Ugandan support is most probably a direct result of a perceived pro-Lendu stance.
Peacekeeping operations (2003–2006)
In the beginning of 2003 UN observer teams present in DRC since 1999 monitored serious combat and human rights violations in Ituri. In April 2003, 800 Uruguayan soldiers were deployed in Bunia. In the same month an observer died in a mine explosion. In May 2003 two military observers were killed by militiamen. The withdrawal of 7,000 Ugandan troops in April 2003 led to a deteriorating security situation in the Ituri region, endangering the peace process. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan called for establishing and deploying a temporary multi-national force to the area until the weakened UN mission could be reinforced. On May 30, 2003, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1484 authorizing the deployment of an Interim Multinational Emergency Force (IMEF) to Bunia tasked with securing the airport, and protecting internally displaced persons in camps and civilians in the town.
The French government had already shown interest in leading the IMEF operation. It soon broadened to an EU-led mission with France as the framework nation providing the bulk of the personnel, complemented by contributions from both EU and non-EU nations. The total force consisted of about 1800 personnel and was supported by French aircraft based at N'Djamena and Entebbe airfields. A small 80-man Swedish Special Forces group, (SSG), was also added. The operation, Operation Artemis, launched on 12 June and the IMEF completed its deployment over the following three weeks. The force was successful in stabilizing the situation in Bunia and enforcing the UN presence in the DRC. In September 2003 responsibility for the security of the region was handed over to the UN mission.
The Lendu FNI and Union of Congolese Patriots militias murdered nine Bangladeshi peacekeepers near the town of Kafe on 25 February 2005, the largest single UN loss since the Rwandan genocide. In response, UN forces assaulted a FNI stronghold, killing 50 militiamen. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, the leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots, and other militia leaders were arrested by Congolese authorities and imprisoned in Makala Prison, Kinshasa. Lubanga was accused of having ordered the killing of the peacekeepers in February 2005 and of being behind continuous insecurity in the area. On February 10, 2006, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Lubanga for the war crime of "conscripting and enlisting children under the age of fifteen years and using them to participate actively in hostilities". Congolese authorities transferred Lubanga to ICC custody on 17 March 2006.  Lubanga was found guilty in 2012 and sentenced to 14 years imprisonment, becoming the first person convicted by the ICC.
On 1 April 2005, the UN reported that less than half of the 15,000 militia members had disarmed by the deadline set. Peacekeeper Colonel Hussein Mahmoud stated that the MONUC would now aggressively and forcibly disarm the remaining militias. In April 2006 one Nepalese peacekeeper was killed and seven were taken hostage by the FNI. MONUC confirmed that seven of its peacekeepers were captured in an area 100 km east of Bunia, in the disputed northeastern region of Ituri. In May 2006 the FNI released the seven Nepalese peacekeepers. On 9 October 2006, MONUC reported that 12 FNI militiamen were killed in clashes with the Congolese army. MONUC spokesman Leocadio Salmeron stated that “no population movements have been observed” as a result of the fighting.
Human Rights Watch has documented that AngloGold Ashanti, a subsidiary of mining conglomerate Anglo American, among others, supported the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI). Payments were made to facilitate mining operations near the town of Mongbwalu, and gold was smuggled through Uganda to Europe and beyond. The proceeds from the gold trade were shared by the companies and armed militias. Following the release of the HRW report in June 2005, the Switzerland-based Metalor Technologies, the area's largest gold refiner, agreed to stop buying gold from Uganda.
On 17 October 2006, an Amnesty International, Oxfam, and International Action Network on Small Arms joint-research effort in Ituri found US, Russian, Chinese, South African, and Greek bullets. The researchers stated that: “this is just one example of how lax arms controls fuel conflict and suffering worldwide. UN arms embargoes are like dams against tidal waves.”
On 11 October 2006, as part of the agreement that led to the release of the Nepalese peacekeepers and following a ministerial decree signed on 2 October, Congolese Defence Minister Adolphe Onusumba announced that FNI leader Peter Karim and Congolese Revolutionary Movement (MRC) leader Martin Ngudjolo were both appointed to the rank Colonel in the Congolese army, commanding 3,000 troops each.
Disarmament and reconciliation
The conflict has also seen the abduction and enslavement of civilians by armed troops. On October 16, 2006, Human Rights Watch stated that the DRC government needed to investigate and prosecute members of its army who had abducted civilians and their used them as forced labour, and called for an end to the practice. The whereabouts of nine civilians abducted on September 17 and 20 civilians abducted on August 11 remained unknown.
On 30 October a Congolese army officer, allegedly drunk, shot and killed two election officials in Fataki, Congo, which provoked a riot. He was sentenced to death the next day. On November 24, DRC's military prosecutor announced that three mass graves containing the bodies of about 30 people had been discovered in Bavi, Ituri. The commander of the battalion stationed in the town and a captain in charge of maintaining discipline were arrested.
In November 2006 the Ituri Patriotic Resistance Front, the last of the three militias involved in the conflict, agreed to a deal by which up to 5000 fighters would release hundreds of child soldiers and disarm in exchange for an amnesty. Militia members would be incorporated into the national army and their leaders made officers in the wake of general elections endorsing the government of Joseph Kabila. The FNI became the last militia turn over its weapons in April 2007, although disarmament and demobilization continued through May.
Germain Katanga, the former leader of the FRPI, was surrendered on 17 October 2007 by the Congolese authorities to the International Criminal Court. On 7 March 2014 Katanga was convicted by the ICC on five counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, as an accessory to the February 2003 massacre in the village of Bogoro, about 25 km southeast of Bunia, the provincial capital of Ituri. The verdict was the second-ever conviction for the International Criminal Court, following the conviction of Thomas Lubanga Dyilo.
The Second Congo War officially ended in 2003, but conflict continued in Ituri, with tens of thousands more killed. The continued conflict has been blamed both on the lack of any real authority in the region, which has become a patchwork of areas claimed by armed militias, and the competition among the various armed groups for control of natural resources in the area. The largest of these rebel groups is the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (FPRI), a Lendu-based group formed in 2002.
FRPI attacks (2008–2012)
Despite agreeing to a ceasefire in 2006, a splinter group of FRPI militants launched sporadic attacks on government forces and the civilian population beginning in 2008. These attacks included many atrocities, including rape, arson, and looting. In January 2010, Kakado Barnaba Yunga, the spiritual leader of the FPRI, was brought to trial in Bunia. Yunga was accused of launching a rebellion, looting, rape, and cannibalism, among other crimes. Over the next few years, tens of thousands of civilians were displaced by FRPI militants, who continued to attack them and commit numerous crimes.
FARDC counter-attacks and surrender offers (2012–2014)
As the attacks from the FRPI mounted, the FARDC (the Congolese military) began large-scale operations against them. Cattle and other stolen property were recovered and returned to the local population. Slowly, FRPI militants began disbanding, and many were incorporated into the FARDC.
FRPI: (2014–December 2017)
In spite of government efforts, the FRPI attacks civilians to this day, particularly since 2014. More property has been stolen and more crimes have been committed. Militants may be using bases in Uganda to aid in operations. Although FRPI commander Mbadu Adirodu promised to surrender 300 militants in May 2015, by June peace negotiations had broken down and fighting continued.
Since December 2017 (ongoing)
By December 18, 2017, the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) announced that it would be closing its base in Bogoro, site of the February 2003 Bogoro massacre. Ituri residents in that region feared a recurrence of the 2003 violence with the withdrawal of MONUSCO troops.[Notes 1]
"[L]ong-dormant" land disputes between "Hema herders and Lendu farmers" were re-ignited in December 2017. According to an August 2018 Vice News report, for ten years prior to the 2017 outbreak of violence, the Lendu and Hema communities lived in "relative peace, sharing the same marketplaces and intermarrying". Rumors of violence began spreading in the summer of 2017, but the Hema community were shocked "when neighbors became murderers overnight". The report also noted that some the Lendu community members rejected claims that this was an ethnic conflict.[Notes 2] Human Rights Watch's Central Africa director, Ida Sawyer said, "The violence started with incredible speed and seemed, for many in the region, to come out of nowhere."
Médecins Sans Frontières said that fighting broke out again in Ituri near Djugu. By mid-February 2018, entire Ituri villages had been burned to the ground and many others completely abandoned.
Starting in January Congolese began to cross Lake Albert to safety in Uganda. By the last two weeks of February 2018 more than 40,000 people had made the journey to Uganda via Lake Albert. By February 2018, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) report, there were an estimated 66,000 children internally displaced and another 25,000 refugees in Uganda. By mid-February, 2018, 20,000 villagers had been displaced from Ituru villages to Bunia, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)'s Idrissa Conteh.
According to MSF, the Ugandan government confirmed an outbreak of cholera in the areas of the existing refugee camps. In the last two weeks of February MSF reported that there were more than 1,000 hospitalizations with cholera and 30 deaths from the disease.
On March 1 and 2, 2018, more than forty civilians were killed in a major Lendu attack on the village of Maze, about 80 kilometres north of Bunia. in Ituri province. According to a March 7, 2018 report, the violence between the Hema and Lendu ethnic groups in Ituri province continued to increase in several DRC provinces over the "control of disputed land." As part of a wave of violence, three Uturi villages were attacked and 39 Uturian were killed—10 people in Djo, ten in Gbi, and 19 in Logo Takpa near Tche. By mid-March the massacres had ceased but "crop destruction, kidnappings, and killings" continued.
By March 2, 2018, after the second deadly attack in March over land disputes between have reignited a long-dormant ethnic conflict and caused thousands to flee, the United Nations warned that the DRC was at a "breaking point" with ten million Congolese needing humanitarian aid and 4.5 million internally displaced. The BBC reported March 2 that the army said it had separated the fighters from one another. At least 33 and as many as 49 people had been killed, some of them beheaded.
By March 3, 2018, thousands of people were fleeing the violence that resulted in over one hundred casualties.
In early April 2019, the FARDC killed 38 militants and captured eight, along with several weapons, in the Mambasa Territory. In late April the FARDC lost four soldiers and killed six militants during an operation in the Djugu territory.
In June 2019, 240 people were killed in a wave of violence that lead to more than 300,000 people fleeing.
- Kivu conflict
- Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo
- The Challenges of Multi-Layered Security Governance in Ituri
- Ituru at Smithsonian Center for Tropical Forest Science
- Overview of aid in Ituri
- "The United States remains the largest humanitarian donor in DRC and the largest financial contributor to MONUSCO" Archived August 2, 2018, at the Wayback Machine."
- "“This is not an ethnic conflict Archived August 1, 2018, at the Wayback Machine,” Jean-Marie Ndjaza Linde, the vice-president of the Lendu community’s cultural association, told me in early March, as massacres were still occurring on a daily basis. “This war is not our war. This has been imposed on us by an invisible hand. Ngabu Kaparri Jean-Pierre, a Lendu and a deputy MP in the region from 2006-2011, told me that there might be “a plan to make the two tribes fight (Turse 2018).”
- Vice News "independently corroborate[d] 31 village attacks: Angolou, Blukwa, Bule, Cite, Dhendro, Dii, Joo, Kafe, Kakwa, Kasenyi, Kawa, Kparnganza, Kpi, Kpi, Logo Takpa, Lovi, Marifa, Maze, Metu, Nyamamba, Reta, Rule, Sala, Sbii, Sombosa, Sombuso, Songamaya, Talega, Tara, Tche, Tchele, and Tchomia. Hema community listed 62 more villages. The UN estimated that as many as 120 villages were attacked from December 2017 through August 2018.
- "Ituri : les FARDC face à une nouvelle milice, FPJC, à Kagaba". October 4, 2008. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Bunia: 28 miliciens de la FRPI se sont rendus". Radio Okapi. November 27, 2014. Archived from the original on December 31, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Reddition d'environ 300 miliciens de la FRPI en Ituri". Radio Okapi. May 18, 2015. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Ituri : la FRPI accusée d'exactions dans plusieurs villages". Radio Okapi. September 19, 2014. Archived from the original on December 9, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "The case of the prosecutor vs. Katanga and Chui" (PDF). AMCC. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Bunia : début du procès Kakado, chef spirituel des miliciens de la FRPI". January 21, 2010. Archived from the original on January 8, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Ituri : les Fardc anticipent une incursion des assaillants à Djungu Archived April 24, 2019, at the Wayback Machine (in French). Digitalcongo.net. Published 24 April 2019.
- "Ituri: sécurité, il y a des progrès mais la vigilance s'impose, selon Babacar Gaye". July 20, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- ITURI UPDATE: OPERATIONS AGAINST MILITIAS "BEARING FRUIT". US State Department cable, 26 October 2005, WikiLeaks.
- "RDC: le groupe armé du FRPI de nouveau actif dans l'Ituri" (in French). April 6, 2015. Archived from the original on February 3, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- FARDC'S FIRST INTEGRATED ARMY BATTALION DEPLOYED TO ITURI. US State Department cable, 25 August 2004, WikiLeaks.
- "Eastern DR Congo rebels to disarm" Archived September 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, BBC, Published: 2006/11/30 01:39:24 GMT, By Karen Allen, BBC News, Bunia
- Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Conflict Name: Hema – Lendu, Conflict Summary, Non-state Conflict Archived June 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Ahoua, L.; Tamrat, A.; Duroch, F.; Grais, R. F.; Brown, V. (2006). "High mortality in an internally displaced population in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2005: results of a rapid assessment under difficult conditions". Global Public Health. 1 (3): 195–204. doi:10.1080/17441690600681869. PMID 19153907.
- "UN warns situation in DR Congo reaching 'breaking point' UN warns situation in DR Congo reaching 'breaking point'". Deutsche Welle (DW). March 2, 2018. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
The second deadly attack in a month happened where land disputes have reignited a long-dormant ethnic conflict and caused thousands to flee. The UN has warned the situation in the DRC has reached "a breaking point."
- Turse, Nick (August 1, 2018). "Chapter 1: No Peace". A Slaughter in Silence. Bunia, Democratic Republic of Congo. Archived from the original on August 1, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Turse, Nick (August 1, 2018). "Chapter 1: How We Reported this Story". A Slaughter in Silence. Bunia, Democratic Republic of Congo. Archived from the original on August 1, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
There are currently "6.8 million internally displaced Congolese and 552,000 Congolese refugees spread across sub-Saharan Africa."
- Turse, Nick (August 1, 2018). "Chapter 2: No Rescue". A Slaughter in Silence. Bunia, Democratic Republic of Congo. Archived from the original on August 1, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- "Justice in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A background". The Hague Justice Portal. December 17, 2009. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012.
- Staff (January 29, 2000). "End Congo massacres, urges aid agency". BBC News. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Gough, David (February 13, 2000). "Tribal rivalry sparks killing spree". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012.
- Gough, David (February 27, 2000). "Ethnic war deepens in Congo". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Bryan Mealer (February 26, 2005). "Gunmen Kill 9 Peacekeepers in Congo". Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
- "War crimes court finds Lubanga guilty in landmark ruling". March 14, 2012. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
- “DRC: 12 militias killed in clashes with army in Ituri” Archived January 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, October 9, 2006
- "Gold Smuggling in Uganda" Archived February 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Human Rights Watch, 2005
- “Arms exporters to embargoed Congo revealed” Archived October 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, afrol News, October 17, 2006
- “DRC: Two militia leaders appointed army colonels” Archived October 17, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, IRIN, October 11, 2006
- “DR Congo: Army Abducts Civilians for Forced Labor” Archived January 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, October 16, 2006
- “DRC soldier to be killed for murdering officials” Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, South African Broadcasting Corporation, October 31, 2006
- “Mass graves found in DRC” Archived October 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Mail & Guardian, November 24, 2006
- “Eastern DR Congo rebels to disarm” Archived September 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, November 30, 2006
- " DRC: Another rebel group gives up arms" Archived May 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, IRIN, February 28, 2007
- " DRC: More rebels hand in arms in Ituri" Archived May 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, IRIN, May 11, 2007
- Crawshaw, Steve (March 7, 2014). "Germain Katanga: Guilty of war crimes, the brutal warlord who terrorised the Democratic Republic of Congo". The Independent. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- Bartrop, Paul R.; Jacobs, Steven Leonard (December 17, 2014). Modern Genocide: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 2270. ISBN 978-1610693639.
- "Bunia: le FRPI arrache deux localités aux FARDC". September 29, 2008. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri : le village de Kombokabo sous contrôle des miliciens FPJC". October 9, 2008. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Walendu Pindi : des combats opposent les miliciens du FJPC et les FARDC". April 14, 2009. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Bunia : chef spirituel du FRPI, Kakado Barnaba désormais poursuivi pour crime de guerre". February 6, 2010. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri: retour au calme après les affrontements entre miliciens du FRPI et FARDC". October 9, 2011. Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri: cinquième attaque du FRPI à Irumu depuis le début du mois". October 14, 2011. Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri : une nouvelle attaque du FRPI fait 30 000 déplacés". October 20, 2011. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri : des centaines de personnes et leur bétail fuient les attaques du FRPI". August 15, 2012. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- "Ituri : 2 vieilles femmes violées lors de l'attaque des miliciens de FRPI à Irumu". Radio Okapi. May 19, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "RDC: les FARDC tuent une dizaine de miliciens de la FRPI en Ituri". Radio Okapi. November 2, 2013. Archived from the original on July 17, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "RDC: les miliciens de la FRPI multiplient leurs attaques à Bahema Mitego". Radio Okapi. January 4, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri: la FRPI sollicite un couloir de sécurité pour se rendre aux FARDC à Getty". Radio Okapi. March 6, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri: échec de la tentative de négociations pour la reddition de Cobra Matata". Radio Okapi. August 10, 2014. Archived from the original on January 8, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- "Ituri: la Monusco aménage un site d'accueil pour les ex-FRPI à Aveba". Radio Okapi. September 18, 2014. Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri: les exactions des miliciens de la FRPI continuent malgré la reddition de Cobra Matata". December 7, 2014. Archived from the original on January 21, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- "Ituri : 29 morts enregistrés dans les affrontements entre FARDC et FRPI". Radio Okapi. January 22, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Ituri: des hommes armés attaquent le camp de déplacés de Lagabo, 12 blessés". Radio Okapi. March 9, 2015. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- "Ituri: des humanitaires sous menaces de la FRPI à Walendu Bindi". Radio Okapi. April 17, 2015. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "RDC: une attaque d'hommes armés dans une boîte de nuit fait 14 morts à Aru". Radio Okapi. January 31, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- "Ituri: les combats entre FARDC et FRPI ont fait 38 morts". Radio Okapi. June 14, 2015. Archived from the original on June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- "Ituri: retour au calme après les accrochages entre FARDC et FRPI à Aveba". Radio Okapi. June 4, 2015. Archived from the original on June 14, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- "Ituri : la MONUSCO annonce la fermeture de sa base de Bogoro". Radio Okapi. December 18, 2017. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- "DR Congo violence: Dozens killed in Ituri province". BBC. March 2, 2018. Archived from the original on June 15, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
More than 100 people have been killed by violence in the province since mid-December.
- "DRC/Uganda: Violence in Ituri province forces tens of thousands from their homes". Archived from the original on March 3, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- "Ituri : environ 20 000 déplacés internes enregistrés à Bunia, selon OCHA" [Ituri: about 20,000 internally displaced persons registered in Bunia, according to OCHA] (in French). Radio Okapi. February 13, 2018. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- "Fleeing DRC to Uganda: Africa's other refugee crisis: Lake Albert has become ground zero for thousands of Congolese families escaping fierce fighting into Uganda". Archived from the original on March 3, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- Marsden, Richard (February 26, 2018). "Congolese children forced to flee homes amid violence: The United Nations voices concerns about an upsurge in violence in the north of the Democratic Republic of Congo which has led to tens of thousands of children being displaced". Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Conflict and Displacement in DRC Fuel an Acute Humanitarian Emergency in Uganda Archived March 4, 2018, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Atrocity Alert, No. 95, 7 March 2018: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Syria and Somalia". Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. March 7, 2018. Archived from the original on August 1, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
Although the two communities have coexisted relatively peacefully since 2007, fighting during February resulted in more than 30 deaths
- Mahamba, Fiston (March 2, 2018). "Ethnic clashes in northeastern Congo kill more than 40 people". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- "Ethnic clashes leave dozens dead in troubled eastern DRC". Independent Media (IOL). Cape Town, South Africa. March 13, 2018. Archived from the original on August 1, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Ituri : les FARDC ont neutralisé 38 miliciens à Mambasa en deux mois Archived April 24, 2019, at the Wayback Machine (in French). Radio Okapi. Published 2 April 2019.
- Insécurité :38 rebelles Simba tués par les FARDC en Ituri Archived April 24, 2019, at the Wayback Machine (in French). Politico.cd. Published 2 April 2019.
- "Survivors recall horror of Congo ethnic attacks". Reuters. June 18, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- Focus on Hema-Lendu conflict, IRIN, November 15, 1999
- Backgrounder, Human Rights Watch, 2001
- Web Special on Ituri in Eastern DRC, IRIN, December 2002
- “Covered in Blood': Ethnically Targeted Violence in Northern DR Congo”, Human Rights Watch, July 8, 2003
- Ituri conflict linked to illegal exploitation of natural resources, IRIN, September 3, 2004
- UN troops killed 50 militiamen in self-defence, Annan says, IRIN, March 4, 2005
- D.R. Congo: Gold Fuels Massive Human Rights Atrocities, HRW, June 2, 2005
- Nothing New in Ituri: the violence continues (PDF), report by Médecins Sans Frontières, August 1, 2005
- A Glittering Demon: Mining, Poverty and Politics in the Democratic Republic of Congo by Michael Deibert, Special to CorpWatch, June 28, 2008
- 'Hacked to death': DRC violence survivors recall horrific scenes Report by Al Jazeera, June 19, 2019